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Full text of "History of the George Washington bicentennial celebration .."

ACTI VjftFS OF 1 1 ! h ( •■.( )M M FS 



COMPIF:T!--}-iNAL 

HE PC) III 

OF THE 



CNITED STATES 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 

BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION 



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United : S 

GeoRCrE WASiiiNGTo>vBH:i: : N.TfcNN ial Commis: 

Wamiinoton, DC 



THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 

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wa7i/iu.; 

V. 5 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/historyofgeorgew05geor 



ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMISSION 

AND 

COMPLETE — FINAL 

THE LIBRARY OF THE 

REPORT OCT 13 1934 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

OF THE 

United States 

George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission 



Complete Series of Report Volumes: 

Volumes I, II and III, Literature Series 

Volume IV, Foreign Participation 

Volume V, Complete and Final Report 

All of the above volumes have been deposited with the principal libraries 
and institutions of learning throughout the United States, so that 
students of research and history can always have them at their command. 



United States 

George Washington Bicentennial Commission 

washington, d. c. 

1932 



United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission 

The President of the United States 
Chairman 

The Vice President of the United States 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 



United States Senate 

Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman 
Ohio 

Artfiur Capper 
Kansas 

Carter Glass 
Virginia 

Millard E. Tydings 

Maryland 



House of Representatives 

Willis C. Hawley 
Oregon 

John Q. Tilson 
Connecticut 

Joseph W. Byrns 
Tennessee 

R. Walton Moore 
Virginia 



Presidential Com missioners 



Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook 
Pennsylvania 

Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman 
Colorado 

Henry Ford 
Michigan 

C. Bascom Slemp 
Virginia 



Wallace McCamant 
Oregon 

Albert Bushnell Hart 
Historian 

Massachusetts 

Joseph Scott 
California 



Director 

Representative Sol Bloom 

New York 



v^ 



^O 



My* dear Mr, Bloom: 



THE WHITE HOUSE 

Washington THE LIBRARY OF THE 

December 29, 1933. OCT 13 WU. 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



The complete report of the United States George Y/ashington 
Bicentennial Commission submitted, brings to a close an activity of the 
Federal Government unique in history and, in my opinion, of incalculable 
value to the American people. Not only was the Celebration of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of our First President observed both 
in this country and throughout the world in a manner that was dignified 
and appropriate, but the lessons of his life and achievements, and the 
real significance of the great events of his time which were furnished 
to our countrymen will have a lasting effect in the quality of future 
American citizenship. 

I am impressed by the fact that the Celebration was much more 
than a mere demonstration of memorial fervor. You have left an immortal 
legacy in the form of historical facts covering every phase not only of 
George Washington's life, but of those elements and events centering in 
him as the outstanding figure of his time. Future historians and 
scholars may rely upon this record which you have so carefully and so 
authoritatively preserved. The results of this part of your work have 
reached deep into the hearts of the people, and revived in them funda- 
mental reasons for pride of country and faith in its system of government. 

To the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
the country owes a debt of gratitude, but in the work that was accomplish- 
ed all must recognize the many years of service, which you, as Director, 
rendered in this monumental task, and that upon you and your fine organiza- 
tion rested the heaviest responsibility and burden of accomplishment « 

It is a pleasure to assure you of ray sincere appreciation of 
your capable administration which not only carried out with conspicuous 
success the mandate of the Congress in establishing the Commission, but 
of greater moment, left to the nation a permanent legacy which history 
will increasingly evaluate as the years pass. 

Please accept my congratulations for the Commission and for 
yourself at this consummation of your work* 



Honorable Sol Bloom, 
Director, United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, 

Washington, D. C. 



875658 



Very sincerely yours, 





Three Presidents 

of 
The United States 

As Chairmen 

of 

The Bicentennial Commission 



THE United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission has 
served under three Presidents of the United States — 

CALVIN COOLIDGE 

HERBERT HOOVER 

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT 

— who, in turn, were Chairmen of the Commission. This Commission 
originated during the administration of President Coolidge. President 
Hoover was Chairman during the Bicentennial Year 1932 and took an 
active part in the Bicentennial Celebration. President Roosevelt also 
took an active interest in the Celebration as Governor of the State of 
New York, and as Chairman of the Commission wrote letters of intro- 
duction for several of the series of Report Volumes. 





Calvin Coolidge 
Served from December, 1924 to March, 1929 



Herbert Hoover 
Served from March, 1929 to March, 193 5 




Franklin D. Roosevelt 
Served from March, 1933 



■-■ 



Members Of The 

United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission 



ON THE following pages are shown pictures of Members and Officers 
of this Commission from its inception to the present time, with 
their term of office indicated in each case. Among the Members are 
three Vice Presidents of the United States and four Speakers of the 
House of Representatives, Completing the roster are the various Con- 
gressional Members and the Presidential Commissioners who were 
appointed. 




John Nance Garner 

Served from December, 1924 

to February, 193 0, and from 

December, 1931 




Charles Curtis 

Served from March, 1929 

to March, 193 3 



Charles Gates Dawes 

Served from March, 192 5 to 

March, 1929 




Henry T. Rainey 
Served from March, 1933 



Frederick H. Gillett 

Served from December, 1924 to 

March, 192 5 




Carter Glass 
Served from December, 1924 



Simeon D. Fess 
Served from December, 1924 



Arthur Capper 
Served from January, 1927 




Joseph W. Byrns 
Served from December, 1924 



Millard E. Tydings 
Served from January, 1931 



John Q. Tilson 
Served from December, 1924 





Willis C. Hawley 
Served from December, 1924 



R. Walton Moore 
Served from February, 193 




/ 

Mrs. Anthony W. Cook 
Served from January, 192 5 





Mrs. John D. Sherman 
Served from January, 1925 



Sol Bloom 
Served from February, 193 




Hanford MacNider 

Served from January, 192 5 

to June, 193 




Frank A. Munsey 

Served from January, 1925 

to February, 1926 




Edgar B. Piper 

Served from January, 192 5 

to May, 1928 




Seldon P. Spencer 

Served from December, 1924 

to May, 192 5 




Thomas F. Bayard 

Served from December, 1924 

to March, 1929 




William Tyler Page 
Served from February, 192 5 





Albert B. Cummins 

Served from December, 1924 

to March, 192 5 



Bernard M. Baruch 

Served from February, 1926 

to June, 1930 




Lee S. Overman 

Served from January, 1930 

to December, 1930 




Wallace McCammant C. Bascom Slemp Joseph L. Scott Henry Ford 

Served from January, 1929 Served from January, 1925 Served from March, 1932 Served from January, 1925 






Albert Bushnell Hart 


U. S. Grant, 3rd 


George Eastman 


Served from April, 192 5 


Served from February, 1930 
to January, 193 1 


Served from June, 1930 
to March, 1932 



Preface 



THE purpose of the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration as conceived by the Commission, as planned and super- 
vised by the Director, and as carried out under his direction by the 
staff, had two great accomplishments in mind. The first of these was 
to record, and the second to celebrate, the events, influences, and lessons 
of the life of the First President. Much research and writing, followed 
by the printing and distribution of the results, was necessary for the 
first; and a broad and inclusive plan for the second, with all the organi- 
zation required to bring to the attention of the whole world the signifi- 
cance of the event, and to suggest and direct the many-phased expres- 
sion of it. What was done, and how it was done, is set forth in the 
History of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration, of which 
this is the final volume. The first three volumes of the History, the 
Literature Series, preserve in final form the "Record"; the fourth volume 
sets forth the Foreign Participation in the tribute to George Washington, 
Bicentennial Celebrations taking place in 2 59 cities of 81 countries out- 
side of the United States and its possessions; while the purpose of the 
present volume is to show how the great commemoration was accom- 
plished, its wide scope, and its many and varied achievements throughout 
the land and among all the people. "All the people" was, indeed, the 
key note of the plans of the Commission. 

The United States is a huge complex; great and varied not only 
geographically, but in its population of many ethnic groups, variety of 
occupations, primary interests, social approach, and creeds. All are 
bound together by a common patriotism, and determination to con- 
tinue and increase the greatness of the Nation as it has evolved out of 
the plans of the Fathers, of whom George Washington was the leader. 
The appeal to honor this great Chief was made to all, and the wonderful 
response was from all. No class or group or section failed in its share 
of recognition and praise; labor, business, professions, societies, scholars, 
sport, amusements, women, children, men whose family roots have sunk 
deeply into the soil and those who are themselves the founders of Ameri- 



can families — whatever the age, sex, interest, or origin, to each and 
everyone the appeal was made and from all came the response. This 
great variety so essential to the success of the Bicentennial was due, first 
of all, to the careful planning for a celebration that would extend over 
nine months and take the commemoration to the inhabitants rather 
than require them to come to it. This basic principle made possible 
the cooperative activity of many regional commissions and committees, 
state and local, made up of public-spirited men and women who gave 
freely of their time and ability in carrying out the projects of the Fed- 
eral Commission and supplementary ones of their own devising, spending 
the funds raised for this purpose through state or municipal appropria- 
tions or private contributions. 

This present volume shows, with much detail and many illustra- 
tions, the elements of the Celebration and the organization behind it. 
It is divided into two parts: the first section is the running story of 
the work of the Commission and of the Celebration itself; the second 
part contains the reports of the various departments and divisions of 
the Commission. Lack of space prevented a complete recountal of all 
the Bicentennial events and programs. When we consider that an 
average of some sixteen thousand individual Bicentennial programs — 
by churches, schools, civic bodies, patriotic societies, and fraternal 
orders — were held in all parts of the United States each day of the 
nine months' Celebration, totalling 4,760,345 separate and distinct pro- 
grams, it is readily realized that only the highlights of the Bicentennial 
Celebration could be touched upon in this report. 

At this point the Director wishes to express his appreciation to 
each and every member of the Bicentennial Commission. The Com- 
mission served under three Presidents: Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, 
and Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Director had the pleasure of serving 
under the last two. These Chief Executives, in their capacity as Chair- 
men of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
extended every cooperation and assistance to the Director. Similarly, 
the Director received the heartiest support from Senator Simeon D. Fess, 
Vice Chairman of the Commission; Honorable William Tyler Page, 
Secretary of the Commission; and from every Member who served as 
a Commissioner. At the same time, the Director wishes to express his 
feeling of gratitude to the loyal and patriotic men and women who 



served under him on the staff of the Commission. Without such splendid 
cooperation from the Members of the Bicentennial Commission and 
from the members of the staff of the Commission, the Director, he fully 
realizes, could not have executed the plans or carried out the purposes 
of this great Celebration. 

Inaugurated in the midst of great prosperity, in the year 1924, 
but carried out in 1932 without change during the worst depression 
in the history of the country, the success of the Celebration was a gen- 
uine one. The way in which the people rose to the occasion, in spite 
of economic distress and the rival excitement of a presidential cam- 
paign, is proof, if proof is needed, of the loyalty of the Nation to the 
principles of its foundation and to those who founded it. It was a 
worthy memorial to one of the world's great men, one of the few whose 
reputations increase with the progress of time and shine ever brighter 
in the searching light of history. And it was such an accomplishment 
because of the enthusiastic participation of the whole land; it was made 
so by the people themselves in appreciation of the fact that George 
Washington is the indispensable character in the history of our Nation. 
The Director feels that no other reward for his labors and the labors 
of those who strove with him to carry out the Bicentennial, can compare 
with the realization of the magnitude and sincerity of this response, 
this popular tribute to the man who is now, as he was a hundred years 
ago, and as he will be a hundred years hence, "first in the hearts of his 
countrymen." 

Sol Bloom, 

Director, 

United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission. 



Contents 



Page 

Personnel of the Commission ii 

Letter from President Roosevelt to Honorable Sol Bloom, Director, United States 

George Washington Bicentennial Commission, dated December 29, 1933 . . iii 
Preface xi 



Page 

REPORT OF THE CELEBRATION 

Summary of Accomplishments 

Foreign Participation in the Celebration 

(Sec also page 549) 

Before the Plans had Crystallized 

Washington the Human Being 

Statement from President Roosevelt 

Resolution of Commendation from New York State His- 
torical Association 

Appeal to Young People , 

Parents and Teachers 6 

Personnel of Original Commission 6 

Personnel of the Commission in 1933 7 

(See also page ii) 
Commission Served under Three Presidents of the United 

States 7 

The Director of the Commission 7 

First Meeting of Commission 8 

Celebration Officially Inaugurated 8 

Address of President Calvin Coolidge at Joint Session of 

Congress, February 22, 1927 9 

Locations of Commission's Offices 14 

Definitive Writings of George Washington 14 

(See also page 676) 
Mount Vernon Memorial Highway 14 

(See also page 108) 
Wakefield, Virginia 14 

(See also pages 17, 41, 111) 

George Washington Atlas 15 

Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition 15 

( See also page 119) 

Lafayette's Sword 15 

President Hoover's Address, February 22, 1932 16 

(See also page 47) 
Events in the National Capital 16 

(See also pages 30, 40, 54, 74) 

Cooperation of Government Departments 16 

Cooperation with District Commission 17 

Broadcasting 17 

(See also pages 72, 18 3, 190) 

Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union 17 

Wakefield Memorial Association 17 

(See also pages 41, 111, 113) 
Fredericksburg, Virginia 18 

(See also page 2 57) 
Alexandria, Virginia 18 

(See also pages 31, 51, 5 3, 70, 108) 

ORGANIZATION DEPARTMENTS 19 

General 19 

Organization Personnel 19 

Advisory Committees 20 

Achieving the Objectives 21 

Publicity Department 21 

(See also page 5 69) 

Women's Activities 21 

(See also page 410) . ,, 

States, Cities and Towns 22 

(See also page 441) 



. . . Page 

Education Department ....""" 22 

(See also page 280) 

Historical Department 23 

(See also page 262) 

Executive Secretary 23 

Special Activities 23 

(See also page 549) 

Administration Department 23 

(See also page 2 59) 

Pageants and Music 23 

(Pageants, see also page 561) 

(M7tsic, see also page 565) 

Mailing Room 24 

(See also page 2 5 9) 

Publications Division 24 

(See also page 5 89) 

Genealogical Division 24 

(See also page 275) 

| Library 24 

j (See also page 278) 

Braille Service 24 

(Sec also page 5 63) 

Condensed Statement of Financial Account 24 

Commission's Preliminary Report 2 5 

Two Notable Proclamations by President Hoover 28 

Quotation from Theodore Roosevelt 29 

OPENING OF THE CELEBRATION 3 

At Historic Christ Church 31 

The Director's Historic Broadcast from Pohick Church . 31 

Other Church Ceremonies 31 

National Educators Meet 32 

The Historic Masque, "Wakefield" 32 

The Mystical Setting of the Masque 3 5 

Music for the Masque 3 5 

A Medley of Dances in the Masque 37 

The Climax of the Masque 3 8 

Distinguished Audience Attended the Masque 3 8 

Quotation from John Adams 39 

FEBRUARY 22, 193 2, THE BICENTENNIAL ANNI- 
VERSARY 40 

At the Washington Monument 40 

Order of the De Molay 40 

Military Mass 41 

Pan American Ceremonies 43 

FORMAL CELEBRATION IN CONGRESS— 1932 45 
Address of Welcome by Dr. Luther H. Reichelderfer, Presi- 
dent, Board of Commissioners of the District of 

Columbia 49 

Address of Honorable James M. Beck, Member of Congress 

from Pennsylvania 49 

j President Hoover at Alexandria, Virginia 51 

THE BICENTENNIAL BALL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 54 

Bicentennial Ball Committee 54 

Floor Committee of Bicentennial Ball 59 

Bicentennial Ball Pageant 60 

Characters: Early Settlers of the Thirteen States 60 

Characters: In George Washington's Day in the Colonies . 61 



CONTENTS— {Continued) 



Page 

Characters: "Spirit of 1776" 65 

Receiving Line 65 

Box Holders at the Bicentennial Ball 6 5 

Dance Program at Bicentennial Ball 69 

Ball at Gadsby's Tavern, Alexandria, Virginia 70 

All States Ball, Washington, D. C 70 

New England States Ball, Washington, D. C 70 

RADIO BROADCASTS ON FEBRUARY 22, 193 2 72 

GENERAL PERSHING AT VALLEY FORGE, PA. 73 

TRIBUTE TO THE PAN AMERICAN UNION 74 

OFFICIAL OPENING OF THE CELEBATION IN NEW 

YORK STATE 78 

Distinguished Speakers 78 

Address of Honorable Charles J. Tobin, Presiding 78 
Address of Honorable Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Gover- 
nor of New York 78 

Address of Honorable Benjamin N. Cardozo 79 

PREVIOUS GEORGE WASHINGTON CELEBRATIONS 83 

Celebration in 1832 83 

Fiftieth Anniversary of Inauguration 83 

New York Centennial Celebration 84 

Presidential Proclamation, 1889 84 

MANUFACTURERS AND MERCHANTS COOPER- 
ATION 86 

Booklet of Suggestions Issued 88 

Celebration a Stimulus to Trade 88 

Manufacturers Prepare for Bicentennial 88 

Wide Variety of Bicentennial Merchandise 89 

Women's Wear Leads 90 

Bicentennial Mode Doubly Patriotic 92 

Colonial Costumes in Demand 93 

Bicentennial Influences Furniture Styles 93 

Retail Merchants Participate 97 

Booklet of Suggestions Widely Distributed 97 

Suggestions for Merchants and Department Store Cooper- 
ation, Booklet reprinted 98 

Window and Interior Displays and Exhibitions of Washing- 

toniana and Store Decorations 100 

Newspaper, Direct Mail, Radio and Telephone Tie-ups . 100 

A Calendar for Department Store Participation 101 

Participation in Children's Activities 102 

Employe Cooperation 102 

Bicentennial An Incentive 102 

Anniversary Observed Throughout Stores 102 

National Window Display Contest 103 

Stores Report Bicentennial Activities 103 

HISTORIC MAP OF REGION WITHIN 100 MILES OF 

THE NATIONAL CAPITAL 107 

THE MOUNT VERNON MEMORIAL HIGHWAY 108 

Arlington Memorial Bridge 110 

WAKEFIELD, VIRGINIA, WHERE WASHINGTON 

WAS BORN Ill 

Officers of Wakefield National Memorial Association 113 

Quotation from Abraham Lincoln 118 

HISTORIC EXHIBITION OF PORTRAITS 119 

Portrait Committee of the George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Loan Exhibition 121 

George Washington Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition 

Committee 121 

The Corcoran Art Gallery of Washington, D. C, donates 

exhibition rooms 123 

Preview Reception, March 5, 1932 124 

How the Portraits were Assembled 124 

Artists Represented in Historical Loan Exhibition 126 



Page 

Catalogue of Historic Exhibits 126 

Commemorative Paintings and Sculpture, Exhibition at 

National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C HO 

BICENTENNIAL COMMEMORATIVE POSTAGE 

STAMPS 152 

Description of the Stamps 152 

Bicentennial Envelopes 155 

"First Day" Sale 156 

Huge Crowd Breaks Record 157 

One Million Dollars in Stamps Sold in Two Days 158 

Bicentennial Cachets 159 

Local Committees Issue Cachets 162 

Other Historic Cachets 163 

"Washington" Postmark in Demand 163 

List of Washington Bicentennial Cachets 165 

MEDALS 171 

Medal Advisory Committee 171 

President Receives Platinum Medal 173 

Bicentennial Badge Medals 174 

THE GEORGE WASHINGTON QUARTER DOLLAR 

Suggested by Commission 175 

Act of Congress Passed 175 

Quotation of Henry Lee (1799) 176 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE SOCIETIES 177 

Americanization School 178 

Polish-Americans Celebrate Bicentennial 179 

Polish Tribute to Washington 179 

Pulaski Day in Washington 180 

Address of Mr. Wladyslaw Sokolowski, Charge d'Affaires ad 

interim of the Polish Embassy, at Pulaski statue 181 
Address of Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 

at Pulaski Statue 182 

Address of Director Bloom on Pulaski Day Broadcast 183 

Address of Mr. Wladyslaw Sokolowski on Pulaski Day 

Broadcast 183 

Other Polish Celebrations 184 

Unusual Jewish Commemoration 187 

Italian-Americans Participate 188 

French Diplomat Delivers Address 189 

Address of Director Bloom on radio broadcast commemo- 
rating the Bicentennial of the Birth of Washington 
and the 210th Anniversary of the Birth of Comte de 

Grasse, September 13, 1932 190 

Address of Mr. Jules Henry, Charge d'Affaires of France 

on above radio broadcast 191 

Other Groups Participate 193 

Scandinavian and Danish Groups 194 

German- American Participation 195 

Essay Contest for German and American Students 196 

Judges in Contest 196 

Prize-winning Essay of German Winner 197 

Prize- winning Essay of American Winner 200 

THE PLANTING OF MEMORIAL TREES 205 

Message of Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman 206 

Outstanding Activities 207 

Tree Planting Booklet 208 

Forms of Planting 209 

General Instructions for Ornamental or Roadside Planting 209 

Soil Selection 209 

Planting Time 209 

Evergreen Planting 209 

Excavation and Spacing 210 

Fourteen Points in Ornamental Tree Planting 211 

Trees Suitable for Ornamental Planting 211 

Forest Planting 213 

MOUNT VERNON TREES AROUND THE WORLD 215 
Vice President Curtis leads Pilgrimage to Mount Vernon . 216 



CONTENTS— {Continued) 



Page 

Crown Prince of Roumania Plants Tree 216 

Trees Planted in China 216 

Program in Philippines 217 

Plantings in the United States 217 

Historical Grove Established, Anacostia Park, Washington, 

D. C 213 

REENACTMENT OF THE LAYING OF THE COR- 
NERSTONE OF THE UNITED STATES CAPITOL 219 

Articles Deposited 223 

Address of Grand Master Reuben A. Bogley 22 5 

Address of Honorable Sol Bloom 226 

Film of Cornerstone Pageant 227 

GEORGE WASHINGON MASONIC NATIONAL 

MEMORIAL 228 

POST OFFICE DAY, JULY 26, 1932 232 

Celebration is Widespread 232 

Local Officials Cooperate 232 

Major James H. Doolittle's Airplane Flight 233 

Original Post Offices Celebrate 23 9 

Unique Virginia Celebration 240 

Other Local Celebrations 240 

Representative Clyde Kelly, of Pennsylvania, Speaks at 

Pittsburgh 241 

FIELD MASS AT CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMER- 
ICA, Washington, D. C 243 

Principal Address by Rev. Dr. Peter Guilday 243 

CEREMONIES AT FORT NECESSITY 245 

MOUNT VERNON REPLICA AT PARIS 246 

NOTABLE CEREMONY AT TOMB OF THE UN- 
KNOWN REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIER 247 



COMMEMORATING FUNERAL 
GEORGE WASHINGTON 



SERVICE OF 



GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL BRIDGE 
Another Bridge Named for George Washington (Seattle, 
Wash.) 



ENGLISH PAGEANT— SURRENDER 
WALLIS 



OF CORN- 



249 

252 

254 

255 

BICENTENNIAL PIGEON RACE 256 

BICENTENNIAL BASEBALL GAME 2 56 

MASONIC CERMEONIES AT FREDERICKSBURG, VA. 25 7 

REPORTS OF THE VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS AND 
DIVISIONS OF THE UNITED STATES GEORGE 
WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION 2 59 

ADMINISTRATION 2 59 

Auditing and Accounting 259 

The Mailing Room 2 5 9 

Organization Chart 261 



HISTORY DEPARTMENT 

Plans and Scope 

George Washington Atlas 

Publications 

Historical Inquiries 



262 

262 

263 

264 

264 

Literature Series 26 5 

DEFINITIVE WRITINGS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 26 5 

Advisory Committee Appointed 266 

President Hoover Writes Introduction 266 

General Orders of Revolution Included 269 

Records Carefully Kept 270 

Washington Dominated Correspondence 271 

Many Letters Destroyed 273 



Page 

Personnel 274 

GENEALOGICAL DIVISION 275 

Typical Genealogical Chart, Direct Line of Descent in the 

Washington Family 276-277 

THE COMMISSION LIBRARY 278 

REPORT OF EDUCATION DIVISION AND ITS AC- 
TIVITIES 280 

PART I— PLANS AND PREPARATION 280 

General Scope and Objective 280 

Organization 280 

Avenues of Contact 2 80 

1. Exhibits 280 

2. Personal Interviews 281 

3. Organization meetings and Convention Programs 281 

4. Correspondence 282 

Chart — Contacts through Correspondence 283 

5. Official Organs of Professional Organizations 284 

6. Preparation and Distribution of Printed Material of the 

Commission 284 

Clip Sheets — Educational Issues 284 

Leaflet — Bicentennial Activities in Schools 28 5 

Contest Pamphlets: 

Organization and Regulations of the Declamatory, 
Essay, and Oratorical Contests; Selections Relating to 
George Washington for Declamatory Contests in the 
Elementary Schools; Orations and Essays of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Nation-wide Oratorical, 
Essay, and Declamatory Contests in Schools and 

Colleges 28 5 

Handbook of the George Washington Appreciation 

Course 285 

Individual Distribution 286 

PART II— NATION-WIDE EDUCATIONAL CON- 
TESTS: 

Publications of Contest Plans 287 

Development of Contest Activity 287 

General Regulations 289 

Declamatory Contest 289 

Special Pamphlet 289 

Method of Selection 289 

Plan of Operation 289 

Participation 290 

Virginia Declamatory Contest — State Program 291 

Essay Contest 291 

Plan of Operation 291 

State Participation 292 

National Jury of Awards 293 

National Winner 293 

Oratorical Contest 295 

Plan of Operation 295 

Participation 296 

Regional Winners 297 

National Winner 297 

An Appreciation 301 

Contribution 301 

Summary of State Contests 301 

Alabama, Arizona 3 02 

Arkansas, California, Colorado 303 

Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia 304 

Florida, Georgia 305 

Program Regional Oratorical Contest, Atlanta, Ga. 30 5 

Idaho 306 

Illinois, Program of Bicentennial County Declamatory 

Contest 307 

Indiana 3 07 

Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana 308 

Maryland, Missouri, Montana 309 

Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico 310 

New York, North Carolina 311 



CONTENTS— (Continued) 



Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon, Program, Regional Oratorical Contest 

South Carolina, South Dakota 

Tennessee 



Page 

North Dakota 312 

313 
314 
315 

316 
317 
Texas 319 

Utah, Vermont 3 20 

Virginia 321 

Washington, West Virginia 322 

Wyoming 3 23 

Hawaii 324 

PART III, COOPERATION OF EDUCATIONAL 

AGENCIES 324 

United States Office of Education 3 24 

National Education Association 325 

Educational Exhibits 32 5 

Convention Programs 32 5 

Publications 3 26 

National Congress of Parent-Teacher Associations 3 27 
Home Economics Education Service, Federal Board 

for Vocational Education 3 27 

State Departments of Education 3 27 

Alabama 327 

Arizona, Arkansas, California 328 

Colorado, Connecticut 331 

Delaware 3 34 

District of Columbia 3 34 

Florida, Georgia, Idaho 3 36 

Illinois 337 

Indiana 33 8 

341 
342 
343 
344 
345 
346 
347 
348 
349 
350 
351 
352 
354 
355 
356 
357 
358 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
366 
367 
369 
370 
370 
371 
372 
373 
373 

374 

375 
376 
3 77 



Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky, Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland, Massachusetts 

Michigan, Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio, Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas, Utah 

Vermont, Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia, Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Alaska, Canal Zone 

Guam, Hawaii, Philippine Islands, Porto Rico 

Virgin Islands 

Si \ ii I in < \ i ion Associations 

Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Idaho 

Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minne- 
sota, Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York 

North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
South Dakota, Texas 

Washington, West Virginia 

Wisconsin 



Page 

377 

377 

378 

379 

Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota 3 80 

Texas 

Summary of Part III 



State Library Commissions .... 

Arkansas, California 

Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana 
Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan 



381 
381 



PART IV, ECHOES OF THE BICENTENNIAL CELE- 
BRATION FROM THE SCHOOLS OF THE 
NATION 

Institutions of Higher Learning 

University of Washington, Seattle 

State Normal School, Newark, New Jersey 

State Teachers College, F'ramingham, Massachusetts 

East Central State Teachers College, Ada, Oklahoma 

State Teachers College, Minot, North Dakota 

Loretto Heights College, Loretto, Colorado 

Texas State College for Women, Denton, Texas 

Use of the "Handbook of the George Washington 
Appreciation Course" 

Division One, Direct Use 

Division Two, Correlation Activities 

General Correlation 

Agriculture 

Garden Project, Washington, D. C 

Tree Planting Projects 

Art 



381 

381 
381 
382 
384 
3 87 
387 
388 
389 

390 
391 
392 
392 
393 
393 
393 
394 

Business 396 

Health Education 396 

Home Economics 397 

Literature and English 398 

Music 399 

Social Science 400 

Extra Curricula 401 

Commencement Activities — Illustrations 401 

Washington College, Chestertown, Maryland 401 

West High School, Salt Lake City, Utah 401 

Biddeford, Maine, High School 401 

Grammar School, Gloucester, Massachusetts 402 

Washington School, Modesto, California 402 

Sprague, Connecticut Graduation Exercises 402 

Eighth Grade Graduation, Ottawa County, Ohio 403 

Chisholm, Minnesota 403 

Nation-wide Series of Educational Contests 403 

Radio 403 

Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 403 

University of Iowa 403 

Special School Activities 404 

Evening Schools 404 

State Training Schools and Reformatories 40 5 

Other State Schools, Blind and Deaf 407 

Participation of the Indian Schools — Contacts Made by the 
Education Division of the United States George 

Washington Bicentennial Commission 408 

Programs Illustrating the Interest in the Indian Schools ... 408 
Summary of Part IV 409 

WOMEN'S DEPARTMENT 410 

Part I, Scope and Objective. 410 

Bicentennial Pledge 411-412 

Tree Planting 411 

Procedure 411 

Programs of Participation 413 

Organization 414 

Part II, Reports from National Organizations 414 

American Federation of Soroptimist Clubs 414 

American Home Economics Association 414 

American Gold Star Mothers 414 

American Junior Red Cross 415 



CONTENTS— {Continued) 



Page 

American Legion Auxiliary 415 



415 
415 
416 



416 
416 



American War Mothers 

American Women's League 

Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities 

Auxiliary to Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War 416 

Ladies' Auxiliarv to the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the 

U. S. A. 
Camp Fire Girls 

Colonial Daughters of the Seventeenth Century 417 

Dames of the Loyal Legion of the United States of America 417 

Daughters of America 417 

Daughters of the Cincinnati 418 

National Society of Daughters of Colonial Wars, Inc 418 

Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War 1861-1865 418 

General Federation of Women's Clubs 418 

The Girls' Friendly Society 418 

Girl Scouts 419 

International Order of the King's Daughters and Sons, Inc 419 

Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic 419 

Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union 419 

National Association of Colored Women, Inc 419 

National Auxiliary, United Spanish War Veterans 420 

National Congress of Parents and Teachers 420 

National Congress of Colored Parents and Teachers 420 

National Circle, Daughters of Isabella 420 

National Council of Catholic Women 421 

National Council of Jewish Women 421 

National Federation of Business and Professional Women's 

Clubs 422 

National League of American Pen Women 422 

National League of Women Voters 422 

National Society Children of the American Revolution 422 

The National Society of the Colonial Dames of America . 422 

National Society of Colonial Descendants of America 423 

National Society Daughters of the American Colonists 42 3 

National Society Daughters of the American Revolution 42 3 

National Society Daughters of the Barons of Runnemede 424 
National Society Daughters of Founders and Patriots of 

America 424 

National Society Daughters of the Revolution 424 

National Society Daughters of the Union 1861-1865 424 

National Society of New England Women 424 

National Society United States Daughters of 1812 424 

National Society Women Descendants of the Ancient and 

Honorable Artillery Company 42 5 

National Woman's Party 42 5 

Order of First Families of Virginia 1607-1620 426 

Supreme Chapter P. E. O. Sisterhood 426 

Quota Club, International 426 



United Daughters of the Confederacy 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union (National) 

Women's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church 

Women's Overseas Service League 

Woman's Relief Corps (National) 

Young Women's Christian Associations of the U. S. A. 
(National Board) 

National Organizations of Women of the United States 
which cooperated in the Bicentennial Celebration and 
the number of units in their membership 

Part III, Participation of Women's Organizations as 
to States 

STATES, CITIES AND TOWNS DEPARTMENT 

Organization 

Procedure and Scope of Work 

Form of Postmaster Questionnaire 442-445 

State Commissions 446 

City and Town Groups 446 

Suggestions Published 447 



426 

427 

427 
427 
427 

427 



428 

429 
441 
441 
441 



Page 

Congressional Cooperation 44s 

Outline of Suggested Programs 452 

Suggested Programs for Special Occasions 455 

Significant Anniversaries and Holidays 456 

Statehood Days and Arbor Days 458 

Summary of Suggested Programs 4^0 

Cooperation of the Churches 461 

Farm Group Organization 4^3 

Grange Organizations 454 

Boy Scouts 468 

Fraternal, Patriotic and Civic Group Participation 469 

Alabama 474 

Arizona 475 

Arkansas 476 

California 473 

Colorado 479 

Connecticut 480 

Delaware 483 

Florida 484 

Georgia 48 j 

Idaho 486 



Illinois 


488 


Indiana 


489 


Iowa 


491 


Kansas 


492 


Kentucky 


494 


Louisiana 


496 


Maine 


497 


Maryland 


498 


Massachusetts 


500 


Michigan 


503 


Minnesota 


504 


Mississippi 


505 


Missouri 


506 


Montana 


508 


Nebraska 


509 


Nevada 


5 1 1 


New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 


511 

512 

5 15 


New York 


517 


North Carolina 


520 


North Dakota 


521 


Ohio 


5?2 


Oklahoma 


524 


Oregon 


527 


Pennsylvania 


528 


Rhode Island 


530 


South Carolina 


53 1 


South Dakota 


532 


Tennessee 


533 


Texas 


534 


Utah 


535 


Vermont 


537 


Virginia 


538 


Washington 


540 


West Virginia 


541 


Wisconsin 


54 3 


Wyoming 


544 


District of Columbia 


S4S 


Letter from President Roosevelt concerning Foreign Par- 
ticipation in the George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration 548 



FOREIGN PARTICIPATION AND SPECIAL ACTIVI- 
TIES DEPARTMENT 549 

Organization 549 

Scope of Department 549 

Foreign Participation 549 



CONTENTS— {Continued) 



Page 

World-Wide Participation 5 50 

Eighty-one Countries Participate 551 

Foreign Diplomats Assist 5 52 

American Diplomats Cooperated 553 

Streets and Squares Dedicated 5 54 

Ceremonies Organized Locally 555 

The Pan American Union 556 

Colonial Gardens 557 

Merchants and Manufacturers Cooperation 558 

Window Display Contest 5 5 8 

George Washington Bicentennial Commemorative Medals 5 59 

George Washington Quarter Dollar 559 

Bicentennial Postage Stamps 5 60 

Cachets 5 60 

Post Office Day 560 

Foreign Langviage Societies 560 

Translations 560 

PLAY AND PAGEANT DIVISION 561 

Publications 5 62 

Wakefield Masque 5 62 

"The Great American" Pageant 5 62 

Yorktown Pageant 5 62 

Cooperation and Distribution 5 62 

BRAILLE DIVISION 563 

Pamphlets Transcribed in Braille 5 64 

MUSIC DIVISION 565 

Sousa Composes March 565 

Organization 565 

Bicentennial Song 5 66 

Choral Ode 566 

Wakefield Masque Music 5 66 

Music Publications 5 67 

Colonial Music Published 5 67 

Publishers Cooperate 5 67 

Bicentennial Music Featured 5 68 

PUBLICITY DEPARTMENT 569 

Organization 5 69 

Educational Publicity 5 69 

Personnel 5 70 

Cooperation from Other Departments 5 70 

Careful Preparation 571 

Newspaper Publicity 571 

Releases on Current Events 573 

Magazine Publicity 5 74 

Clip Sheet 



Mat Service 
Cuts 



574 

576 

577 

Photographs 577 

Radio 578 

Moving Pictures 5 79 

Speeches 5 79 

News Release Book 5 82 

Special Projects 582 

Posters Distributed 5 83 

Washington Busts 5 86 

Letters and Clippings 5 87 

Daily Record of Newspaper Clippings Received 588 

PUBLICATIONS DIVISION 5 89 

Main Classifications of Printing 5 89 

Definitive Writings of George Washington 5 89 

Publicity Clip Sheets 591 

Historical Pamphlets and Booklets 5 92 

Dramatic Material 593 

Miscellaneous Printed Celebration Material 5 94 

Pictures, Posters and Portraits in colors 595 

Music Publications 5 96 

Educational Publications 5 97 

Braille Publications for the Blind 5 97 

Report Volumes 5 98 



Page 

Binding 598 

Resolution of the Commission testifying its appreciation to 

the Director Between pages 598-9 

MINUTES OF THE COMMISSION 599 

Conception of the Commission 599 

Personnel of the Commission 601 

Presidential Appointees 601 

First Report of the Commission 601 

The Executive Committee 602 

Appropriation for the Commission 602 

Election of Officers 603 

Appointment of Field Secretary 603 

Office in the Capitol Building 603 

Disbursement of Appropriations 603 

Franking Privilege 605 

Operations of the Field Secretary 606 

Compensation of Executive Secretary 608 

Suggestions submitted to the Commission 611 

Meeting of Commission at White House, Jan. 13, 1927. . 612 

Executive Committee, January 24, 1927 614 

Meeting of Commission, February 22, 1927 615 

Proceedings of Joint Session, February 22, 1927 615 

Executive Committee, January 24, 1928 617 

Executive Committee, May 29, 1928 619 

Executive Committee, December 12, 1928 620 

Meeting at White House, January 24, 1929 623 

Executive Committee, May 20, 1929 627 

Formulating General Plans 628 

Meeting at White House, January 15, 1930 628 

Mount Vernon Memorial Highway 629 

Report of Executive Secretary, January 15, 1930 632 

Report on Wakefield 633 

Executive Committee, January 24, 1930 63 5 

Executive Committee, February 13, 193 63 5 

Executive Committee, March 31, 1930 636 

Executive Committee, April 2, 1930 636 

Executive Committee, June 18, 1930 638 

Executive Committee, January 7, 193 1 644 

Executive Committee, January 14, 1931 645 

Executive Committee, January 29, 1931 646 

Executive Committee, February 4, 1931 647 

Executive Committee, February 5, 1931 648 

Executive Committee, February 2 5, 1931 648 

Executive Committee, May 25, 1931 648 

Executive Committee, June 8, 1931 649 

Program Committee, September 10, 1931 649 

Program Committee, September 14, 1931 649 

Program Committee, November 5, 1931 651 

Program Committee, November 12, 1931 653 

Program Committee, November 17, 1931 65 3 

Program Committee, November 25, 1931 6 54 

Program Committee, December 1, 1931 656 

Program Committee, December 8, 1931 656 

Executive Committee, December 12, 1931 6 56 

Meeting of Commission, White House, January 16, 1932. . 658 

Report of Commission, January 15, 193 2 660 

Program Committee, March 4, 1932 663 

Executive Committee, March 9, 1932 664 

Program Committee, March 18, 193 2 664 

Program Committee, April 1, 1932 666 

Program Committee, April 15, 193 2 666 

Program Committee, April 29, 193 2 667 

Program Committee, May 13, 193 2 667 

Executive Committee, December 13, 1932 667 

Executive Committee, January 10, 193 3 668 

Meeting of Commission at White House, February 20, 1933 668 

Honor to Director Bloom 669 

Preliminary Report of Commission, February 16, 193 3 669 
DEFINITIVE WRITINGS OF GEORGE WASHING- 
TON (Final Act) 676 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 677 



List of Illustrations 



Reproduction of letter from President Roosevelt to Honorable Sol Bloom, 
Director, United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
dated December 29, 193 3 

Three Presidents of the United States as Chairmen of the Bicentennial 
Commission 

Members of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 

The Supreme Court of the United States 



Page 



Page 

President Calvin Coolidge delivering an address on the sig- 
nificance of the George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration at a joint session of Gongress, February 
22, 1927 10 

His Excellency, the Italian Ambassador, Nobile Giacomo 
de Martino, transmitting Lafayette's sword to the 
Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, which 
was shown at the George Washington Bicentennial 
Historical Loan Exhibition at The Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, Washington, D. C 15 

Pohick Church, Pohick, Virginia, where General Washing- 
ton worshipped 31 

Facsimile of invitation to the Wakefield Masque presented 

in Constitution Hall, Washington, D. C. 3 3 

Groups participating in the Wakefield Masque 34, 3 6 

Members of the Americanization School Association appear- 
ing in the Wakefield Masque 37 

Lieut. Commander G. A. Poindexter, Naval Aide to Presi- 
dent Hoover, placing the presidential wreath at the 
base of the Washington Monument in the City of 
Washington, February 22, 1932 40 

Military Mass, February 22, 1932, at the Church of the 

Immaculate Conception, Washington, D. G. 41 

Undersecretary of State, Honorable William R. Castle, and 
His Excellency, Don Orestes Ferrara, Ambassador of 
the Republic of Cuba, inspecting the floral tributes at 
the bust of George Washington, in the Pan American 
Building, Washington, D. C., on February 22, 1932 42 

President Hoover addresses joint session of Congress on 

February 22, 1932 46 

The National Capital observes Washington's Birthday. 
Under the direction of Dr. Walter Damrosch, a throng 
of 20,000 people gathered in front of the Capitol on 
February 22, 1932, and sang patriotic songs as part 
of the Washington, D. C, observance 50 

President Hoover at the Tomb of George Washington, 

Mount Vernon, Virginia, on February 22, 1932 52 

The party of the Vice President of the United States, Hon- 
orable Charles Curtis, and his sister, Mrs. Edward 
Everett Gann, at the Bicentennial Ball 54 

Facsimile of appointment announcement sent to members 
of the various State Committees for the Bicentennial 
Ball, Washington, D. C 5 5 

Facsimile of invitation to the Bicentennial Ball, Washing- 
ton, D. C 56 

The Box Party of the United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission at the Bicentennial Ball 5 8 

The Box Party of the Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission at the Bicenten- 
nial Ball 59 

General view of a portion of the ball room at the Bicenten- 
nial Ball, Washington, D. C 62 

The Receiving Line at the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, 

D. C 64 

Representative Ruth Bryan Owen with His Excellency, Sir 
Ronald Lindsay, the British Ambassador, at the Bicen- 
tennial Ball, Washington, D. C 65 



Page 

The Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Commodore Ernest 
Lee Jahncke, and Mrs. Jahncke, as they appeared 
attending the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, D. C. 66 

The Assistant Secretary of War, Honorable Frederick H. 
Payne, and Mrs. Payne, as they appeared attending the 
Bicentennial Ball, Washington D. C 67 

An interesting family group at the George Washington 

Bicentennial Ball 68 

Arrival of Brig. General Wm. E. Horton, Chairman of the 
floor committee of the George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Ball, Washington, D. C 69 

The Washington Family at Home 71 

General John J. Pershing at Valley Forge, February 22, 193 2 73 

Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York addressing 
a meeting in commemoration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington, at 
Kingston, New York 78 

Notable speakers at the New York State Celebration in 

Albany, February 22, 1932 79 

Twenty-one gun salute fired at Governor's Island, New 
York, February 22, 1932, which ushered in the great 
celebration in the metropolis 80 

Reviewing stand at the celebration in New York City, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1932, when more than 10,000 men marched 
up Fifth Avenue 81 

One of the notable parade features of the George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Celebration in New York City, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1932 81 

Official Medal issued at the Celebration in New York, April 
3 0, 18 89, of the Centennial of the first Inauguration 
of President Washington 82 

Reduced facsimile of one page of the invitation to the re- 
ception at the Lawyers' Club in the City of New 
York, April 29, 1889, which was an important event 
in the Centennial Celebration of the first Inaugura- 
tion of President George Washington 8 5 

A typical George Washington window display 86 

A Selection of Bicentennial Medals made in 1932 87 

Unveiling of George Washington Mural Panorama 90 

George Washington Bicentennial Exhibit 92 

A group of employees of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission and a group of chil- 
dren displaying colonial costumes 94 

George Washington Bicentennial Seal 98 

A prize-winning window display in the Bicentennial Win- 
dow Display Contest 106 

The Mount Vernon terminus of the Memorial Highway, 
showing the provision for traffic circulation and park- 
ing 108 

The Arlington Memorial Bridge 110 

Map showing the general location of Wakefield, Virginia, 

the birthplace of George Washington 112 

Official witnesses of the reinterment of the remains of ap- 
proximately thirty members of the Washington family, 
who were buried in the old burying ground at the origi- 
nal family estate, Wakefield, Virginia 115 

The Washington family burying ground as reconstructed 

by landscape architects 116 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— {Continued) 



Page 

Making bricks by hand after the original method by which 
bricks were made upon the Washington estate, Wake- 
field, Virginia, for the building of the mansion house 117 

Facsimile of invitation to the Preview of the Bicentennial 
Historical Loan Exhibition, held at the Corcoran Gal- 
lery of Art, Washington, D. C, on March 5, 1932 119 

His Excellency, Sir Ronald Lindsay, British Ambassador, 
and Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
viewing the "Lansdowne" portrait of George Wash- 
ington by Gilbert Stuart, owned by Lord Rosebery and 
lent for the Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition, 
Washington, D. C 120 

General John J. Pershing and Honorable Sol Bloom, Di- 
rector, viewing the famous painting of the Washington 
Family by Edward Savage, lent by the Estate of 
Thomas B. Clarke for the Bicentennial Historical Loan 
Exhibition, Washington, D. C 121 

General view of Gallery No. 1 of the Bicentennial Hstorical 
Loan Exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C 122 

General view of Gallery No. 2 of the Bicentennial Historical 
Loan Exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C 123 

General view of Gallery No. 3 of the Bicentennial Historical 
Loan Exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C 124 

General view of Gallery No. 4 of the Bicentennial Historical 
Loan Exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C 12 5 

Martha Washington, by Charles Willson Peale; lent by the 

Virginia Historical Society 126 

George Washington, by Edward Savage; lent by Harvard 

University 127 

George Washington, by Gilbert Stuart; lent by the Thomas 

B. Clarke Estate 128 

The "Virginia Colonel" portrait of George Washington, by 
Charles Willson Peale; lent by Washington and Lee 
University 129 

Martha Washington, by Edward Savage; lent by The Adams 

Memorial Society 130 

George Washington, by Robert Edge Pine; lent by Mr. 

Grenville Kane 130 

George Washington, by Charles "Willson Peale; lent by The 

Peabody Institute 131 

George Washington, by Joseph Wright; lent by Mr. Clar- 
ence Winthrop Bowen 131 

George Washington, by Rembrandt Peale; lent by Mr. and 

Mrs. Charles S. Hamlin 132 

George Washington, by Gilbert Stuart; lent by Honorable 

Andrew W. Mellon 13 3 

Miniature of George Washington, by Marquise de Brehan; 

lent bv Mrs. John Hill Morgan 134 

George Washington, by Joseph Wright; lent by the Cleve- 
land Museum of Art 135 

George "Washington, by Rembrandt Peale; lent by the 

United States Government 135 

Oliver Ellsworth, by James Sharpies; lent by Mr. Roland 

Gray 136 

Bushrod Washington, by Leopold Seyffert; lent by the 
United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Third 
Circuit, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 137 

Governor Thomas Johnson and Family, by Charles Willson 
Peale; lent by the C. Burr Artz Library of Frederick, 
Md 138 

Mrs. Timothy Pickering, by Gilbert Stuart; lent by Mrs. 

Richard Y. FitzGerald .' 139 

Mrs. Oliver Wolcott, Jr., by John Trumbull; lent by Mrs. 

J. West Roosevelt 140 



Page 

Oliver Wolcott, Jr., by John Trumbull; lent by Mrs. J. 

West Roosevelt 141 

Baron Von Steuben, by Ralph Earle; lent by Honorable 

William Randolph Hearst 142 

Rufus King, by Gilbert Stuart; lent by Mr. Allan McLane, 

Jr 143 

Nellie Custis, by James Sharpies; lent by Mrs. Richard 

Bayly Winder 145 

Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg, by Samuel B. 

Waugh; lent by the United States Government 146 

Meeting of the Generals of the American and French 
Armies at Yorktown after the Surrender, by James 
Peale; lent by The Maryland Historical Society 147 

Mrs. Samuel Washington, by John Hesselius; lent by Mrs. 

Samuel Walter Washington 148 

Mrs. James Monroe, by Benjamin West; lent by Mrs. Rose 

Gouverneur Hoes 149 

Martha Jefferson Randolph, by Thomas Sully; lent by Mr. 

A. B. Randolph and Mr. B. H. R. Randall 150 

Likenesses of George Washington which appear on the Bi- 
centennial Commemorative Stamps 153 

First Day Cover consisting of a special Bicentennial en- 
velope addressed to President Hoover, stamped with the 
complete series of twelve Bicentennial commemorative 
stamps, postmarked January 1, 193 2, and autographed 
by President Floover 154 

First Day Cover consisting of a special Bicentennial en- 
velope addressed to The Honorable Franklin D. Roose- 
velt, then Governor of New York, stamped with the 
complete series of twelve Bicentennial commemorative 
stamps, ornamented with the four Mount Vernon im- 
prints which were used on Bicentennial Government 
stamped envelopes, postmarked January 1, 193 2, and 
autographed by Franklin D. Roosevelt 155 

Senator Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman, and Honorable Sol 
Bloom, Director, respectively, of the United States 
Geoge Washington Bicentennial Commission, making 
the first two purchases of George Washington Bicen- 
tennial stamps from Honorable William M. Mooney, 
Postmaster, Washington, D. O, on January 1, 1932 156 

A Selection of George Washington Bicentennial Cachets 
commemorating various dates, events, and historic- 
places, which were issued during the Bicentennial year 160 

Series of seven Bicentennial Cachets sponsored by the George 
Washington Bicentennial Committee of the City of 
Boston . 164-165 

Reproduction of the Wakefield Cachet, the only official 
cachet of the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission 170 

Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission; Mrs. Laura 
Gardin Fraser, sculptor of the Official George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commemorative Medal; and Hon- 
orable Robert J. Grant, Director of the United States 
Mint, examining the first medal struck from the die 171 

George Washington Official Commemorative Medal 172 

Senator Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
presenting President Hoover with the master official 
George Washington Bicentennial Commemorative 
Medal 173 

The George Washington Bicentennial Badge Medal . . . 174 

President Hoover receives Polish Delegation . 178 

President Hoover greets American National Alliance of 

Czecho-Slovaks, in April, 193 2 192 

The Director of the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission, Honorable Sol Bloom, as the 
honor guest of the Boy Scouts, planting a Mount 
Vernon walnut tree in the Capitol grounds, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 206 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— {Continued) 



Page 

Plan illustrating the fourteen points for ornamental tree 

planting 210 

Charles Lathrop Pack, President of the American Tree Asso- 
ciation, helps the Rotary Club of Lakewood, N. J., to 
dedicate a Tree to the memory of George Washington 214 

Vice President Charles Curtis and a group of Boy Scouts 
gathering walnuts at Mount Vernon, which were sent 
for planting to all parts of the world 215 

Dan Beard addressing Boy Scouts beneath the great old 

walnut tree at Mount Vernon 218 

George Washington laying the cornerstone of the Federal 
Capitol at Washington, D. C, with Masonic cere- 
monies, September 18, 1793 (By DeLand) 220 

Masonic Ceremonies, September 17, 1932, re-enacting the 
original ceremony in which George Washington laid 
the cornerstone of the United States Capitol, with 
Masonic honors, September 18, 1793 224 

The George Washington Masonic National Memorial on 
Shooter's Hill, Alexandria, Va., at time of its dedica- 
tion by a notable Masonic gathering, May 12, 1932 228 

President Hoover, accompanied by Mrs. Hoover, leaving the 
George Washington Masonic National Memorial after 
the dedication ceremonies on May 12, 1932 231 

Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, greeting Miss 
Anne Madison Washington, great-great-great grand- 
niece of George Washington, and Major James H. 
Doolittle on their arrival in Washington, D. C, July 

25, 1932 ' 233 

Design of special cachet used on mail distributed on the 

George Washington Bicentennial airplane flight to 
commemorate the 15 7th anniversary of the founding 
of the United States Postal Service 23 5 

A typical piece of air mail distributed by Major James H. 
Doolittle on the George Washington Bicentennial air- 
plane flight, July 25,^1932 236 

"Post-Rider" delivering mail addressed to Governor John 
Garland Pollard to airplane at Williamsburg for trans- 
porting to Richmond, Va., on Post Office Day, July 

26, 193 2 240 

Facsimile of Special cachet used on mail sent by post-rider, 

airplane and truck from Williamsburg, Va., to Gov- 
ernor John Garland Pollard, at Richmond, Va., July 
26, 1932 240 

Salute of the Monticello Guards, February 22, 193 2, at the 
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier of the American Revo- 
lution, in Alexandria, Va. 248 

Memorial Exercises, December 18, 1932, on the 133rd an- 
niversary of the funeral of George Washington. After 
the ceremony in historic Christ Church, Alexandria, 
Va., a distinguished committee went to Mount Vernon 
to lay flowers upon the tomb of George Washington 250 

The Right Reverend James Craik Morris delivering the 
funeral sermon at Christ Church, Alexandria, Va., 
commemorating the 133rd anniversary of the funeral 
of George Washington 251 

Officials calling at the White House, Washington, D. C, 
to notify President Hoover that the Hudson River 
bridge would be named "George Washington Memorial 
Bridge" 2 52 

The "George Washington Memorial Bridge" as it appeared 
unfinished at the time of the naming of the bridge 
for George Washington 253 

Surrender of Cornwallis, episode 3 of the Washington 
pageant held at Washington, Durham County, Eng- 
land, September 4, 6 and 9, 193 3 25 5 

Masonic ceremonies at Fredericksburg, Va., marking the 
180th anniversary of the initiation of George Wash- 
ington in the Masonic Fraternity 2 57 



Page 

Organization Chart of the United States George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission 261 

Facsimile of a letter written by General George Washington 
to His Excellency, Count de Rochambeau, from New- 
burgh, New York, August 14, 1782 268 

Reproduction of a typical Genealogical Chart showing 

Direct Line of Descent in the Washington Family 276-277 

A typical Library Exhibit 279 

Chart showing Contacts Through Correspondence, Educa- 
tion Department 283 

President Hoover honors the winner of the National Essay 

Contest 294 

Regional Oratorical Winners at the White House, June 

24, 1932 297 

The other State Winners in the Bicentennial Oratorical 

Contests 300 

School Children at Weiner, Arkansas, planting twenty-five 

trees on Washington's Birthday, February 22, 1932 . 328 

Pupils of Washington School, San Leandro, California, pre- 
sented "Making the Constitution" 3 29 

"Washington and His Cabinet," scene presented by students 

of Woodrow Wilson School, Santa Ana, California . 3 30 

Bicentennial pageant in honor of George Washington, writ- 
ten and directed by the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy 
Academy, Red Bluff, California 330 

Delmar, Delaware, Schools enjoy a Washington party . . . 3 34 

Manual Training Project, sixth grade, West School, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 3 3 5 

Garfield School, Washington, D. C, Bicentennial program 336 

Fort Wayne, Indiana, students of Saint Catherine Academy, 

presented "Washington, The Man Who Made Us" 3 39 

Saint Meinrad Seminary, Saint Meinrad, Indiana, present Bi- 
centennial Operetta 340 

Manhattan, Kansas, Roosevelt School in surveying scene of 

a Bicentennial Pageant 342 

Princeton, Kentucky, prelude scene from Bicentennial 

pageant 343 

Louisiana State Normal College, Natchitoches, presented 

pageant, "Yesterday and Tomorrow" 344 

Glen Burnie, Maryland, Grammar School; Eighth Grade 

Commencement 345 

Ann Harbor, Michigan, March of the States from "In the 
Hearts of His Countrymen," presented by the students 
of Saint Thomas School 346 

Fenton, Missouri, School children joining in Bicentennial 

Parade, February 22, 1932 348 

Chadron, Nebraska, pageant presented by State Normal 

College, February 23, 1932 349 

Carroll, New Hampshire; Mount Washington as represented 
by Twin Mountain School in the parade of February 
22, 1932 350 

Mohawk, New York, school children participating in the 

City Bicentennial Celebration 352 

Whiteville, North Carolina, school presents "May Fair" . . 3 54 

Barnes County, North Dakota, school children assembled at 
their annual county play day in grounds of County 
Court House, Valley City, for dedication of the 
County George Washington Tree 355 

Johnstown, Pa., Cochran Junior High School featured ten 
Bicentennial tableaux at mid-year promotion, Janu- 
ary, 1932 358 

Central Falls, R. I., Bicentennial play, "Washington Inspires 

a Nation" presented February 15, 1932 3 60 

Knoxville, Tennessee, Park Lowry School presented the 

pageant, "George Washington at Home" 362 

Salt Lake City, Utah, scene from play "Betsy Ross" pro- 
duced by fourth grade of Oquirrh School 365 

Hollins College, Virginia, students entered into the spirit 

of the Bicentennial Celebration 3 67 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— (Continued) 



Page 

Cheney, Washington, students of the training school, Wash- 
ington State Normal School, present "Washington 
Lives On" 3 68 

Christiansted, Virgin Islands, pupils of the Catholic School 

joined in grand parade, February 22, 1932 372 

Oxford, Maine, Bicentennial exhibit at Freeland Holmes 

Library 379 

Denton, Texas, the coach which conveyed President and 
Mrs. L. H. Hubbard and General and Mrs. Washing- 
ton (represented by students) to the presentation of 
"The Poor Soldier" by the students of the Texas State 
College for Women 3 89 

Keuka Park, New York, Tree planting on February 22, 

1932 393 

Rochester, New York, penmanship exhibit of Paterson, 
N. J., schools at National Association of Penmanship 
Teachers 39 5 

Buhl, Minnesota, industrial art project built by school 

children 396 

Luzerne, Pa., "Mount Vernon" built by fourth grade pupils 

of the Luzerne Borough School District 396 

Honolulu, Hawaii, Bicentennial design prepared by type- 
writing classes of Sacred Hearts Academy 397 

Ephrata High School, Pennsylvania, May Day Program 398 

Washington, D. C, Toner School third and fourth grade 

pupils present play, "Mother and Son" 3 99 

Troy, N. Y., Public Schools present pageant, "Washington 

Returns" 400 

Modesto, California, Washington School presented pageant, 

"Father of His Country" 402 

Washington, D. C, Exhibit of Americanization School 

Association 404 

Washington, D. C, Summer-Magruder School, Kinder- 
garten Department's Bicentennial Celebration on 
March 23, 1932 405 

Mount Morrison, Colorado, Colonial dance by girls of State 

Industrial School 406 

Sparta, Wisconsin, State Public School presented Bicenten- 
nial pageant, "Surrender of Cornwallis" 406 

Illinois School for Deaf, Jacksonville, 111., girls gymnastic 

Bicentennial program, May 14, 1932 407 

Iroquois, New York, Bicentennial program by Thomas In- 
dian School 408 

Tuba City, Arizona, Western Navajo School presented "Pic- 
ture Book Towne" 409 

Scenes from typical George Washington Bicentennial pro- 
grams 440 

Brooklyn, New York; scene from "Presentation of the 

Flag" by Girl Scouts 440 

Santa Ana, California; School Children's Pageant, "Wash- 
ington at Home" 440 

Charles Town, West Virginia; Colonial pageant at St. 

Hilda's Hall, entitled, "An Evening at Harewood" 440 

Form of Postmaster Questionnaire 442-445 

Chart showing suggested organization of City Committees 449 

Greenwich, Conn., the float of Empire Lodge No. 8, 

I. O. O. F., in the Bicentennial Celebration 481 

Southbury, Conn., Continental fife and drum corps 482 

Winter Haven, Florida, pageant in honor of George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial at the Florida Orange Festival. . . 48 5 

Savannah, Georgia, "General Washington Visits Savannah," 
a colonial pageant presented by the Bethesda Home for 
Boys 486 

Sioux City, Iowa, a high school colonial pageant 492 

Kansas City, Kansas, colonial ball under auspices of 

Women's Chamber of Commerce 494 

Northampton, Mass., Girl Scout rally and Bicentennial 

pageant 502 



Page 

Ann Arbor, Mich., scene from "In the Hearts of His Coun- 
trymen" given by students of St, Thomas' School . . . 504 

Kansas City, Mo., "Soldiers of the Revolution," part of a 
great outdoor pageant grouped about statue of Wash- 
ington 5 07 

Floral Numerals at Washington Statue, Newark, N. J 514 

Flower Show in Honor of the Bicentennial, at Carlsbad, 

N. Mex 516 

Continental Group at Georse Washington Ball, Kingston, 

N. Y 518 

"The Spirit of 193 2," by the Clark Family, Valley City, 

N. Dak 522 

Celebration July Fourth at Findlay, Ohio 523 

"The Minuet with Washington," at Ursuline Academy, 

Pittsburgh, Pa 529 

Children's George Washington Pageant 534 

Sempre Musical Society, Colonial Musical Festival, Ogden, 

Utah , . 5 36 

Bicentennial Pageant, presented by students of Hollin's 

(Women's) College, Hollins, Virginia 539 

Scene from a two-act Play entitled, "Our Country's Flag," 

Milwaukee, Wis. 544 

Reproduction of letter from President Roosevelt, dated June 
1, 1933, on Foreign Participation in the George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration 548 

Reichstag Honors Memory of George Washington 5 5 

French Medal in Honor of George Washington 551 

George Washington Memorial Erected in Florence, Italy 5 55 

Washington Portrait Unveiled at the George Wahsington 
School, Havana, Cviba, on Pan American Day, April 
14, 1932 556 

Typical of the numerous pageants presented during the Bi- 
centennial Celebration, the Children's Birthday Party 
Pageant on the Lawn at Mt. Vernon 561 

Reading Bicentennial Literature in Braille 5 64 

The late John Philip Sousa, Internationally known as the 
March King, playing his great composition, "The 
George Washington Bicentennial March," at the White 
House Grounds on November 20, 1930 565 

George M. Cohan, noted playwright and composer, present- 
ing the original manuscript of "Father of the Land We 
Love," to President Hoover at the White House, Julv 
29, 1931 566 

Samples showing the type of Clip Sheets sent out by the 
Publicity Department of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission 576 

Washington Crossing the Delaware 577 

Reproduction of Special Motion Picture Issue of the Clip 
Sheet of the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission 580 

Reproductions in reduced size of the nine Posters which 
were distributed by the United States George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission during the celebration 
period to all parts of the world 5 84 

James F. Power, Lithographic artist of the Forbes Litho- 
graph Mfg. Co., working from the original Gilbert 
Stuart "Athenaeum" portrait of George Washington, 
which was reproduced in ten colors and sent to every 
schoolroom in the United States 585 

Hon. Sol Bloom, Director, United States George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission exhibiting the proof of 
the Uncle Sam Poster to Senator Simeon D. Fess, Vice 
Chairman (right), and Hon. R. Walton Moore, a 
member of the Commission (center) 5 86 

George Washington from the bust by Joseph Nollekens, 

modeled in London about 180 5 5 87 

Samples of typical pamphlets, published by the United 

States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 5 90 

Reproduction of Resolution of the Commission Testifying 

its Appreciation to the Director Between pages 598-9 



Report of the Celebration 



\ 'JJV'OT EVEN the most earnest proponents 
vf^fl! of federal sponsorship of a Celebration 
in honor of the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington, had the vision of the mighty forces that 
were set in motion late in December, 1924, and 
that were destined to arouse the enthusiasm and 
cooperation of millions of American people and of 
hundreds of thousands of citizens of countries 
other than our own. They were actuated by the 
realization that a definite opportunity and obliga- 
tion rested upon Americans to pay suitable tribute 
to the memory of the man whose character, 
courage and wisdom made of us a free people 
among the nations of the earth. 

The advocates of the celebration did not foresee, 
of course, the years of stress and hardship for the 
people of our country during the social and indus- 
trial crisis that had its gloomiest aspect in the 
period between the launching of the Celebration 
and its termination in 1932. 

Thus, without definite intention, the govern- 
ment itself established an activity, that, in the 
opinion of many distinguished men and women, 
did more to preserve our national sanity and 
strengthen the ties of American devotion to its 
institutions, than any other influence of that dis- 
tressing era. While the Celebration was not au- 
thorized primarily to stimulate patriotism, it did 
very definitely conform to the mandate of Con- 
gress contained in House Concurrent Resolution 
No. 57, of February 23, 1927, that the Commis- 
sion was to organize the Celebration "in such man- 
ner as may seem to them most fitting, to the end 
that the Bicentennial Anniversary of the birth of 
him who was ' 'first in war, first in peace and first 
in the hearts of his countrymen' — the pioneer, the 
soldier, the statesman, the husbandman and the 
exemplar of American citizenship, George Wash- 
ington, may be commemorated in the year 1932 in 
such manner that future generations of American 
citizens may live according to the example and 
precepts of his exalted life and character and thus 
perpetuate the American Republic." Here was 
clearly a conception of the patriotic nature of the 
Celebration in contemplation, and the need of the 
people of the United States for leadership, encour- 
agement and support in their faith and love of 
country. 



Summary of Accomplishments 

To understand at once just what this Celebration 
meant in terms of human appeal, and to place be- 
fore the reader a terse yet dramatic summary of 
what was accomplished by the Commission in the 
way of organization, the following tabulation is 
furnished. Thus the reader can see the number of 
Bicentennial committees formed in states, cities 
and towns, in churches and schools, among patri- 
otic and civic organizations, etc. The results of 
this organization of Bicentennial committees is 
seen from the number of Bicentennial programs 
presented, the amount of mail handled and litera- 
ture distributed, etc. We wish to call particular 
attention to the very high percentage of Bicenten- 
nial committees formed among the various groups. 

Total for All States 

Cities With Population of 2 5,000 and up 376 

Cities With Population of 10,000 to 25,000 ... 611 

Cities With Population of 5,000 to 10,000 856 

Cities With Population of 2,500 to 5,000. . 1,329 

Cities With Population of 1,000 to 2,500 3,116 

Cities With Population Under 1,000 116,829 

Total Cities, Towns and Villages 123,153 

Commissions Appointed by Governors 48 

Committees Appointed for Cities and Towns . 107,803 

Churches 212,159 

Church Committees. 190,194 

Church Programs 210,320 

Fraternal, Patriotic and Civic Organizations . . 98,3 5 6 

Fraternal, Patriotic and Civic Committees 8 5,344 

Fraternal, Patriotic and Civic Programs 156,435 

School Units 887,073 

School Committees 275,869 

School Programs 3,548,292 

"Women's Organizations 77,680 

"Women's Organization Programs. 316,221 

Agricultural Organizations. 108,439 

Agricultural Committees 108,439 

Agricultural Programs 240,167 

Boy and Girl Scout Units 44,669 

Boy and Girl Scout Committees 44,669 

Boy and Girl Scout Programs 15 3,478 

Music Clubs 4,226 

Music Club Programs 8,562 

Schools in Declamatory and Essay Contests . . 73,168 

Memorial Trees Planted (Estimated by American 

Tree Association 3 0,000,000 

Public Libraries Mailed Material 5,849 

Educational and Professional Libraries Mailed Ma- 
terial 4,417 

:: " In addition to Women's Organizations there were 148,- 
560 committees composed entirely of women who presented 
43 5,247 programs. 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Number of News Items Appearing in Newspa- 
pers of Country 4,926,083 

Letters Received January 1, 1932, to January 1, 

1933 296,794 

Number of Posters Placed in School Rooms 901,164 

Number of Posters Placed in Post Offices 96,43 8 

Number of Pieces of Literature Mailed 12,920,533 

Grand Totals 

Organizations and Municipalities Contacted . 1,555,755 

Committees Appointed 894,224 

Total Number of Individual Bicentennial Pro- 
grams Presented 4,760,345 

In addition to this work among the states, towns, 
communities and various organizations in conti- 
nental America, there were interesting activities in 
our detached territories and insular possessions. 
For instance, in 22 municipalities of Alaska, Porto 
Rico, Virgin Islands and the Canal Zone, Hawaii, 
Philippine Islands and Guam, 57 organizations such 
as churches, schools, chambers of commerce, fra- 
ternal and patriotic bodies, army, navy and con- 
stabulary groups and 107 committees of various 
kinds, sponsored 452 programs. 

Foreign Participation 

Participation in this distinctly American cele- 
bration by countries other than our own, was one 
of the most important and significant phases of the 
Commission's work. When it is remembered that 
the economic stress which so seriously involved our 
own land, was, in fact, world-wide, and also that 
no direct invitation was extended to any foreign 
country to join in the Celebration, the spontaneous 
and generous reaction among foreign countries and 
peoples was most gratifying. Celebrations were 
held in 2 59 cities of 81 countries outside the 
boundaries of the United States during the Bicen- 
tennial year of 1932. As stated by President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a letter to Director 
Bloom, appearing in the volume entitled "Foreign 
Participation in the George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Celebration," of this series: "This event was 
without precedent as a spontaneous expression of 
international courtesy and good will," and, "People 
of other nations have learned much of the philoso- 
phy of our government in a way that was clear 
and effective." 

Thus is presented only the barest outline of the 
Commission's achievements and more detailed ac- 
counts will be found in succeeding pages of this 
volume. Every statement in relation to these ac- 



tivities is sustained by documents in the files of 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. 

Before the Plans Had Crystallized 

With few exceptions, those who gave early 
thought to the Celebration had more or less 
nebulous conceptions of a world's fair or some 
centralized demonstration of material progress, by 
which only a limited number of Americans could 
be reached. In fact, this deeply established cele- 
bration idea was so firmly fixed in the public mind 
that it required months of effort to dislodge it. 
That a nation, by formal action of its government, 
should embark upon a program of spiritual and 
patriotic appeal, was so novel that people generally 
were not prepared for it. In the popular mind a 
Celebration meant vast outlay for buildings, in- 
dustrial display, entertainment, and the gathering 
of enormous crowds of people to witness thrilling 
spectacles. 

To announce that a new form of Celebration 
was to be launched; that it was to be a serious 
appeal to the hearts and minds of men, women and 
children; that it was to be entirely devoid of the 
carnival spirit, and was to be essentially educa- 
tional — these were elements never before injected 
in the national celebration concept. To many 
people such a program seemed drab and uninspir- 
ing and impossible of satisfactory fulfillment. 

For this new form of Celebration, which took 
the Celebration to the people rather than bring- 
ing the people to the Celebration, there were no 
precedents. No experiences of the past, in this or 
any other country, served to point out the true 
path to success, or to warn of the dangers of trial 
or experiment. Not only were the suggestions of 
a spiritual celebration new so far as the United 
States was concerned, but no other country had 
ever conceived such a project. It is true, of course, 
that from time immemorial nations and peoples 
have honored their statesmen, their warriors and 
their poets. But always these celebrations were of 
a nature far different from that which ultimately 
developed from the launching of the George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Celebration. 

From the very beginning of the Commission's 
activities, efforts were made to secure suggestions 
from all sources as to the form and character of 
the proposed celebration. In the Minutes of the 
various meetings of the Executive Committee are 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



recorded a large number of these suggestions, which 
are of unusual interest when considered in connec- 
tion with the program as finally adopted by the 
Commission. 

The character of the proposed celebration was 
early defined by the late President Emeritus Charles 
W. Eliot, of Harvard University, as follows: 

The Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington should be celebrated not only all over this coun- 
try, but wherever in Europe there exists a group of persons 
who know the value of his writings and his deeds for the 
promotion of liberty and justice among mankind. This 
celebration, however, should be solemn, not gay, and spiritual, 
not materialistic. It should be directed in large measure to 
the rising generations, not to the passing or the past. It 
should appeal to thinking peoples, not to the careless or indif- 
ferent. Its aim should be to increase the number of Wash- 
ington's disciples and followers in and for the struggles of 
the future. 

This spiritual standard remained ever the direct- 
ing influence in organizing and carrying forward 
the celebration plans. But many difficulties pre- 
sented themselves to those charged with the various 
responsibilities and duties connected with the cele- 
bration activities. One of the earliest and most 
persistent objections to the Celebration itself on 
the part of many influential persons was the er- 
roneous opinion that the American people already 
knew all about George Washington and that there 
was little or nothing that could be added to present 
this colossal historic character as an interesting and 
dramatic personality. Yet one of the most impor- 
tant facts developed by the experience of the 
Commission, was the appalling ignorance of our 
own people of the true character, achievements and 
world influence of George Washington. The aver- 
age person, even of education and culture, carried 
in his mind only the most vague impressions, not 
only of George Washington and his compatriots, 
but of those stupendous events and movements in 
the early history of our Republic which brought 
into being, through years of toil and bloodshed and 
conflicting currents of strong and often bitter 
opinion, our governmental form and enduring 
national vitality. 

Washington the Human Being 

George Washington was popularly identified 
with the absurd cherry tree story; he was "first in 
war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his 
countrymen"; and finally, among the more en- 
lightened, he was remembered as the Commander- 
in-Chief of the Colonial forces during the Revo- 
lutionary War and as the first President of the 



Republic. So far as his real personality was con- 
cerned, he was almost as mythical as Alexander or 
King Arthur. He was pictured as a mounted 
figure upon a pedestal, with saber poised in heroic 
attitude, but glacial in his detached isolation and 
utterly lacking in human appeal. 

The mighty task confronting the Commission 
was that of divesting George Washington of these 
utterly fantastic attributes and of presenting him as 
a man, with the common, everyday experiences of 
sorrow, temptation and sacrifice — the neighbor, the 
citizen, the reliable counselor and the inspiration 
of his countrymen. 

The apocryphal Washington of swashbuckling 
chauvinism, of infallible self-confidence, and dis- 
dainful austerity — such a Washington never existed 
save in the perfervid imaginations of ambitious 
biographers, ready and willing to distort the facts 
of history in order to add selling quality to 
their writings. This form of literary trickery is 
common to the writings of all peoples and all 
times. In fiction or informal narrative it is per- 
missible, even necessary perhaps, but deliberately to 
pervert established truth is inexcusable. As Dryden 
says: "We find but few historians who have been 
diligent enough in their search for truth. It is their 
common method to take on trust what they dis- 
tribute to the public; by which means, a falsehood, 
once received from a famed writer, becomes tradi- 
tional to posterity." 

From the day of George Washington's death 
until the present time, innumerable writers have 
assumed to recount his life history. The first so- 
called Washington historian, Parson Weems, wrote 
a sketchy biography of George Washington. He 
found that it did not sell rapidly, so he set about 
getting something into the book to make it sell. 
He had a keen commercial sense. After several 
years of effort to sell his life of Washington, Par- 
son Weems published an edition containing the silly 
little "I cannot tell a lie" story, and he found that 
this had a strong popular appeal. That book sold 
much better and is still the best seller of Wash- 
ington biographies. And during all of the years 
since that time, certain writers have built up a 
bewildering series of piquant traditions and engag- 
ing stories about George Washington that are not 
justified by facts. These writers have borrowed 
from each other and have invented stories them- 
selves, and in all seriousness it may be said that if 
this practise had been allowed to continue, the true 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



story of George Washington would have been en- 
tirely lost in the wilderness of commercial literary 
exploitation. 

If the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission had done nothing more than 
to establish the facts in relation to George Wash- 
ington's life by long and painstaking research 
through existing literature and into all available 
original records, it would have justified the time 
and effort. 

From President Roosevelt 

So impressed was President Roosevelt with the 
value of this history that he sent the following 
statement to the Director in relation to the free 
distribution of the Literature Series of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion to the libraries of the country: 

The White House 
washington 

As a gift from the Government of the United 
States to the American people the three volumes 
of the Literature Series of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission constitute a 
permanent legacy that is invaluable. Never before 
has the true life history of George Washington and 
his time been published upon the authority of the 
government itself. This history represents the 
most painstaking research of scholars who have 
exhausted all known sources of investigation, and, 
as Chairman of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission, I believe that if 
the Commission had accomplished only this one 
thing it would have been well worth while. 

It is because of these facts that the volumes of 
the Literature Series and the Report Volume are 
presented to the Libraries and Institutions of 
Higher Education of the country by the govern- 
ment of the United States in order that the public, 
and especially the school children of the present 
and all future generations, may have free access 
to a mine of authentic information upon the life 
and services of the First President. Thus the 
spiritual value of the great work accomplished by 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission may be perpetuated and made avail- 
able to all our people in the Libraries of the nation. 

(Signed) Franklin D. Roosevelt. 



The Commission has issued a complete and au- 
thentic history of George Washington that will 
prove a serious embarrassment to the fanciful 
writers of the future, who seek to create markets 
for their histories of George Washington by mere 
imaginative invention. 

No final publication of an historical character 
has been issued by this Commission, no letter of an 
historical nature has been written, no historical 
reference made, without receiving the approval of 
the Commission's authorized historians — scholars of 
the highest attainment and authority. 

The mere fact that many favorite stories and 
prejudicial opinions have not been incorporated in 
the report, is proof that the Commission has dealt 
in facts. This history does not deny that George 
Washington threw a dollar across the Rappahan- 
nock River. It merely has no historical data to 
bolster such a story. Therefore it is omitted, as 
are scores of other stories of similar kind. Today 
the American people for the first time have a 
record of George Washington's life beyond which 
no human authority can go. New facts may de- 
velop, old manuscripts may be discovered, and some 
changes may be made upon the authority of these 
discoveries. But as of this date, the story of George 
Washington is written and given to the public in 
a way that is believed to be as unassailable as human 
effort can make it. Writers on George Washing- 
ton in the future may ascertain the facts as pre- 
sented in the literature issued by the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, and 
they should adhere to these facts, even at some 
sacrifice of selling appeal. 

The value of this history is also attested by no 
less an authority than Dr. Dixon Ryan Fox, Pro- 
fessor of History, Columbia University, New York, 
and President, New York State Historical Asso- 
ciation, who, upon receiving the first of the three 
volumes of the historical series, wrote: 

It is not only a sumptuous volume in format, but of the 
highest practical value to scholars and to teachers of Ameri- 
can history. Its 716 pages, if set up in standard pages, might 
easily amount to eight ordinary volumes. But not only in 
size but in comprehensive variety is it a whole library on 
Washington in itself, with narrative, analysis, bibliography, 
portraiture and cartography. Really, it is hard to speak in 
measured terms of this fine achievement. If the Commission 
had done nothing but produce this volume it would have 
been richly worth while. 

The following resolution indicates the value of 
the Commission's work to one of the most authori- 
tative historical organizations in America: 






Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Resolution of Commendation 

Presented by the New York State Historical Association 
to the National and State Commissions and the Honorable 
Sol Bloom, Director of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Celebration: 

Whereas the New York State Historical Association is 
deeply impressed with the benefits gained by the American 
people through the recent George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration, in a richer sense of our national heritage, a 
clearer definition of true patriotism and a finer understanding 
of high human character; and 

Whereas the abundant material assembled in the reports 
of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission is of the highest practical value to scholars and to 
teachers of American history and constitutes a legacy for 
our people that will grow in popular appreciation during 
future generations; and 

Whereas, in its opinion, these happy results were de- 
veloped not only by loyal and sympathetic cooperation 
throughout the country but particularly by wise and timely 
planning and by devoted, energetic, intelligent and highly 
competent administration: Therefore be it 

Resolved, That the thanks and congratulations of this 
Association be tendered the national and state commissions 
charged by the Congress of the United States with the con- 
duct of the Celebration, the Honorable Sol Bloom, its 
Director, and, through him, to his many executive colleagues. 

Dixon Ryan Fox, 

President. 
October 10, 1933. 

Of far greater importance than is generally 
realized was the secondary result of the aroused 
public interest in George Washington and his con- 
temporaries. This was the stimulating of new in- 
quiry into Colonial and Revolutionary history 
among scholars and students, and the investigating 
of local sources of information. Never, perhaps, 
was there such an epidemic of opening of old 
trunks, delving into attics, and re-examination of 
old letters and documents in private hands. A 
heavy correspondence resulted from those who had, 
or thought they had, made discoveries of historical 
importance, or from those who wished to establish 
the authenticity of family tradition and historical 
references in old family correspondence. 

While little new information from these sources 
was developed concerning George Washington, a 
great deal of valuable historical material pertaining 
to other characters of the Washington period was 
made available to historical societies and libraries. 
The Commission served as a clearing house for 
miscellaneous information of all kinds relating to 
early American history. 

The Appeal to Young People 

Since Congressional authority to organize the 
Commission referred to the character of the Cele- 
bration to insure that "future generations of 



American citizens may live according to the ex- 
ample and precepts of his exalted life and character 
and thus perpetuate the American Republic," it 
was obvious, of course, that special consideration 
should be given to the young people of America, 
those future citizens upon whose shoulders will 
fall the responsibility of carrying forward our 
institutions of government. 

This conception coincided perfectly with the 
opinion of the members of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, and 
especially did it appeal to the Director of the Cele- 
bration. 

Aristotle, one of the wisest men the world has 
produced, long ago taught that no state is secure 
whose children are not reared in perfect sympathy 
with her institutions. The Commission recognized 
the fact that while it was desirable to impress upon 
the adult population of America the great truths 
of our countries' history, the real objective and the 
most fertile field for education of permanent value 
lay in the fostering of these great truths among the 
boys and girls of the land. 

Therefore the Commission expended much time 
and effort in preparing and distributing material 
to school children and in organizing school con- 
tests in oratory, essay and declamation, and in pre- 
paring programs for and giving assistance to young 
people's organizations in every state. It is gratify- 
ing to record that the response from this effort 
was inspiring as is indicated by the fact that more 
than 800,000 school units participated, represent- 
ing approximately 30,000,000 school children, and 
that there were over 3,500,000 school programs 
given during the Celebration period. This does not 
include the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts, the 
4-H Clubs, and numerous other activities involv- 
ing, directly or indirectly, the boys and girls of 
the nation. 

Referring to this phase of the Celebration, a 
report of the Executive Committee of January 10, 
1932, includes the following: 

In our own country particular attention was bestowed 
upon "the rising generation" to which the youth of America 
responded with zeal and enthusiasm; and it cannot be gain- 
said that there has been a tremendous increase in the number 
of Washington's disciples and followers in and for the strug- 
gle of the future. In our judgment, this commemoration 
has accomplished more to mould the thought, opinions and 
character of our youth, America's potential rulers, in the 
fundamentals and ideals of George Washington, both per- 
sonal and political, and to dissipate and offset un-American 
propaganda, than any one other thing could possibly have 
done. This too, in the face of two great obstacles; namely, 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



widespread economic depression and a Presidential campaign. 
These disturbing influences served to distract the people and 
to divert their minds; nevertheless, this handicap, great as 
it was, was met and overcome in a marked degree, and to 
such an extent as to exert a steadying influence upon the 
minds of the American people in the midst of conflicting 
emotions. 

Parents and Teachers 

In the work among the public, private and 
parochial schools and institutions of higher learn- 
ing, too much credit cannot be extended to school 
authorities, teachers everywhere, and the parents 
of school children. Without their enthusiastic 
support and helpful cooperation such results as 
were recorded among the school children could not 
have been achieved. Likewise, credit goes to the 
thousands of outstanding citizens all over the coun- 
try who assisted in organizing the Celebration 
activities in their states and communities. 

Closely related to the organization of Celebra- 
tion activities among school children, and, in fact, 
preceding it in the chronological record of the 
Commission, was the truly formidable undertak- 
ing of initiating the cooperation of women's or- 
ganizations. This was one of the earliest depart- 
ments provided for by the Director and he was 
fortunate in gaining the consent of Mrs. John 
Dickinson Sherman, appointed on the Commission 
by President Coolidge, to take charge of this work. 
Mrs. Sherman had been associated for many years 
with the type of organization required by the cir- 
cumstances. She was formerly President of the Gen- 
eral Federation of Women's Clubs of the United 
States and prominently identified with all recent 
important group movements of special interest to 
women. Mrs. Sherman entered into her work with 
enthusiasm and conducted it throughout with great 
success. Contacts were made with 77,680 women's 
organizations, presenting 316,211 celebration pro- 
grams. In addition to the distinctively women's 
organizations, there were 148,560 celebration com- 
mittees composed entirely of women who presented 
43 5,247 programs. Mrs. Sherman also made con- 
tacts whereby cooperation was secured by which 
approximately 30,000,000 George Washington 
Memorial trees were planted under the auspices of 
the American Tree Association. 

At this point the Commission wishes to express 
its gratitude to Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, first 
commissioner appointed by President Coolidge. 
Mrs. Cook kept in very close touch with the activi- 
ties of the Bicentennial Commission and cooper- 



ated fully at all times. Her influence was felt in 
women's and civic organizations. Mrs. Cook's 
assistance and suggestions proved of great aid to the 
Commission. 

Personnel of Original Commission 

In the Senate Joint Resolution, establishing the 
United States Commission for the Celebration of 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington, it is provided that the per- 
sonnel of the Commission upon that date should 
be as follows: 

The President of the United States, Honorable 
Calvin Coolidge. 

The Presiding Officer of the Senate, the Vice 
President, Honorable Charles G. Dawes. 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
Honorable Nicholas Longworth of Ohio. 

In the Senate of the United States December 8, 
1924, the President pro tempore appointed the 
following members on the part of the Senate: The 
Senator from Ohio, Honorable Simeon D. Fess; the 
Senator from Missouri, Honorable Selden P. 
Spencer; the Senator from Virginia, Honorable 
Carter Glass; and the Senator from Delaware, 
Honorable Thomas F. Bayard. 

In the Senate of the United States, January 4, 
1927, the Vice President appointed as a member 
of the Commission the Senator from Kansas, Hon- 
orable Arthur Capper, to succeed the Senator from 
Missouri, Honorable Selden P. Spencer, deceased. 

In the House of Representatives, December 8, 
1924, the Speaker appointed the following mem- 
bers on the part of the House of Representatives: 
Honorable Willis C. Hawley, of Oregon; Honor- 
able John Q. Tilson, of Connecticut; Honorable 
John N. Garner, of Texas, and Honorable Joseph 
W. Byrns, of Tennessee. (Congressional Record, 
2d sess., 68th Cong., pp. 249-278.) 

In conformity with the joint resolution of Con- 
gress, the President of the United States, Calvin 
Coolidge, on January 31, 1925, appointed the fol- 
lowing persons as members of the Commission: 
Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, of Pennsylvania ; Mrs. 
John Dickinson Sherman, of Colorado; Honorable 
Henry Ford, of Michigan; Honorable Hanford 
MacNider, of Iowa; Honorable C. Bascom Slemp, 
of Virginia; Honorable Edgar B. Piper, of Oregon; 
Honorable Frank A. Munsey, of New York; and 
Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, of Massachusetts, Pro- 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



fessor Emeritus, of Harvard University. Dr. Hart 

later became Historian of the Commission. 

On February 9, 1926, the President of the United 

States appointed as a member of the Commission 

Honorable Bernard M. Baruch, of New York, to 

succeed Honorable Frank A. Munsey, deceased. 

Note: On the date of the approval of the law creating 
the Commission, Honorable Albert B. Cummins, of Iowa, 
was President pro tempore of the Senate, and Honorable 
Prederick H. Gillett, of Massachusttts, was Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, and were therefore members of 
the Commission. On March 4, 1925, the Vice President 
succeeded Mr. Cummins, and Mr. Gillett ceased to be Speaker 
of the House of Representatives, and Mr. Longworth suc- 
ceeded him. 

Personnel of the Commission in 193 3 

At the conclusion of the Celebration period, 
November 24, 1932, the personnel of the Commis- 
sion was as follows: 

The President of the United States, Honorable 
Herbert Hoover. 

The Vice President of the United States, Honor- 
able Charles Curtis. 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
Honorable John N. Garner. 

Senators Simeon D. Fess, of Ohio, Vice Chair- 
man; Arthur Capper, of Kansas; Carter Glass, of 
Virginia, and Millard E. Tydings, of Maryland. 
Representatives Willis C. Hawley, of Oregon; John 
Q. Tilson, of Connecticut; Joseph W. Byrns, of 
Tennessee, and Honorable R. Walton Moore, of 
Virginia. The Presidential Commissioners were: 
Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, of Pennsylvania; Mrs. 
John Dickinson Sherman, of Colorado; Honorable 
Henry Ford, of Michigan; Honorable C. Bascom 
Slemp, of Virginia; Honorable Wallace McCamant, 
of Oregon; Professor Albert Bushnell Hart, of 
Massachusetts, and Honorable Joseph Scott, of 
California. Honorable Sol Bloom, Representative 
from New York, Director. 

Under Three Presidents 

This Commission had the honor and distinction 
of serving under three Presidents of the United 
States. It was inaugurated during the adminis- 
tration of Calvin Coolidge. It continued during 
the administration of Herbert Hoover, and con- 
cluded its work under the administration of 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. All of these Presidents 
were Chairmen of the Commission during their 
various terms. Several other changes occurred in 
the personnel of the Commission and these are 



detailed in the section of this report dealing with 
the Minutes. 

Referring again to the earlier history of the 
Commission: Having established the general ma- 
chinery of administration, it became necessary to 
have a directing head to organize the work, set up 
departmental activities and plan the multitude of 
details that would insure harmonious and effective 
operation. Here the Commission faced a most 
serious and difficult problem. Success or failure 
lay in the choice of the man or men charged with 
administration. The need of directorial service be- 
came insistent and the Executive Committee can- 
vassed the whole field of possibilities, with the 
result that it selected Honorable Sol Bloom, Rep- 
resentative in Congress from New York, and Lt. 
Colonel U. S. Grant, 3d, United States Army, 
to serve as Associate Directors. On account of his 
other and many official duties, Colonel Grant 
found it necessary to relinquish his work as Associ- 
ate Director within a few months after his ap- 
pointment, and thereafter the entire work of 
direction was conducted by Representative Bloom 
as Director of the Commission. 

The Directing Executive 

"To this task," says the final report of the Execu- 
tive Committee published as a Congressional Docu- 
ment, "with its manifold duties and responsibilities, 
Mr. Bloom applied himself with ardent zeal and 
enthusiasm and with rare executive ability born 
of ripe experience and organizing genius. He de- 
voted three years to the work with unfailing 
fidelity and sacrificial devotion; and under his in- 
telligent direction administered the duties of his 
office in all of its varied ramifications by modern 
business methods and with strict regard for econ- 
omy. With the result that the Celebration was a 
distinct success from the viewpoint of its original 
concept and its influence will be perpetual. To 
Mr. Bloom we extend our gratitude for his unselfish 
and effective labors, and our hearty congratula- 
tions." 

This formal expression of the Executive Com- 
mittee was followed by a similar testimonial of 
the entire United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission, in a meeting at the White 
House, February 20, 1933. In a resolution signed by 
Herbert Hoover, as Chairman, the Commission 
testified to its appreciation and gratitude to Mr. 
Bloom. This resolution is here reproduced. 



8 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



President Herbert Hoover, on the same occasion, 
said he was glad of the opportunity to express to 
the Commission his own appreciation of the work 
performed by the Director. Mr. Bloom, he said, 
had executed plans for the celebration with intel- 
ligence, great energy and with fidelity, and that 
he felt that it was an achievement worthy of his 
deep gratitude and a place in the records of the 
Commission. 

First Meeting of Commission 
The first meeting of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission was called 
by President Coolidge at the White House, Febru- 
ary 16, 1925. At that time Representative John 
Q. Tilson, of Connecticut, was appointed Secre- 
tary pro tempore and a committee on permanent 
organization was designated, composed of Senators 
Simeon D. Fess and Carter Glass and Representa- 
tive Willis C. Hawley. The Chairman of the 
Commission was authorized, in consultation with 
the Executive Committee to be appointed later, 
to select an Executive Secretary. Other Com- 
mittees on various phases of the organization plan 
were appointed. The Executive Committee con- 
sisted of: Senators Simeon D. Fess, of Ohio; Selden 
P. Spencer, of Missouri; Thomas F. Bayard, of 
Delaware, and Carter Glass, of Virginia. Repre- 
sentatives Willis C. Hawley, of Oregon; John Q. 
Tilson, of Connecticut; John N. Garner, of Texas, 
and Joseph W. Byrns, of Tennessee; and Mr. C. 
Bascom Slemp, Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook and 
Mr. Frank A. Munsey. 

The Committee elected the President of the 
United States as Chairman of the Commission and 
Senator Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman. Repre- 
sentative Tilson, of Connecticut, was elected Sec- 
retary and Treasurer. The Executive Committee 
recommended William Tyler Page to the President 
for the position of Executive Secretary. Later the 
President appointed Mr. Page. The President was 
also asked to appoint a field secretary and did so ap- 
point Senator Thomas Sterling, former United 
States Senator from South Dakota. 

The first office of the Commission was in the 
United States Capitol, being in the room of the 
Chairman and Clerk of the Committee on Appro- 
priations of the House of Representatives. This 
room was appropriate, as one of the most promi- 
nent art treasures of the Capitol is contained 
therein, in the form of a fine medallion portrait 
of George Washington. 



Under the provisions of the Joint Resolution 
establishing the Commission it was required that 
an address should be made to the American people 
outlining the purposes of the Celebration. At a 
meeting of the Commission in the White House, 
January 13, 1927, a request was made of President 
Coolidge that he deliver this address to both Houses 
of Congress and distinguished guests on February 
22, 1927, and the President accepted the invita- 
tion. At this meeting it was also ordered that 
Professor Albert Bushnell Hart, a member of the 
Commission, be designated as Historian of the 
Commission, with authority to travel in discharge 
of his duties. 

By Joint Concurrent Resolution No. 57, of 
January, 1927, it was resolved "That the Congress 
of the United States earnestly and respectfully in- 
vites the full cooperation of the legislatures and 
the chief executives of the respective states and 
territories of the United States in the execution of 
the joint resolution of Congress creating the United 
States Commission for the Celebration of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington, in such manner as may seem to them 
most fitting. . . ." 

Celebration Officially Inaugurated 

The Celebration may be said to have been offi- 
cially inaugurated with the address of President 
Coolidge in the Hall of Representatives of the 
National Capitol before both Houses of Congress 
on February 22, 1927. This was a most impressive 
ceremony. At noon on that day the doorkeeper of 
the House of Representatives announced the Vice 
President of the United States and members of the 
United States Senate. The members of the House 
arose and the Senate, preceded by the Vice Presi- 
dent and by the Secretary and Sergeant at Arms, 
entered the Chamber. The Vice President took 
the chair at the right of the Speaker and the mem- 
bers of the Senate took seats reserved for them. 
The doorkeeper then announced the Chief Justice 
and the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court 
of the United States, the Ambassadors and Minis- 
ters of foreign governments, the Chief Naval Offi- 
cer, the Chief of Staff and the Commandant of 
Marines. They were followed by the descendants 
of the Washington family and the President and 
members of his Cabinet. Through the courtesy 
of the Speaker of the House, the Vice President 
was designated to conduct the further proceedings. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



The Vice President presented the Vice Chairman of 
the Commission, Honorable Simeon D. Fess, of 
Ohio, who in turn presented the President of the 
United States, Calvin Coolidge. The address of 
President Coolidge on that occasion follows: 

ADDRESS 

OF 

PRESIDENT CALVIN COOLIDGE 

Delivered at a Joint Session of Congress 
February 22, 1927 

My Fellow Americans: On the 22d day of February, 1932, 
America will celebrate the two hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of George Washington. Wherever there are those who love 
ordered liberty, they may well join in the observance of that 
event. Although he belongs to us, yet by being a great Ameri- 
can he became a great world figure. It is but natural that here 
under the shadow of the stately monument rising to his memory, 
in the Capital City bearing his name, the country made inde- 
pendent by his military genius, and the Republic established by 
his statesmanship, should already begin preparations to proclaim 
the immortal honor in which we hold the Father of our Country. 

In recognition of the importance of this coming anniversary, 
more than two years ago the Congress passed a joint resolution 
establishing a commission, which was directed to have this ad- 
dress made to the American people reminding them of the rea- 
son and purpose for holding the coming celebration. It was also 
considered that now would be an appropriate time to inform the 
public that this commission desires to receive suggestions con- 
cerning plans for the proposed celebration and to express the 
hope that the States and their political subdivisions under the 
direction of their governors and local authorities would soon 
arrange for appointing commissions and committees to formu- 
late programs for cooperation with the Federal Government. 
When the plans begin to be matured they should embrace the ac- 
tive support of educational and religious institutions, of the many 
civic, social, and fraternal organizations, agricultural and trade 
associations, and of other numerous activities which character- 
ize our national life. 

It is greatly to be hoped that out of the studies pursued and 
the investigations made a more broad and comprehensive under- 
standing and a more complete conception of Washington, the 
man, and his relation to all that is characteristic of American 
life may be secured. It was to be expected that he would be 
idealized by his countrymen. His living at a time when there 
were scanty reports in the public press, coupled with the inclina- 
tion of early biographers, resulted in a rather imaginary charac- 
ter being created in response to the universal desire to worship 
his memory. The facts of his life were of record, but were not 
easily accessible. While many excellent books, often scholarly 
and eloquent, have been written about him, the temptation has 
been so strong to represent him as an heroic figure composed of 
superlatives that the real man among men, the human being 
subjected to the trials and temptations common to all mortals, 
has been too much obscured and forgotten. When we regard 
him in this character and have revealed to us the judgment with 
which he met his problems, we shall all the more understand 
and revere his true greatness. No great mystery surrounds him; 



he never relied on miracles. But he was a man endowed with 
what has been called uncommon common sense, with tireless 
industry, with a talent for taking infinite pains, and with a mind 
able to understand the universal and eternal problems of man- 
kind. 

Washington has come to be known to the public almost ex- 
clusively as the Virginia colonel who accompanied the unfor- 
tunate expedition of General Braddock, as the commander in 
chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, 
as the first President of the United States, and as the master 
of the beautiful estate at Mount Vernon. This general esti- 
mate is based to a large extent on the command he held in time 
of war and the public office he held in time of peace. A recital 
of his courage and patriotism, his loyalty and devotion, his self- 
sacrifice, his refusal to be king, will always arouse the imagina- 
tion and inspire the soul of everyone who loves his country. 
Nothing can detract from the exalted place which this record 
entitles him to hold. But he has an appeal even broader than 
this, which today is equally valuable to the people of the United 
States. Not many of our citizens are to be called on to take 
high commands or to hold high public office. We are all nec- 
essarily engaged in the ordinary affairs of life. As a valuable 
example to youth and to maturity, the experience of Washing- 
ton in these directions is worthy of much more attention than 
it has received. 

We all share in the benefits which accrued from the inde- 
pendence he won and the free Republic he did so much to es- 
tablish. We need a diligent comprehension and understanding of 
the great principles of government which he wrought out, but 
we shall also secure a wide practical advantage if we go beyond 
this record, already so eloquently expounded, and consider him 
also as a man of affairs. It was in this field that he developed 
that executive ability which he later displayed in the camp and 
in the council chamber. 

It ought always to be an inspiration to the young people of 
the country to know that from earliest youth Washington 
showed a disposition to make the most of his opportunities. He 
was diligently industrious — a most admirable and desirable, if 
seemingly uninteresting, trait. His father, who had been edu- 
cated in England, died when his son was 1 1 years old. His 
mother had but moderate educational advantages. There were 
no great incentives to learning in Virginia in 1732, and the 
facilities for acquiring knowledge were still meager. The boy 
might well have grown up with very little education, but his 
eager mind and indomitable will led him to acquire learning 
and information despite the handicaps surrounding him. 

His formal schooling, which was of a rather primitive charac- 
ter, ended at the age of 13. His copy and exercise books, still 
in existence, contain forms of bills, receipts, and like documents, 
showing he had devoted considerable time to that branch of his 
studies. He was preparing himself to be a practical business 
man. When his regular instruction ended, his education was 
just beginning. It continued up to his death, December 14, 
1799. If ever there was a self-made man, it was George Wash- 
ington. Through all his later years he was constantly absorb- 
ing knowledge from contact with men, from reading whenever 
time and facilities permitted, and from a wide correspondence. 

When 16 he became a surveyor and for four years earned a 
living and much experience in that calling. Although consider- 




10 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



able has been written about it, not many people think of our 
first President as an agriculturist. Those who have studied this 
phase of his life tell us he was probably the most successful owner 
and director of an agricultural estate in his day. A visitor in 
178 5 declared "Washington's greatest pride was to be thought 
the first farmer in America." Toward the end of his life he 
wrote: 

I am led to reflect how much more delightful to an un- 

debauched mind is the task of making improvements on 

the earth than all the vain glory that can be acquired 

from ravaging it by the most uninterrupted career of 

conquests. 

He always had a great affection for Mount Vernon. He 

increased his land holdings from 2,700 to over 8,000 acres, 

3,200 of which he had under cultivation at one time. 

His estate was managed in a thoroughly business-like fashion. 
He kept a very careful set of account books for it, as he did 
for his other enterprises. Overseers made weekly statements 
showing just how much each laborer had been employed, what 
crops had been planted or gathered. While he was absent re- 
ports were sent to him, and he replied in long letters of instruc- 
tion, displaying wonderful familiarity with details. He was one 
of the first converts to the benefits of scientific fertilization and 
to the rotation of crops, for that purpose making elaborate 
tables covering five-year periods. He overlooked no detail in 
carrying on his farm according to the practice of those days, 
producing on the premises most of the things needed there, even 
to shoes and textiles. He began the daily round of his fields 
at sunrise, and often removed his coat and helped his men in 
the work of the day. 

He also showed his business ability by the skillful way in 
which he managed the considerable estates left to his two step- 
children by their father. So successfully was this done that John 
Parke Custis became, at the age of 21, the richest young man 
in the Old Dominion. Prussing tells us that Martha Custis was 
advised to get the ablest man in the colony to manage her estate 
and to pay him any salary within reason. And he adds: "That 
she chose wisely in marrying the young colonel, and got the best 
of a good bargain, is the opinion of many." 

He was engaged in many business enterprises. That of the 
Dismal Swamp, comprising drainage and lumber operations 
south of Norfolk, was handled efficiently by Washington for five 
years subsequent to 1763. In addition to his landholdings, 
wisely chosen, the rise in value of which accounted in no small 
degree for his fortune, Washington participated in a number of 
real estate and transportation companies. As a private citizen 
he was constantly on the outlook for sound investments and for 
ways to increase his capital. In the purchase of frontier lands 
and in the promotion of plans for the building up and develop- 
ment of new parts of the country he was performing important 
public service. 

Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, distinguished historian and a mem- 
ber of our commission, says: 

Washington has been criticized for buying up land war- 
rants and holding on to his title in the face of squatters. 
Actually no American has ever done so much to open up 
vast tracts of land, first under the British, and then under 
the American flag, fitted to become the home of millions 
of American farmers. 



After 13 years of effort Washington forced the British gov- 
ernment to give to the Virginia veterans of the French and 
Indian wars the 200,000 acres of western lands promised by the 
governor of that colony. His management and distribution of 
these bounties were carried out in an eminently efficient and 
satisfactory manner. He acquired two large farms in Maryland. 
During a trip in New York State in 1783 he saw the possibilities 
of a waterway from the sea to the Great Lakes by way of the 
Hudson River and the Mohawk Valley — the present route of a 
great barge canal. Because of his business vision he joined with 
General Clinton in the purchase of 6,000 acres near Utica. 

To Washington, the man of affairs, we owe our national 
banks, for had he followed the advice of other leaders, great but 
less enlightened on matters of finance, the plans of Alexander 
Hamilton would not have been realized. As a result of the 
war the country was deeply in debt and had no credit, but the 
solution of our financial difficulties suggested by the first Secre- 
tary of the Treasury was opposed by those from rural com- 
munities. They argued that the large commercial cities would 
dominate to the detriment of other parts of the country. Both 
Jefferson, Secretary of State, and Randolph, Attorney General, 
in writing opposed the incorporation by Congress of a national 
bank. They were joined by Madison and Monroe. All argued 
against the constitutionality of this proposition. Hamilton an- 
swered their arguments fully in his famous opinion. But had 
the President not been a man of affairs, had he not been for 
many years a holder of stock in the Bank of England, com- 
ing from the estate of Daniel Parke Custis, he might have 
yielded to the opposition. Because he knew something about 
bank accounts and bank credits the bill was signed and the 
foundation of our financial system laid. 

Washington was also a stockholder in the Bank of Alexandria 
and in the Bank of Columbia at Georgetown. In his last will 
and testament he directed that such moneys as should be de- 
rived from the sale of his estate during the lifetime of Mrs. 
Washington should be invested for her in good bank stocks. 

After his retirement from the Presidency in March, 1797, 
Washington spent more than two and a half happy years at 
Mount Vernon. In his last summer he made a will, one of the 
most remarkable documents of its kind of which we have record. 
Again he showed his versatility in disposing of his many prop- 
erties under a variety of bequests and conditions without legal 
advice. It has been called an autobiographic will — it shows in 
its manifold provisions his charitable thoughtfulness for his de- 
pendents and his solicitude for the future welfare of his country. 

As President he was always an exponent of sound and honest 
public finance. He advocated the payment of our debts in full 
to holders of record, and the assumption by the Nation of the 
debts incurred by the various States to carry on the Revolution. 
His support of financial integrity, because it was morally right, 
strengthened the Union. 

This practical business ability and interest in broad and gen- 
eral affairs made him one of the first to realize that the future 
of the American empire lay in the regions beyond the Alle- 
ghenies, in the territory of the Ohio and the Mississippi. Be- 
cause of this belief, he is said to have been the moving spirit 
in the first plans for the organization of our public lands. His 
association with the West may have started in the period 1749- 
1751, when he assisted his brother, Lawrence, in his various busi- 



12 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



ness enterprises, among them the Ohio Co., which had a grant 
of 500,000 acres of land on the east side of the Ohio River. The 
French having begun to build forts in the upper Ohio Valley and 
to exclude the English traders, Washington, at the age of 21, 
was sent by the Governor of Virginia to bear a remonstrance. 
The comprehensive report of this young man was considered of 
enough importance to be printed in London and circulated 
widely in Europe, by way of justifying Great Britain in making 
war upon France. In 1763 he organized the Mississippi Co. to 
take the place of the Ohio Co., which was one of the casualties 
of the war. He applied for a grant of 1,000,000 acres of land, 
though he did not receive it. But he made his own investments, 
so that in the schedule of his property attached to his will we 
find western lands appraised at over $400,000 — along the Ohio, 
the Great Kanawha, in western Pennsylvania, in Kentucky, and 
in the Northwest Territory. 

Having a vision of what the West meant in the future pros- 
perity of the new Republic, Washington in 1784 journeyed out 
into the wilds. His diary of the trip is filled with interest and 
enthusiasm over the possibilities of that region. Hulbert, who 
has made a study of it, calls him our first expansionist, the origi- 
nator of the idea of possessing the West through commercial 
relations. 

It was a pioneer idea, instinct with genius, 
this author writes, 

and Washington's advocacy of it marks him as the first 
commercial American, the first man typical of the America 
that was to be. 

Due to his investments, he became the president of the James 
River Co. and of the Potomac River Co., organized in 178 5 to 
look into the possibility of opening navigation through to the 
West. To the Potomac Co., which involved the first interstate 
commerce negotiations in this country, he devoted four years 
of service. It has been thought that these negotiations entered 
into by Washington led up almost directly to the calling of the 
Constitutional Convention. They revealed clearly the difficulty 
under the Articles of Confederation of accomplishing anything 
involving the welfare of all the States, and showed the need of a 
more strongly centralized national government. His ability as 
a business man was the strong support of his statesmanship. It 
made his political ideas intensely practical. 

Washington's Atlantic-Mississippi waterway plan was never 
carried out. But his advocacy of it without doubt had much 
to do with preventing a break in the Union which threatened 
serious consequences. The people who lived in the upper Ohio 
Valley, shut off from the east by mountains, had no outlet to 
the sea other than the Mississippi, and Spain, controlling the 
mouth of this river, levied heavy tribute on all commerce pass- 
ing through it. The settlers, in what is now eastern Tennessee, 
established a separate State and started negotiations for an asso- 
ciation with Spain; but this action was rescinded with the devel- 
opment of economic unionism after Washington put forth his 
waterway plan. 

That he should have been responsible in large measure for the 
opening of the West and for calling attention to the commercial 
advantages the country might derive therefrom is by no means 
the least of his benefactions to the Nation. He demonstrated 
that those who develop our resources, whether along agricultural, 



commercial, and industrial lines or in any other field of en- 
deavor, are entitled to the approval, rather than the censure, of 
their countrymen. 

Washington was a builder — a creator. He had a national 
mind. He was constantly warning his countrymen of the dan- 
ger of settling problems in accordance with sectional interests. 
His ideas in regard to the opening of our western territory were 
thought out primarily for the benefit of the Nation. It has 
been said that he would have been "the greatest man in America 
had there been no Revolutionary War." 

He was largely instrumental in selecting the site for our Na- 
tional Capital, influenced in no small degree by his vision of the 
commercial possibilities of this locality. It included his plan of 
the waterway to the West, through the Potomac, the Monon- 
gahela, and the Ohio Rivers, which he used to speak of as "the 
channel of commerce to the extensive and valuable trade of a 
rising empire." He, of course, could not foresee the develop- 
ment of railway transportation and the great ocean-going vessels, 
because of which the seat of our Government became separated 
from active contact with commerce and was left to develop 
as the cultural and intellectual center of the Nation. Due to 
the genius of L'Enfant, the great engineer, this city from the 
first has had a magnificent plan of development. Its adoption 
was due in no small degree to the engineering foresight and 
executive ability of Washington. By 1932 we shall have made 
much progress toward perfecting the ideal city planned by him 
in the closing days of the eighteenth century. 

Washington had the ability to translate ideals into the prac- 
tical affairs of life. He was interested in what he believed con- 
tributed to the betterment of everyday existence. Perhaps be- 
cause he realized the deficiency of his own early education, he 
was solicitous to provide liberal facilities for the youth of the 
future. Because as a man of affairs he knew the everyday uses 
of learning, in an early message to the Congress and in his will 
he sought methods for the establishment of a national university. 
Even in his Farewell Address we find this exhortation: 

Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, in- 
stitutions for the general diffusion of knowledge. In pro- 
portion as the structure of a government gives force to 
public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should 
be enlightened. 

He desired his system of education to be thoroughly American 
and thoroughly national. It was to support the people in a 
knowledge of their rights, in the creation of a republican spirit, 
and in the maintenance of the Union. 

It was with the same clear vision that he looked upon religion. 
For him there was little in it of emotionalism. He placed it on 
a firmer, more secure foundation, and stated the benefits which 
would accrue to his country as the results of faith in spiritual 
things. He recognized that religion was the main support of 
free institutions. In his Farewell Address he said: 

Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political 
prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. 
In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who 
should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happi- 
ness — these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. 
The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to 
respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace 
all their connections with private and public felicity. Let 
it simply be asked, Where is the security for property, for 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



13 



reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert 
the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in 
courts of justice? And let us with caution indulge the sup- 
position that morality can be maintained without religion. 
Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined 
education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and ex- 
perience both forbid us to expect that national morality can 
prevail in exclusion of religious principle. It is substan- 
tially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of 
popular government. The rule indeed extends with more or 
less force to every species of free government. Who that is 
a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon at- 
tempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? 

Without bigotry, without intolerance, he appeals to the high- 
est spiritual nature of mankind. His genius has filled the earth. 
He has been recognized abroad as "the greatest man of our own 
or any age." He loved his fellow men. He loved his country. 
That he intrusted their keeping to a Divine Providence is re- 
vealed in the following prayer which he made in 1794: 

Let us unite in imploring the Supreme Ruler of Nations 
to spread His holy protection over these United States; to 
turn the machinations of the wicked to the confirming 
of our Constitution; to enable us at all times to root our 
internal sedition and put invasion to flight; to perpetuate 
to our country that prosperity which His goodness has 
already conferred; and to verify the anticipations of this 
Government being a safeguard to human rights. 

He was an idealist in the sense that he had a very high stand- 
ard of private and public honor. He was a prophet to the extent 
of being able to forecast with remarkable vision the growth of 
the Nation he founded and the changing conditions which it 
would meet. But essentially he was a very practical man. He 
analyzed the problems before him with a clear intellect. Hav- 
ing a thorough understanding, he attacked them with courage 
and energy, with patience and persistence. He brought things 
to pass. When Patrick Henry was asked in 1774 whom he 
thought was the greatest man in the Continental Congress he 
replied: 

If you speak of eloquence, Mr. Rutledge, of South Caro- 
lina, is by far the greatest orator; but if you speak of solid 
information and sound judgment Colonel Washington is 
unquestionably the greatest man on that floor. 

His accomplishments were great because of an efficiency which 
marked his every act and a sublime, compelling faith in the ulti- 
mate triumph of the right. As we study his daily life, as we 
read his letters, his diaries, his state papers, we come to realize 
more and more his wisdom, his energy, and his efficiency. He 
had the moral efficiency of an abiding religious faith, emphasiz- 
ing the importance of the spiritual side of man; the social ef- 
ficiency shown by his interest in his fellow men, and in his 
realization of the inherent strength of a people united by a sense 
of equality and freedom; the business efficiency of a man of 
affairs, of the owner and manager of large properties; the gov- 
ernmental efficiency of the head of a new Nation, who, taking 
an untried political system, made it operate successfully, of a 
leader able to adapt the relations of the Government to the peo- 
ple. He understood how to translate political theory into a 
workable scheme of government. He knew that we can ac- 
complish no permanent good by going to extremes. The law 
of reason must always be applied. He followed Milton, who 
declared — 



. . . law in a free nation hath ever been public reason, 
and he agreed with Burke that — 

men have no right to what is not reasonable. 

It is a mark of a great man that he surrounds himself by great 
men. Washington placed in the most important positions in his 
Cabinet Jefferson with his advocacy of the utmost degree of 
local self-government and of State rights, and Hamilton whose 
theories of a strong national government led him to advocate the 
appointment of State governors by the President. Either theory 
carried to the extreme soon would have brought disaster to what 
has proved the most successful experiment in liberty under proper 
governmental restraint in the history of the world. 

It is due to his memory that we guard the sovereign rights of 
the individual States under our Constitution with the same solici- 
tude that we maintain the authority of the Federal Government 
in all matters vital to our continued national existence. 

Such is the background of a man performing the ordinary 
duties of life. As it was George Washington, of course he per- 
formed them extraordinarily well. The principles which he 
adopted in his early youth and maintained throughout his years 
are the source of all true greatness. Unless we understand this 
side of him we shall fail in our comprehension of this true char- 
acter. It was because of this training that he was able to 
assume the leadership of an almost impossible cause, carry it on 
through a long period of discouragement and defeat, and bring 
it to a successful conclusion. In advance of all others, he saw 
that war was coming. With an Army that was never large 
and constantly shifting, poorly supported by a confederation in- 
experienced, inefficient, and lacking in almost all the essential ele- 
ments of a government, he was victorious over the armies of 
seasoned troops commanded by Howe, Burgoyne, Clinton, and 
Cornwallis, supported by one of the most stable and solid of 
governments, possessed of enormous revenues and ample credit, 
representing the first military power of the world. 

As an example of generalship, extending over a series of years 
from the siege of Boston to the fall of Yorktown, the Commander 
in Chief of the Continental Armies holds a position that is un- 
rivaled in the history of warfare. He never wavered, he never 
faltered from the day he modestly undertook the tremendous 
task of leading a revolution to the day when with equal modesty 
he surrendered his commissions to the representatives of the in- 
dependent Colonies. He triumphed over a people in the height 
of their glory who had acknowledged no victor for 700 years. 

Washington has come to personify the American Republic. He 
presided over the convention that framed our Constitution. The 
weight of his great name was the deciding factor in securing its 
adoption by the States. These results could never have been 
secured had it not been recognized that he would be the first 
President. When we realize what it meant to take 13 distracted 
Colonies, impoverished, envious, and hostile, and weld them into 
an orderly federation under the authority of a central govern- 
ment, we can form some estimate of the influence of this great 
man. But when we go further and remember that the Govern- 
ment which he did so much to bring into being not only did 
not falter when he retired from its administration, but, with- 
standing every assault, has constantly grown stronger with the 
passage of time and been found adequate to meet the needs of 



14 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



nearly 120,000,000 people occupying half a continent and con- 
stituting the greatest power the world has ever known, we can 
judge something of the breadth and soundness of his statesman- 
ship. 

We have seen many soldiers who have left behind them little 
but the memory of their conflicts; but among all the victors the 
power to establish among a great people a form of self-govern- 
ment, which the test of experience has shown will endure, was 
bestowed upon Washington and Washington alone. Many others 
have been able to destroy. He was able to construct. That he 
had around him many great minds does not detract from his 
glory. His was the directing spirit without which there would 
have been no independence, no Union, no Constitution, and no 
Republic. His ways were the ways of truth. He built for 
eternity. His influence grows. His stature increases with the 
increasing years. In wisdom of action, in purity of character, he 
stands alone. We can not yet estimate him. We can only indi- 
cate our reverence for him and thank the Divine Providence which 
sent his to serve and inspire his fellow men. 

The offices of the Commission remained in the 
National Capitol until April 2, 1930, when they 
were moved to the Washington Building, where 
they remained until January 1, 193 3, when they 
were moved to the Walker- Johnson Building, 1734 
New York Avenue. Since November, 1933, the 
offices have been located at the House Office 
Building. 

The Definitive Writings 

Several important memorial projects enlisted the 
early attention of the Commission, and it is inter- 
esting to note that each of these projects was car- 
ried through to a successful conclusion. 

In contemplating the form in which the Com- 
mission might function it was decided as one of the 
very first projects, to compile and publish the so- 
called "Definitive Writings of George Washing- 
ton." This important undertaking was inaugurated 
under a special act of Congress, providing that the 
Definitive Writings should be published in approxi- 
mately 25 volume sets, and sold by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents of the United States Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. 

In the selection of an editor for this monu- 
mental work the choice fell naturally upon Dr. 
John C. Fitzpatrick, formerly of the Manuscripts 
Division, Library of Congress, and editor of the 
Mount Vernon edition of George Washington's 
Diaries. Dr. Fitzpatrick is a scholar of the highest 
attainments and is generally recognized as the best 
authority on the life of George Washington and his 
times. Dr. Fitzpatrick entered into his work with 



great diligence and by July 1, 1933, had completed 
the first twelve volumes and made substantial 
progress on several others. 

This series of Definitive Writings contains all the 
available important and interesting documents 
written by George Washington with the exception 
of his Diaries already published. Dr. Fitzpatrick 
has found many hitherto unpublished manuscripts 
and has delved more carefully into the original 
sources than any historian of modern times. There 
have been several important compilations of Wash- 
ington's Writings, but until Dr. Fitzpatrick began 
his work, there was no edition that assumed to be 
complete. 

Mount Vernon Memorial Highway 

The suggestion that a Memorial Highway, to 
connect Mount Vernon in the State of Virginia, 
with the Arlington Memorial Bridge across the 
Potomac River at Washington, be constructed, 
originated with and received strong support among 
the members of the Commission, and a preliminary 
map showing the topography of the land lying 
between the City of Washington and Mount Ver- 
non, and the lines of several proposed routes for the 
Mount Vernon Highway were given attention. 
Out of this study there was introduced an act to 
authorize the construction and maintenance of a 
Memorial Highway at its present location to con- 
nect Mount Vernon in the State of Virginia with 
the Arlington Memorial Bridge at Washington. 
It was approved May 31, 1931. This Memorial 
Highway was distinctly a project of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion. 

Construction at Wakefield, Virginia 

Another project of major interest was federal 
cooperation with the Wakefield National Memorial 
Association to construct at Wakefield, Virginia, the 
ancestral estate of the Washington family, a replica 
of the house in which George Washington was 
born. The Commission authorized the appoint- 
ment of a Committee of three persons consisting 
of Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, Honorable Joseph 
W. Byrns, and Honorable C. Bascom Slemp, to 
carry forward this project. The Commission 
finally secured an appropriation of $65,000 for the 
Wakefield enterprise of which $15,000 was used 
to move the monument erected by the United 
States at Wakefield to another site, and $50,000 
was to go to the Wakefield National Memorial 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



L5 



Association to assist in completing the replica of 
the Washington home. 

In this connection, the late Mrs. Josephine W. 
Rust, then President of the Wakefield National 
Memorial Association, appeared before the Com- 
mittee on several occasions and helped materially in 
formulating the general program. The replica 
was built, and dedicated on May 14, 1932. 

George Washington Atlas 

One of the important publications of the Com- 
mission was The George Washington Atlas edited 
by Col. Lawrence Martin, Chief, Division of Maps, 
Library of Congress. This Atlas contains a collec- 
tion of 86 maps on 50 plates, including twenty- 
eight maps made by George Washington, seven 
used and annotated by him, eight made at his direc- 
tion or for his use, or otherwise associated with him, 
and forty-three new maps concerning his activities 
in peace and war and his place in history. This 
Atlas is included in the material published in Vol- 
ume I of the Literature Series of the Commission's 
report, but was issued originally as a separate vol- 
ume and was widely distributed to scholars, stu- 
dents and libraries. It was the first time that an 
attempt had been made to assemble this material 
and distribute it in convenient form. 

Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition 

The suggestion of the George Washington Bi- 
centennial Historical Loan Exhibition in the City 
of Washington was given early and sympathetic 
attention. This project came as a logical develop- 
ment of the study of George Washington and the 
Revolutionary period and was one of the activities 
of the Commission that, from the very nature of 
things, could not be taken to the people in their 
own homes and communities. The Art Exhibit 
which was held in The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C, from March 5 to November 
24, 1932, was given commodious and attractive 
housing through the courtesy of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the above mentioned institution. A dis- 
tinguished George Washington Bicentennial His- 
torical Loan Exhibition Committee was appointed, 
with Mrs. McCook Knox as Chairman. Under the 
direction of this Committee a larger Committee 
was appointed which contained many names of 
officials of our government, representatives of the 
Diplomatic Corps and prominent artists and art 
critics. The exhibition enjoyed the privilege of 



showing some of the greatest pictures of George 
Washington and his contemporaries that exist. 
These pictures were freely loaned by their owners 
and in addition to the pictures themselves, there 
was an exhibit of Washingtonia that added greatly 
to the interest of the public. 

The active management of the Exhibition was 
assumed by the late Mrs. Rose Gouverneur Hoes, 
herself a distinguished art critic and for many years 
closely identified with the cultural life of the 
National Capital. 




His Excellency, the Italian Ambassador, 
Nobile Giacomo de Martino, transmitting 
Lafayette's Sword to the Honorable Sol 
Bloom, Director oi the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission, which was shown at the George 
Washington Bicentennial Historical Loan 
Exhibition at The Corcoran Gallery of 
Art, Washington, D. C. 

Lafayette's Sword 

Perhaps the most important article of the Wash- 
ingtonia display was the sword presented to Gen- 
eral Lafayette by the Continental Congress in the 
year 1779. In a letter from Benjamin Franklin, 
whose grandson made the presentation to Lafay- 



16 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



ette, dated August 24, 1779, he wrote: "The 
Congress sensible of your merit towards the United 
States, but unable adequately to reward it, deter- 
mined to present you with a sword, as a small mark 
of their grateful acknowledgments." 

The sword now belongs to the Count Perrone 
di San Martino, a descendant of General Lafayette 
through his ancestress, the Marquise Anastasie de la 
Tour Maubourg, the eldest daughter of the Gen- 
eral. The sword came from Turin, Italy. It was 
delivered to Director Bloom for the Exhibition by 
His Excellency, the Ambassador of Italy, Nobile 
Giacomo de Martino. During the period of the ex- 
hibition, hundreds of thousands of people, of whom 
a great number were visitors to the City of Wash- 
ington, attended the Exhibition and were privi- 
leged to view this remarkable collection. 

President Hoover's Address, Feb. 22, 1932 

It is customary annually upon February 22 for 
the Government of the United States to give official 
recognition to the significance of the day and to 
hold ceremonies in memory of the First President. 
On February 22, 1932, this observance was espe- 
cially important. The members of both branches 
of the Congress assembled in joint session in the 
Hall of the House of Representatives and were 
there addressed by the President, Herbert Hoover. 
The text of this address is given on pages 47, 48 
and 49 of this volume. At the conclusion of his 
address a great patriotic demonstration took place 
at the East front of the Capitol. 

During the entire period of the Celebration, 
event after event took place in the National Capi- 
tal in honor of George Washington. Space does 
not permit a cataloging of these ceremonies at this 
time, but each one is more fully described in other 
parts of the present report. 

Events in the National Capital 

The Bicentennial period was inaugurated in the 
National Capital with a great Bicentennial Ball 
which took place the night of February 22, 1932. 
This brilliant occasion was the outstanding social 
event of the season and was attended by high gov- 
ernment officials, representatives of the Diplomatic 
Corps and the social leaders of Washington and 
many other cities. The guests were in colonial cos- 
tume, and this gave a most picturesque and dazzling 
aspect to the Ball. 

Another event which created wide interest in 



the City of Washington was the presentation of 
"Wakefield," a pageant masque, by Percy Mac- 
Kaye, which was produced under the auspices of 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission in Constitution Hall, Washington, 
D. C, February 21, 25 and 26. This presentation 
also was a distinct social as well as artistic success. 
The Commission participated on September 17, 
1932, with the Grand Lodge of the District of 
Columbia, A. F. & A. M., in a great procession 
and pageant commemorating the laying of the 
cornerstone of the National Capitol in 1793 by 
George Washington. Masons of adjacent cities also 
took part in the auspicious ceremony. This spec- 
tacle was witnessed by hundreds of thousands of 
people, and carried through in Colonial costumes, 
a reproduction of the original ceremony. 

Cooperation of Departments 

The Federal Government, through various de- 
partmental agencies, contributed interesting and 
important activities in connection with the Cele- 
bration. A more extended account is given else- 
where of the issue of twelve Bicentennial Memorial 
postage stamps, the striking of special George 
Washington Bicentennial Commemorative medals, 
and the issuing of a Memorial quarter-dollar. All 
of these projects were of the greatest significance 
in impressing the public with the Government's 
interest in the Celebration, and they were of the 
highest artistic quality. In many other ways were 
governmental departments most helpful. Special 
mention should be made of the cooperation of the 
State Department in the work of organizing and 
promoting foreign participation in the Celebration, 
by enlisting the interest of other countries and in 
stimulating activity among our own diplomatic 
missions abroad. More extended acknowledgment 
of this distinguished service is given in the preface 
of the volume entitled, "Foreign Participation in 
the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration," 
which is part of the Commission's report. 

Without the whole-hearted cooperation of the 
Library of Congress this Commission would have 
been unable to have furnished to the public the 
complete and authentic material which it pub- 
lished. Every member of the Congressional Li- 
brary staff who could be of any assistance gave his 
help most generously and the Commission wishes 
to record its acknowledgment of that splendid 
service. The Post Office Department also, as well 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



17 



as the Department of Agriculture, the Army and 
the Navy, and, in fact, every department of the 
Government gave splendid cooperation. The 
Army and the Navy were especially helpful in 
furnishing the generous use of the service bands, 
which included the Army Band, under the direc- 
tion of Captain William J. Stannard, the Navy 
Band, under the direction of Lieut. Charles Benter, 
and the Marine Band. The latter organization, 
under the leadership of Captain Taylor Branson, 
was unusually generous at all times. 

Cooperation With District Commission 

The United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission cooperated intensively in state 
and local projects everywhere, but because of its 
more intimate relations with the National Capital, 
the United States Commission worked in close 
association with the District of Columbia George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. A list of 
the projects sponsored by the two Commissions 
appears elsewhere, but it must be recorded that 
the utmost harmony prevailed between these Com- 
missions and they were mutually helpful in bring- 
ing to the National Capital a series of events which 
did credit to the city and its people. In many of 
the meetings of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission, as well as meet- 
ings of sub-committees, there appeared, by 
invitation, Dr. Cloyd Heck Marvin, President of 
George Washington University, Chairman; Dr. 
George C. Havenner, Executive Secretary, and 
other officials of the District of Columbia Bicen- 
tennial Commission. In this way, there was 
perfect coordination of effort with most satisfac- 
tory results. 

Broadcasting 

No cooperation of any agency before or during 
the Bicentennial period was more helpful than that 
which was rendered by the broadcasting chains. 
The Commission is under great obligation to both 
the National Broadcasting Company and the 
Columbia Broadcasting System for their almost 
continuous service in bringing the various phases 
of the Bicentennial Celebration to the attention of 
the public. Both of these systems, time and again, 
went to considerable trouble and expense to broad- 
cast from various shrines, and also both were gen- 
erous in the use of their broadcasting stations in 
the City of Washington. The managers of these 
two stations, Mr. K. H. Berkeley, of the National 



Broadcasting Company, and Mr. H. C. Butcher, 
manager of the Columbia Broadcasting System, 
were at all times most helpful and assisted in many 
ways in building programs and securing time 
which was placed at the disposal of the Director 
of the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission. The Commission is also in- 
debted to Mr. LeRoy Mark, President of the Amer- 
ican Broadcasting Company, for the cooperation of 
Station WOL in Washington. To all of the scores of 
stations cooperating with these agencies the Com- 
mission extends its thanks. There were many other 
stations outside of the great chains that also ex- 
hibited the finest cooperative spirit in arranging 
local broadcasts. 

Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of 
the Union 

It is a distinct pleasure to acknowledge the 
courtesy at all times shown the Commission by 
the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the 
Union. This Association is the owner and cus- 
todian of the historic home of George Washington, 
situated on the Potomac River, approximately 
fifteen miles south of the City of Washington. Its 
Superintendent, Colonel Harrison H. Dodge, was 
at all times closely identified with the activities of 
the Commission, serving on important committees 
and manifesting the deepest interest in the develop- 
ment of the Commission's plans. Colonel Dodge 
was the host, on a number of occasions, to rep- 
resentatives of the United States Commission, and 
arranged to permit the taking of motion and other 
pictures upon the Mount Vernon estate. He gave 
valuable assistance in all of these events. 

The Commission is under special obligation to 
the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the 
Union for permitting the photographing of the 
Houdon Bust of George Washington, which was 
made from life by the noted French sculptor of 
the eighteenth century, Jean Antoine Houdon, and 
which has remained in the Mount Vernon mansion 
from George Washington's time until the present. 
This bust furnished the official portrait of George 
Washington which had wide distribution in the 
publications of the Commission, and also in poster 
form throughout our own country and the world. 

Wakefield Memorial Association 

Similar acknowledgment is made to the authori- 
ties of the Wakefield National Memorial Associa- 
tion which, under the inspiring direction of the 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



beloved and lamented Josephine W. Rust, its 
founder and president, accomplished such remark- 
able work in purchasing and preserving the original 
George Washington estate at Wakefield, Westmore- 
land County, Virginia, and in building a replica 
of the house in which George Washington was 
born. This project was one of the most important 
of all those connected with the Celebration of the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington and is now, through the gen- 
erosity of the Wakefield National Memorial Asso- 
ciation, owned and cared for by the Federal 
Government. 

Fredericksburg, Virginia 

The United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission wishes to express its deep sense 
of appreciation to the City of Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, for the many courtesies extended to its 
Commissioners, the Director, and various members 
of the staff during the Bicentennial period. To 
the people and various patriotic organizations of 
this historic city, the Commission extends its sin- 
cere thanks for the many forms of cooperation 
which were extended. Few cities in America are so 
distinguished historically as this beautiful city of 
Fredericksburg, near which George Washington 
spent years of his youth and where his mother lived 
until her death. Here also is Kenmore, maintained 
by the Kenmore Association. It was the home of 
Betty Washington Fielding Lewis, the sister of 



George Washington, and it has been preserved by 
the unremitting efforts of this Association, organ- 
ized and actively directed by Mrs. Vivian Minor 
Fleming, and her daughter, Mrs. H. H. Smith. At 
Fredericksburg also are a number of other historic 
memorials, including the grave of Mary Ball Wash- 
ington, the Rising Sun Tavern, Hugh Mercer's 
Apothecary Shop, the law offices of James Monroe 
and other mementoes of that great period in 
colonial Virginia which so importantly affected the 
destinies of our country. 

Alexandria, Virginia 

Elsewhere in these pages are found descriptions 
of the highlights of the Bicentennial Celebration in 
the historic city of Alexandria, Virginia, on the 
Potomac River. The Bicentennial Commission is 
greatly indebted to the officials, patriotic and civic 
organizations and the citizens of Alexandria for 
their whole-hearted support in the Bicentennial 
Celebration. 

Washington's "Home Town," as Alexandria is 
called, is rich in its association with the First Presi- 
dent. The citizens of Alexandria of today showed 
the same love for George Washington as did their 
ancestors, his neighbors and friends. 

To Wm. Buckner McGroarty, President of the 
Washington Society of Alexandria, and to Charles 
H. Callahan, First Vice President of the Society, 
the Bicentennial Commission is especially indebted 
for their loyal cooperation. 



Organizing Departments 



General 

The organization and direction of this greatest 
celebration ever held in honor of a patriot, required 
the services of the best talent available. The Di- 
rector was fortunate in being able to draw about 
him not only men and women of devoted loyalty, 
but those who were specialists in the various phases 
of the common enterprise. It was fortunate, also, 
that the Director was able to exclude partisan poli- 
tics from the organization, or any consideration 
of creed, color or special personal interests. 

Until plans were crystallized it was difficult to 
determine the localization of the personnel, but in 
almost an incredibly short time the organization 
was working smoothly. When it is remembered 
that a truly tremendous work was accomplished, 
the staff was comparatively small. It was built up 
as the demands for service increased and the staff 
was reduced as rapidly as the pressure relaxed. At 
the peak of the organization's activities the incom- 
ing mail amounted to nearly ten thousand letters 
a day, necessitating for several months a 24-hour- 
day service in mail distribution to the various de- 
partments and the filling of requests for the 
Commission's printed material. 

Organization Personnel 

At the height of the Commission's activities in 
the early part of 1932, the Commission employed 
a total of 175 people, but as the end of the Cele- 
bration approached this staff was reduced more 
than one-half, and continued to be reduced until 
only those necessary to the preparation and com- 
pilation of the final reports were employed. It is 
considered fitting here to make permanent record 
of the employees of the Commission. They are 
listed by departments, as follows: 

The Director, Honorable Sol Bloom 
Assistant to the Director, Edgar P. Allen 

Office of the Director 
Ethel C. Schulman, Secretary 
Margaret Froyd John H. Tanner 

Caroline Tompkins Lloyd Washington 

H. M. Ammerman 

History Department, Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Historian 

David M. Matteson, Assistant 

Mary B. Stack, Secretary 

Editor, Definitive Writings, Dr. John C. Fitzpatrick 
Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Assistant 
Katherine H. Clagett, Secretary 



Genealogical Division, Anne Madison Washington 

States, Cities and Towns Department, John M. Gibbs, Chief 
Major Homer E. Carrico, Assistant 



Richard H. Bailey 
Laura May Daugherty 
Kyle P. Edwards 
Willis B. Taylor 
J. T. Brown 
Harry Caulson 
Martin R. Powell 
Charles L. Skinner 
Sue Armentrout 
Alice Agnew 
Lucy E. Buchan 
Vera L. Connell 
Alice Frank 
Teresa Hasson 
Ruth Hollingsworth 



Erma C. Horsley 
Ida Underwood 
Naomi A. Jackson 
Reubie S. Marshall 
Florence A. Moloney 
L. C. Murphy 
Luther C. Morton 
Lois Power 
Lee Spruce 
Louise Sharitz 
Susie Vaughan 
Annie Shelor Wright 
Mary Youngblood 
Lillian C. Scott 
Olive Tongier 



Women's Department, Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman, Chief 

Mary K. Banks, Secretary 
Edna M. Coleman Edith O'Connor 

Bertha Taylor Voorhorst Cecil E. McQuigg 

Cecil Rose Chittenden Justina de Francisco 

Education Department, Hazel B. Nielson, Chief 
Lottie Nichols, Assistant 



Frances Cramer 
Kathleen Copp 
Margaret Ely 
Katherine Ely 
Eleanor Anderson 
Catherine Bray 
Ethel R. Bastedo 



Frank M. Cole 
Edward Croft, Jr. 
Lydia David 
Helen Fox 
Martha S. Watson 
Eva Reynolds 



Publicity Department, Edgar P. Allen, Chief 
M. E. Gilfond, Assistant 



James Hay, Jr. 
H. O. Bishop 
Col. Frank P. Morgan 
Burton Kline 
Harry Gusack 
Col. H. S. Kimberly 
Emma P. Lincoln 
L. L. Johnson 
William M. Stuart 
Margaret A. Fair 
Tefft Johnson 
William T. Saffell 
Mary Turner 
Matilda Frantz 



Lillian Clements 

Ruth Thompson 

Peggy Griffith 

Lois Wilson 

John W. Williams 

Clyde Smith 

Alice J. Farnsworth 

Florence Kay 

Ruth Harrison 

Virginia Gay 

Lila L. Metcalf 

Bessie Waugh 

Florence K. Buschmann 

Elmira D. Williams 



Special Activities and Foreign Participation Department, 
Donald A. Craig, Chief 
Arietta P. Ahrens, Assistant 
Walter D. Davidge Elizabeth Frazer 

Frank P. Wilson Rae Gosin 

Alonzo B. Cornell Gladys Shepard 

Loan Exhibit, Rose Gouverneur Hoes, Manager 
Esther O'Rourke Eloise C. Nicholls 

Josephine Friedman 

Plays and Pageants Department, Percy J. Burrell, Chief 
James K. Knudson, Assistant 
Percy MacKaye Edna Hoisington 

Maj. R. B. Lawrence Virginia Lawrence 

Dr. Ethel C. Randall Kathryn A. Collins 

Caroline E. Campbell Frances A. Hall 



19 



20 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Music Department, John Tasker Howard, Chief 
Eleanor S. Bowen, Assistant 
R. A. H. Clark Jessie Gibbs Perkins 

Publications, Edwin L. Fuegel, Chief 
Patrick J. Taft 

Administrative Assistant, Floyd Williams 
Raymond Gerber Paula M. Jenkins 

George R. Darche Roy C. Hoffman 

Jennibel Dean Rufus M. Roll 

Rhodes Eakle Ruth V. Lynn 

Edward Florer 

Auditor, Jennie K. Hunt 
Elizabeth McBirney Janet M. Painter 

Children's Department, Edna M. Dubois, Chief 
Belva Cuzzort, Assistant 
Hervey E. Dameron Toussant Dubois 

Use Smith 

Braille Department, Dorothea E. Jennings 
Mary Burke 

Library, Florence B. Phillips 
John I. Reynolds 

Special Research 
Verda W. Woods Henrietta Wirt 



Mailing Room, 
Alexander 
Harold J. Meyers 
Paul Wall 
Floyd Rains 
Perry G. Smith 
Ed. Almon Williams 
John McPeake 
E. J. Baker 
Doris Hudson 
Anna Wheatley 
Louise Johnson 
Elizabeth Kaufman 
Lois Criswell 
Ben Stembridge 
Mark Tolley 
Vincent Toomey 
Daniel J. Anderson 
Mattie Bolac 
Lawrence K. Bailey 
Edward B. Brewer 
John Burke 
Elizabeth Salisbury 
James O. Sutton 
Charles Labofish 
E. W. Brushmiller 
George G. Brehens 
Don C. Candland 
Henry C. Carter 
James Cecil 
Charles J. Dienelt 
John F. Edmundson 
Mack Emerson 
Charles H. Faust 
Joseph Feys 
Leo B. Fee 
Eliza Hill Grimes 
J. Marcus George 
Carl Gilman 
Robert LI. Hyde 
John R. I larvey 



Gideon C. Payne, Chief 

R. Smith, Assistant 
Gene Holcomb 
Calvin H. Iffert 
Vance A. Jovick 
Warren C. King 
James C. King 
Margaret K. Lord 
Olin I. Lewis 
O. D. Lewis 
Mildred Lippe 
John W. Lytle 
Christine Leader 
Fenella Lambert 
Virgie Martin 
Elizabeth McGehee 
W. Bryon Morrow 
Lucy McCormick 

D. B. Mannheim 
Grace MacDougal 

E. A. McDevitt 
Jefferson McDonald 
Frank Nela 

Louis J. Parkinson 
J. S. Poston 
Markham Payne 
Charles Ritter 
Emma Reeder 
Charles G. Stam 
Harry Shaffer 
Floyd Skladzien 
Anne E. Smith 
Louise Sebastian 
Irene Stoner Scott 
Alfred A. Schneider 
John L. Seals 
Ellison D. Smith, Jr. 
William C. Taylor 
Mary Helen Taylor 
Edward S. Wranek 
Elizabeth Young 



Helen Stondall 
Mabel Henderson 
Hattie Marinelli 
Lillie F. Boynton 

John Cobb 

Charles E. Dalrymple 



Alice Stondall 
Anna J. Dougherty 
Bernice H. Leonard 



Messengers 

Leo H. Shackelford 
Lacy C. Zaph, Jr. 
Howard Miller 



Advisory Committees 

Of much assistance to the Commission were the 
members of the various Advisory Committees who 
gave their time and attention to several important 
phases of the Celebration. Following were the 
principal committees under this classification: 

Advisory Committee on the George Washington 
Atlas and Maps 

Col. Lawrence Martin, Chief, Division of Maps, Library of 
Congress, Washington, D. C, Chairman. 

Col. R. R. Ralston, Engineer Corps, Washington, D. C. 

Gilbert Grosvenor, President, National Geographic Society, 
Washington, D. C. 

Clarence Brigham, Librarian, American Antiquarian Society, 
Massachusetts. 

Charles O. Paullin, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Edward Matthews, Head of Department of Geology, Johns 
Hopkins University, Maryland, Secretary. 

Dr. John Fitzpatrick, Manuscript Division, Library of Con- 
gress, Washington, D. C. 

Advisory Committee on Selection of the Official 
Portrait 

Dr. Leicester P. Holland, Chief of Division of Fine Arts, 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C, Chairman. 
Dr. Charles Moore, Chairman of Commission of Fine Arts, 

Interior Department, Washington, D. C. 
Dr. John C. Fitzpatrick, Editor, The Definitive Writings of 

George Washington, Library of Congress, Washington, 

D. C. 
Mr. Ezra Winter, 1 5 Vanderbilt Avenue, New York City. 
The late Mr. Gari Melchers, Falmouth, Virginia. 
Col. Harrison H. Dodge, Superintendent of Mount Vernon, 

Mount Vernon, Va. 
Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Historian, United States George 

Washington Bicentennial Commission, Washington, D. C. 

Advisory Committee on the Writings of George 
Washington 

Dr. J. Franklin Jameson, Chief, Manuscript Division, Library 
of Congress, Washington, D. C, Chairman. 

General John McAuley Palmer, U. S. A. 

Dr. J. A. C. Chandler, President, William and Mary College, 
Williamsburg, Virginia. 

Dr. Tyler Dennett, Chief of Publications, Department of 
State, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Charles Moore, Chairman, Fine Arts Commission of the 
District of Columbia. 

Victor H. Paltsits, Chief of Manuscript Division, New York 
Public Library. 

Dr. Randolph G. Adams, Librarian, William L. Clements 
Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

The late George W. Ochs Oakes, Editor, Current History. 

Miss Alice H. Richards, Regent, Mount Vernon Ladies' Asso- 
ciation of the Union, Mount Vernon, Va. 

Prof. Samuel E. Morison, Editor, Harvard Tercentenary His- 
tory, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



21 



Advisory Committee on Medals 

Mr. Robert J. Grant, Director of the Mint, Treasury Depart- 
ment, Washington, D. C, Chairman. 

Dr. Charles Moore, Chairman, Fine Arts Commission of the 
District of Columbia, Interior Department, Washington, 
D. C. 

Mr. James E. Frasier, 328 East Forty-second Street, New 
York City. 

Mr. A. A. Weinman, 2 34 Greenway South, Forest Hills, 
Long Island, New York. 

Mr. Lorado Taft, 6016 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Herbert Adams, Plainfield, New Hampshire. 

Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, Historian, United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, Washington, D. C. 

Achieving the Objectives 

Beginning with certain rather idealistic objec- 
tives, it was a difficult matter to decide upon the 
kind of machinery to set up that would most 
quickly and effectively achieve these objectives. 
Upon this particular problem, the Director con- 
centrated his early attention, with the result that 
the various departmental activities were inaugu- 
rated and made effective in rapid succession. It 
may be recorded here that the Director invited 
suggestions, not only from members of the staff, 
but from any responsible source, as to methods of 
operation. He was happy at all times to consult 
the Commission's employees and to welcome the 
suggestions that they could give him. 

Publicity Department 

The first department actually organized and put 
in operation was the Publicity Department, the 
necessity for which was obvious from the begin- 
ning. It was necessary to reach every possible 
point of contact with all the people, not as a 
matter of exploitation or propaganda, but in order 
that the general public might be early informed 
of the origin, purposes and character of the pro- 
posed celebration. Not until it was thoroughly 
instilled in the public mind that this was a United 
States Government enterprise, and that as such it 
was entirely free from commercial or private inter- 
ests, could the confidence and cooperation of the 
people be secured. 

The functioning of the Publicity Department 
began with the appointment of a man to organize 
and promote this work. The Director appointed to 
this position, Edgar P. Allen, a man of wide exper- 
ience in the field of journalism, who organized the 
Department, and later added to his duties those of 
Assistant to the Director. His services to the Com- 
mission from the beginning were invaluable. The 
publicity of the Celebration was most carefully 



planned. A great deal of the planning and execu- 
tion fell upon the assistant in the Department, M. 
E. Gilfond, whose services were conspicuously suc- 
cessful. Many other members of the Publicity staff 
especially James Hay, Jr., H. O. Bishop, Emma P. 
Lincoln, Harry Gusack, L. Lowell Johnson and 
Burton Kline, merit high praise and the Director 
gladly accords it in full measure. 

It is worthy of note that, although newspapers 
and magazines were provided with great quantities 
of publicity material, they did not resent it. In- 
deed, many of these newspapers wrote requesting 
a complete file of the historical publicity releases 
for their libraries. To supply this demand the 
Commission published one separate volume of these 
releases and incorporated a second volume in its 
final report. While many flattering references 
were made to the Commission's publicity, one ex- 
tract only will be given. The Washington corre- 
spondent of the New York Sun, in writing of the 
work of the Commission, said: 

"A review of the work of the Commission re- 
solves itself into the most amazing publicity or- 
ganization that the Capital has ever seen. The 
principal task of the Commission was straight pub- 
licity. The historical facts concerning every 
Revolutionary battlefield on record were rewritten, 
mimeographed and sent to every newspaper bu- 
reau in the Capital, under warning notice 'Con- 
fidential — future release. Not for publication 
before July 4 (or some other date).' Twenty 
very tired men and women got out the publicity 
for the Commission and set an all time record so 
far as can be learned. This department also had 
charge of magazine publicity, photographic serv- 
ice, radio, motion pictures, and, in fact, all forms 
of publicity contacts." 

Women's Activities 

Reference has been made to the organization of 
the Women's Department of the Commission 
under the direction of Mrs. John Dickinson Sher- 
man. Nothing further need be added at this time 
except to say that Mrs. Sherman, with a small 
staff of assistants, accomplished a really remark- 
able work, details of which are given in the section 
of this volume under the title "Women's Activi- 
ties." Particular reference should be made to Edna 
M. Coleman and Bertha T. Voorhorst, two assist- 
ants in the Department, who gave unstintingly of 



22 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



their time and energy to carry out successfully the 
projects of the Department. 

States, Cities and Towns 

The organization of Bicentennial Committees in 
States, Cities and Towns was, of course, the basic 
element in securing universal public cooperation. 
The Department was placed in charge of John M. 
Gibbs, a man of ripe experience, who handled this 
great branch of the work in a most creditable man- 
ner. In order to accomplish this in full measure, a 
novel plan was employed and carried out which 
was never thought of before and which fitted per- 
fectly into the organization set up. The Director 
saw in the great post office organization an oppor- 
tunity to reach every city, town and hamlet in the 
United States and secure a representative at every 
place where a letter is delivered. As the Commis- 
sion was a Federal body, he placed his idea before 
the Postmaster General, who approved it and offered 
full cooperation. He sent out an official bulletin 
instructing Postmasters to fill out a questionnaire 
which was subsequently mailed to them. The result 
was that a comprehensive questionnaire was sent to 
every Postmaster in the United States — 48,219 of 
them. Of this number, 45,362 filled out the ques- 
tionnaire, and thus, within a period of less than 
three weeks, there was brought to the Commission 
more actual information in regard to leadership in 
American communities than was ever compiled be- 
fore. By this method organization started at the 
grass roots and made every Postmaster actually an 
agent of the Commission. 

The questionnaire, reproduced in the report 
covering States, Cities and Towns, gave the Com- 
mission an immense amount of information about 
every town and community, such as the names of 
the municipal officers, leading citizens, civic, re- 
ligious, fraternal and patriotic organizations, 
churches and their pastors, schools, with principals 
and teachers, libraries, etc. And this information 
was fresh and alive. As these questionnaires came 
to the Commission they were carefully analyzed 
and the information distributed to the various 
heads of departments. Thus names of women's 
clubs, officers and membership, went to the 
Women's Department; information about schools 
went to the Education Department; information 
about fraternal, religious and patriotic groups 
went to clerks in the Department of States, Cities 
and Towns, etc., so that in the various depart- 



ments this information was classified, and an im- 
mediate correspondence was set up with all these 
contacts. Pamphlets and suggestions relating to 
women's organizations and activities, for instance, 
were sent by the Women's Department to the ap- 
propriate names and addresses given in the ques- 
tionnaires. The same plan was carried out all 
through the Commission. Each group was ad- 
dressed and given information about the Celebra- 
tions and suggestions as to how that particular 
group could unite with other groups in forming 
local Bicentennial Committees. Thus was brought 
together, in the communities themselves, represen- 
tatives of all influential groups, and these repre- 
sentatives formed themselves into a Bicentennial 
Committee for that locality. 

The Director and the Commission are greatly 
indebted to the employees of this Department for 
their splendid cooperation. Besides Mr. Gibbs the 
following performed meritorious services for the 
Commission: Major Homer E. Carrico, Laura May 
Dougherty, K. P. Edwards, R. H. Bailey, J. T. 
Brown, W. B. Taylor and Harry Caulson. 

Education Department 

One of the most active departments of the 
Commission for many months before the Celebra- 
tion period and continuing during the Celebration 
itself, was that of Education. To head this de- 
partment the Director procured the services of one 
of the most competent women executives in the 
United States, Miss Hazel B. Nielson, who had 
spent many years in educational work and in active 
contacts with important educational movements 
of a national character. She carried forward the 
work of directing school and educational activities 
in a thoroughly capable way. The summary given 
in the earlier part of this report indicates the 
measure of success which she achieved. Literally, 
there were probably no pupils in the public, paro- 
chial, private schools, or institutions of higher 
learning in the United States, who had not some 
part in the Celebration. From the best authority 
available, that from the office of the United States 
Commissioner of Education, it is estimated that 
about 30,000,000 school children were directly or 
indirectly interested in school programs and exer- 
cises of various kinds and in the nation-wide essay, 
oratorical and declamatory contests which culmi- 
nated in the final oratorical contest in the City of 
Washington at which a gold medal was awarded 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



23 



to the winner by President Hoover. Likewise, the 
winner of the essay contest was presented with a 
gold medal by the President. 

Many thousands of patriotic school programs 
were given in schools situated in every part of the 
United States, and a large portrait of George 
Washington, in color, was presented to every 
school room. 

Miss Nielson was ably assisted by Miss Lottie 
Nichols, Mrs. Frances Cramer and other members 
of the Educational Department. 

Historical Department 

The Historical Department, in charge of Dr. 
Albert Bushnell Hart, one of the most prominent 
of American historians, was primarily devoted to 
the service of all departments of the Commission 
at all times. In this department were prepared 
many of the most important pamphlets and bro- 
chures of the Commission. Dr. Hart was ably 
assisted for many months by David M. Matteson, 
himself an historian of great ability and fine 
achievements, who, upon Dr. Hart's retirement, 
became Historian in charge. A second assistant in 
this department, who was invaluable in her service 
to the Commission, was Mrs. Mary B. Stack, who 
acted as Secretary of the Historical Department, 
assisting also in research and compilation. To this 
department was referred every question of an his- 
torical nature; not a final written or printed word 
went from the Commission in relation to historical 
data, but was first submitted to this department. 
The result of this care is shown in the fact that 
throughout the entire period of preparation and 
observance of the Bicentennial Celebration, the 
material which went out from the Commission was 
amazingly accurate and complete. In addition to 
his other duties, Dr. Hart delivered many lectures 
and addresses, both in this country and abroad, and 
made extensive researches in England relating to the 
European genealogy of the Washington family. 

Executive Secretary 

The Executive Secretary, Honorable William 
Tyler Page, former Clerk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives, preserved almost the entire statistical 
history of the Commission in his official records. 
The section of this report giving the details of the 
Minutes of the Commission, and its various com- 
mittees, is Mr. Page's work, and indicates the vast 
amount of detail which concerned his office during 



the life of the Commission. Mr. Page was also Dis- 
bursing Officer of the Commission and rendered 
invaluable service at all times. 

Special Activities 

An important and interesting series of projects 
listed under the general heading Special Activities 
was conducted by Donald A. Craig, detached from 
the Publicity Department because of his special 
qualifications for organizing this work. He per- 
formed highly commendable service for which the 
Director expresses his gratitude. He was capably 
assisted by Mrs. Arietta P. Ahrens, Mr. Walter D. 
Davidge, Frank P. Wilson and other assistants in 
the Department also rendered valuable service. Un- 
der the head of Special Activities were placed a 
number of subjects not otherwise allocated. In this 
department the most important work that was car- 
ried on was organizing foreign participation. This 
resulted in an amazing development of interest in 
other countries in the George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Celebration in the United States, and the results 
of the work appeared in a special volume of the 
report entitled "Foreign Participation." There is 
also an extensive reference in the present volume 
to celebrations carried on in 81 countries other 
than our own. Under Special Activities also were 
such important projects as Colonial Gardens which 
resulted in a special booklet prepared by a number 
of the most prominent landscape architects in the 
United States. Another project was Department 
Store and Commercial cooperation; the designing 
and issuing of commemorative postage stamps; the 
striking of the Bicentennial Commemorative 
medals; Post Office Day observance; the issuance 
of the Memorial quarter-dollar; contact with for- 
eign language groups; and many other events not 
handled by other departments. 

Administration Department 

The Administrative Office of the Commission 
was in charge of Floyd Williams, and the Auditor's 
office was in charge of Mrs. Jennie K. Hunt, both 
of whom served the Commission almost from the 
beginning and gave highly satisfactory service. 

Pageants and Music 

The Division of Plays and Pageants was headed 
by Percy J. Burrell, for years recognized as one of 
the leading pageant directors in the United States. 
He was ably assisted by James K. Knudson, who be- 



24 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



came Acting Chief of the Division upon Mr. Bur- 
rell's resignation which was caused by ill health. 
Percy MacKaye the well-known dramatist and poet 
wrote Wakefield, a Folk-Masque, especially for the 
Bicentennial Commission. Major R. B. Lawrence 
wrote most of the plays published by the Commis- 
sion and Dr. Ethel C. Randall, as critic of the Divi- 
sion, assisted greatly in its work. 

To head its Music Division, the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission pro- 
cured the services of John Tasker Howard, a leading 
authority on American music and author of note. 
By indefatigable research, Mr. Howard gathered, 
from all parts of the country, the music which the 
Commission published. Eleanor S. Bowen, as assis- 
tant to Mr. Howard, rendered valuable services to 
the Commission. To Dr. Carl Engel, Chief, Music 
Division, Library of Congress, the Commission is 
greatly indebted for his research and assistance. 

Mailing Room 

The Mailing Room was the heart of the organi- 
zation's activities. Not only did it employ the 
greatest number of men and women, but it carried 
the responsibility of sending out to all parts of 
the world, more than 12,000,000 pieces of litera- 
ture. This important department was in charge 
of Gideon C. Payne, assisted by Alexander R. Smith, 
whose general services, in addition to operating the 
Mailing Room, were invaluable to the Commission. 

Publications Division 

The printing and publishing of the Commission 
was conducted by Edwin L. Fuegel. It was a 
really remarkable work which he performed in 
keeping track of the infinite detail of manuscripts, 
proofs, pictures, and arranging the format of the 
publications. He is a highly capable expert in this 
field. 

Genealogical Division 

Miss Anne Madison Washington, in compiling 
the genealogy of the Washington family, gave to 
the world a work that had never been performed 
in any comprehensive degree, and is a notable 
legacy of the Commission's activities. Miss Wash- 
ington was particularly qualified for this task, be- 
ing a great-great-great-grand niece of General 
Washington, and perhaps more familiar with the 
various branches of the Washington family than 
any other member of this distinguished line. 



Library 

The report of the Library, in charge of Mrs. 
Florence Phillips, indicates the extent of the re- 
search work that was done at headquarters. But 
a larger part of the research represented work at 
the Congressional Library and other places. Mrs. 
Phillips' work as Librarian was most satisfactory 
and helpful. 

Braille Service 

The Braille Service for the blind was under the 
direction of Miss Dorothea Jennings, and is the 
subject of a special report. Miss Jennings had 
much experience in this field of work and brought 
to it qualifications of a high order. 

Reports in Full 
More detailed reports of the activities of the 
various Departments and Divisions of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion are found elsewhere in this volume. 

Condensed Statement of Financial Account 
Following is a condensed statement of the 
financial account of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. Details of 
all appropriations and expenditures are given in 
the report of the Executive Secretary and Disburs- 
ing Officer: 

Appropriations 
Act Approved March 4, 1925 ... $10,000.00 

Act Approved April 22, 1926 10,000.00 

Act Approved February 11, 1927 . 14,000.00 

Act Approved May 29, 1928 13,946.00 

Act Approved March 26, 1930 . . . 20,500.00 

Act Approved July 3, 1930 362,075.00 

Act Approved February 23, 1931 338,195.00 

Act Approved March 4, 1931 77,000.00 

Act Approved February 2, 1932 . . 225,000.00 
Act Approved June 30, 1932 200,000.00 



Total Appropriations $1,270,716.00 

Profit to the Gov- 
ernment on Sale 
o f Bicentennial 
Com memorative 
Postage Stamps to 
date, no postal 
service being re- 
quired (Minimum 
Estimate of profit 
given by the Post 
Office Dept.) .... $1,000,000.00 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



25 



Amount paid on the 
Definitive Writ- 
ings to be return- 
ed to the Govern- 
ment when books 
are sold by Super- 
intendent of Doc- 
uments 



71,170.24 



1,071,170.24 



Cost of the Commission less items 
above specified (Maximum Esti- 
mate) $199,545.78 

Items of Expenditure 

The various major items in the consolidated 
statement of account are as follows: 

Salaries for Employees $570,578.74 

Salaries for Temporary Employees 21,876.49 

Stationery and Office Supplies 30,448.25 

Educational supplies 5 3,870.34 

Sundry supplies 2,099.77 

Telephone and telegraph 6,687.66 

Travel expense 29,696.62 

Transportation of things 6,092.21 

Definitive Writings — Printing and 

Binding 71,170.74 

Printing and binding 317,980.42 

Rents, Office 34,386.73 

Other rents 2,594.21 

Special and Miscellaneous 19,076.89 

Equipment, Office 18,751.52 

Equipment, special 2,144.52 

Transferred to Geological Survey — 

Maps and Charts for Atlas 2,900.00 



Total expenditures $1,190,364.11 

Encumbered u n 1 i qui- 

dated $17,914.31 

Unencumbered balance. 62,437.60 



$80,351.91 

Total appropriations . $1,270,716.02 

Total expenditures 1,190,364.11 



Balance (Sept. 1, 1933) ... $80,351.91 

Commission's Preliminary Report 

The following condensed preliminary report of 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission was presented in the United States 



Senate February 21, 1933, by Senator Simeon D. 
Fess, Vice Chairman of the Commission. The 
report was printed as Senate Document No. 188: 

At the last meeting of the executive committee on Janu- 
ary 10, 193 3, the committee authorized the director to 
proceed with the preparation and completion of material 
embracing all phases of the commission's activities prelimi- 
nary to and including the bicentennial year. 

It is estimated that this material will be embraced within 
about 12 large volumes. There will be a Literary Series in 
3 volumes, one of which already is complete; 2 volumes 
covering Foreign Participation, 3 volumes on Activities, 2 
volumes on Music, 1 on the Wakefield Masque, in Braille, 
and such number of other volumes as will accommodate 
State Programs. 

In view, therefore, of this proposed comprehensive com- 
pendium of literature covering every phase of the bicenten- 
nial celebration, which in itself will constitute memorabilia 
of George Washington and a veritable library of Washing- 
tonia to which students may refer in the future, it is 
deemed unnecessary by your committee in this report to do 
more than epitomize certain prominent features divested of 
the details which will be set forth fully in the report of the 
director and the literature referred to. This literature will 
be preserved in the Library of Congress and in the Hall of 
Archives. 

The joint resolution of Congress establishing the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission provided that the com- 
mission shall expire within two years after the expiration of 
the celebration, December 31, 1934. That much time will 
not be necessary in which to close the work of the com- 
mission; but the essential work yet to be done, including 
final rendition of accounts, will be completed it is thought, 
with the aid of a small force, by the end of the present 
year. It is desirable to terminate the commission's activities 
as soon as possible, and they will be terminated expeditiously, 
but not at the sacrifice of orderly procedure. Much is yet 
to be done for the sake of the enduring and constructive 
record of a celebration which was unique in its scope and 
purpose and unparalleled in its extent and duration. Its 
influence for good upon the younger and upon the future 
generations is incalculable, imponderable. It may be said 
in truth and in fact that hereafter the student of the life 
and character of George Washington will find it unnecessary 
to go back of the year 1932 for accurate and authentic 
information. In the publications, in the reproductions, and 
in the data assembled through painstaking research and sub- 
jected to minute scrutiny, care has been exercised by those 
charged by the commission with this important duty to 
exclude all things of an apochryphal nature. 

The executive committee, to which was committed by 
the commission at the outset the duty of formulating a plan 
or plans of celebration, kept constantly in mind that the 
proposed celebration was to be one in which every American 
citizen and every organization should participate and have 
some part, leaving details largely to be arranged and per- 
fected by State commissions acting in conjunction and with 
the approval of the United States commission. Through 
these agencies and throughout the bicentennial year on every 
day in that year all over the world some form of commemo- 
ration was observed. 

The committee has also borne in mind that the celebration 
was not intended to be a material expression to be evidenced 
by an exposition of physical resources and the development 
of the arts and sciences and industries, but was intended to 
be spiritual and educational. 

The concept of the character of such a celebration was 
early expressed by President Emeritus Charles W. Eliot, of 
Harvard University. "The two hundredth anniversary of 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



the birth of George Washington," wrote Doctor Eliot, 
"should be celebrated not only all over this country but 
wherever in Europe there exists a group of persons who 
know the value of his writings and his deeds for the promo- 
tion of liberty and justice among mankind. This celebration, 
however, should be solemn, not gay, and spiritual, not ma- 
terialistic. It should be directed in large measure to the 
rising generation, not to the passing or the past. It should 
appeal to thinking people, not the careless or indifferent. Its 
aim should be to increase the number of Washington's dis- 
ciples and followers in and for the struggles of the future." 
This noble concept, in keeping with Washington's own 
life and character, can be said to have been scrupulously 
adhered to. In the activities, both here and abroad, the 
many thousands of commemorative exercises held daily and 
in divers forms, according to time and place, were on a high 
plane of dignity and reverence, educational in their aim and 
purpose, from which the spectacular and material were ex- 
cluded, and in which spiritual values were stressed. While 
foreign countries as such did not officially participate, it is 
a remarkable fact that in nearly every country in the world 
groups and individuals paid homage to General Washington 
in various ways. Of these foreign activities record has been 
kept and will be preserved in the literature on Foreign 
Participation. 

In our own country particular attention was bestowed 
upon "the rising generation," to which the youth of America 
responded with zeal and enthusiasm; and it can not be gain- 
said that there has been a tremendous increase in the number 
"t \\ ashington's disciples and followers in and for the strug- 
gle of the future. In our judgment, this commemoration has 
accomplished more to mold the thought and opinions and 
character of our youth, America's potential rulers, in the 
fundamentals and ideals of George Washington, both personal 
and political, and to dissipate and offset un-American propa- 
ganda than any one other thing could possibly have done. 
This, too, in the face of two great obstacles; namely, wide- 
spread economic depression and a presidential campaign. 
These disturbing influences served to distract the people and 
to divert their minds; nevertheless, this handicap, great as 
it was, was met and overcome in marked degree and to such 
an extent as to exert a steadying influence upon the minds 
of the American people in the midst of conflicting emotions. 

Prior to the establishment of headquarters early in 193 in 
the Washington Building, in the city of Washington, the 
•executive committee held its meetings in the Capitol Build- 
ing. Its preliminary work consisted chiefly in considering 
the plans and suggestions invited by the organic act. These 
plans varied widely in their purpose and scope; some were 
within the original concept, but the majority of them, if not 
impracticable, would have been too costly in their execution. 

In 1927, on the anniversary of Washington's Birthday, 
President Coolidge, as chairman of the George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, delivered an address to the Ameri- 
can people in the presence of the two Houses of Congress, 
m which he invited their cooperation. This was followed by 
a concurrent resolution of Congress inviting the legislatures 
and the governors of the States, Territories, and insular posses- 
sions to cooperate with the commission in such manner as 
would seem to them most fitting "to the end that the bicen- 
tennial anniversary of the birth of George Washington be 
commemorated in the year 193 2 in such manner that future 
generations of American citizens may live according to the 
example and precepts of his exalted life and character .\nd 
thus perpetuate the American Republic." To this invitation 
there was general, widespread, hearty response not only by 
the States and other geographical units but by municipalities, 
towns, civic, fraternal, patriotic, and religious, and other 
organizations, resulting in the astounding grand total of 
1,555,755 contacts with the commission's headquarters, the 



appointment of 894,224 committees, and the presentation oi 
4,760,345 programs. 

As interest developed and increased with the approach of 
the bicentennial year the need of the services of one or more 
directors become apparent to the executive committee ac- 
tively to organize and execute the plans for the celebration. 
For these responsible and exacting duties the committee, with 
the approval of the commission, selected Col. U. S. Grant, 3d, 
United States Army, and Hon. Sol Bloom, Representative 
in Congress from the State of New York, as associate di- 
rectors, both of whom generously consented to serve. On 
account of his other and many official duties Colonel Grant 
found it necessary to relinquish his work as associate director, 
greatly to the regret of the commission, and thereafter the 
entire work of direction was conducted by Representative 
Bloom. To this task, with its manifold details and responsi- 
bilities, Mr. Bloom applied himself with ardent zeal and 
enthusiasm and with rare executive ability born of ripe 
experience and organizing genius. He devoted three years 
to the work with unfailing fidelity and sacrificial devotion; 
and under his intelligent direction administered the duties of: 
his office in all of its varied ramifications by modern business 
methods and with strict regard for economy. With the 
result that the celebration was a distinct success from the 
viewpoint of its original concept and its influence will be 
perpetual. To Mr. Bloom we extend our gratitude for his 
unselfish and effective labors, and our hearty congratulations. 
In his report to the commission doubtless Mr. Bloom will 
give due need of recognition to those who labored with him, 
and to them also, especially to Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, 
historian; his assistant, Mr. D. M. Matteson; and to Mrs. 
John Dickinson Sherman, a member of the commission, the 
executive committee extends its thanks. 

Under authority of Congress and of the commission, the 
preparation and editing of a complete and definitive edition 
of the Writings of George Washington, including his General 
Orders, never before published, as a congressional memorial, 
is proceeding as rapidly as the delicate nature of the work 
will permit. This duty was committed to Dr. John C. 
Fitzpatrick, editor of the Washington Diaries. This insures 
accuracy and the production of a literary work in about 2 5 
volumes, the value of which to the present and future gen- 
erations can not be estimated. Included will be thousands 
of Washington letters never before published. This will be 
a permanent contribution to the literature of our country 
and a notable memorial to General Washington. Seven 
volumes are complete. The first volume off the press was 
presented to President Hoover, who wrote the foreword. One 
hundred and ninety-six sets have been sold to libraries at 
S50 a set, but no price to the public has yet been fixed and 
will not be until the cost of production is more definitely 
ascertained. It is thought, however, that the price per set 
will approximate $12 J. Volumes S and 9 are in page proof, 
volume 10 in galley proof, and the type for volume 11 is 
being set. The index will be in one volume. 

Of the 1,000 sets of the definitive writings authorized by 
law to be distributed to Members of Congress and other 
officials, 9 50 copies have been allocated to Members of the 
Seventy-first Congress, to new Members of the Seventy-second 
and Seventy-third Congresses, and to officials designated in 
the law, leaving but 50 sets remaining for distribution by 
the commission, in its discretion, and for foreign exchange 
On November 15, 1932. with appropriate ceremonies, in 
which the vice chairman participated, the Mount Vernon 
Highway connecting the city of Washington with the Wash- 
ington Estate at Mount Vernon was dedicated. This mag- 
nificent boulevard, authorized by Congress, was constructed 
by the Bureau of Public Roads, Deparment of Agriculture, 
under the supervision and direction of Mr. Thomas" H. Mac- 
Donald, and is a model in road building and a product of 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



27 



engineering skill. In its construction many physical obstacles 
were overcome. This commission was charged with the 
duty of selecting the route and did select what is known as 
the scenic or river route, 1 5 ' 2 miles in length, which lends 
itself to superior park facilities. The completion of this 
highway is the realization of a dream of those who long 
wished for a connecting link between the home of Wash- 
ington as he built it and the Capital City which bears his 
name. 

To the commission at its meeting last year was submitted 
a report on the status of the Arlington Memorial Bridge, 
showing that the essential parts of the project were prac- 
tically completed, and at that time an inspection of the 
bridge was made by the President, accompanied by members 
of the commission and other officials. From the foot of this 
massive memorial bridge, at Columbia Island, begins the 
Memorial Highway, and thus spanning the historic Potomac, 
so prominently identified with the life of George Washing- 
ton and his concept of better inland transportation facilities 
for the colonists, and standing as a permanent memorial to 
him and as a concrete evidence of the union of North and 
South, this bridge testifies to the reality of an imperishable 
reunion of sections once sundered by the strife of Civil War. 

On May 14, 1932, the Mansion House, so called, was 
dedicated at Wakefield, Westmoreland County, Va., the 
birthplace of George Washington. Another fitting shrine 
was thus rescued from oblivion and a belated national memo- 
rial of major importance made a signal part of the bicen- 
tennial program. 

The Wakefield National Memorial Association, organized 
in 1923, engaged in the work of restoring Washington's 
birthplace, and it is primarily due to the unselfish spirit of 
patriotism and the unremitting and consecrated devotion to 
this task of the late Mrs. Josephine W. Rust, its president, 
that Congress was induced to aid the association to recog- 
nize Wakefield as a national shrine, and to make provision 
therefor by supplementing the voluntary contributions raised 
By Mrs. Rust and the members of the association. In his 
report to the commission on the rehabilitation of the birth- 
place of George Washington, Mr. Horace M. Albright, Di- 
rector of the National Park Service, gave in interesting 
review of its history as revealed by old records, from which 
the following is quoted: 

"The National Park Service of the Department of the 
Interior was authorized by Congress on January 23, 1930, 
to take over, by transfer from the War Department, the 
administration of all Government-owned lands at Wakefield, 
the birthplace of George Washington, the area to be known 
thereafter as the George Washington Birthplace National 
Monument. The service was further authorized to cooperate 
with the Wakefield National Memorial Association in re- 
habilitation work which the latter had been authorized by 
Congress in 1926 to undertake. 

"Before the erection of the mansion house could be under- 
taken it was, of course, necessary to remove the Government 
monument, a shaft of Vermont granite 5 1 feet high, to a 
location at a road intersection about a quarter of a mile 
distant. The present location of this monument adds greatly 
to the road approach to the mansion. The base and pedestal 
of the monument were recut to achieve a classic appearance. 
In addition to this work and the erection of the mansion 
house a building has been constructed on the site of the 
ancient independent kitchen, a deep-well water supply has 
been provided, a sewage-disposal plant installed, and telephone 
and electric power connections made. The development of 
the grounds has been an especially interesting feature of the 
work because of the naturally beautiful location of the old 
Washington homestead. The point of land on which it was 
situated affords a beautiful view of Popes Creek with the 
broader waters of the Potomac in the distance, and innumer- 
able cedars stud the grounds. It was necessary to transplant 



some of these trees, but wherever this was done the work was 
accomplished with great care. Many of them were planted 
on either side of the road leading from the granite shaft to 
the grounds of the mansion house. 

"In the spring of 1930 the association excavated and re- 
built the old family vault at the burial ground and collected 
the remains of all the bodies that were buried outside the 
vault and placed them in the reconstructed vault and sealed 
it. The top of this vault is about 1 foot below the ground 
surface. Five table stones have been erected, and the burial 
ground, an area of 70 feet square, inclosed by a wall of 
handmade brick with iron gates. 

"The association is furnishing the mansion with copies of 
furniture of the period. At present the living room and 
dining rooms are furnished. The furniture for the other 
rooms is under contract and delivery is expected at an early 
date. 

"The Wakefield association is now completing plans for 
a log lodge building to cost $20,000, which will be located 
in the recreational area and dedicated as a memorial to Mrs. 
Josephine W. Rust, founder and late president of the asso- 
ciation. 

"The story of George Washington's birthplace national 
monument is largely the story of the \V r akefield National 
Memorial Association, under the able presidency of the late 
Mrs. Josephine W. Rust, who was untiring in her efforts for 
the preservation of Washington's birthplace. Her death was 
a great loss to the officials of the park service who have been 
actively engaged in the rehabilitation work. 

"In 1929, at the initiation of the association, Mr. John D. 
Rockefeller, Jr., purchased 273.56 acres of the original 
Washington tract lying along the Government road between 
the birth-site area and the Potomac River and Bridges Creek 
at a cost of Si 15,000. This land was transferred to the 
Government December 12, 1930, and by proclamation of the 
President became a part of George Washington's birthplace 
national monument, March 30, 1931. 

"In 1929 the association purchased 30 additional acres of 
land at a cost of $8,000 to consolidate the lands purchased 
by Mr. Rockefeller. 

"On June 22, 1931, the association deeded its lands at 
Wakefield, about 100 acres, to the Government. The present 
area of George Washington birthplace national monument is 
3 84.37 acres." 

The full text of Mr. Albright's report is embodied in the 
minutes of the commission's proceedings of January 16, 1932. 

Upon the invitation of the commission the District of 
Columbia, through its Board of Commissioners, created the 
"District of Columbia Commission George Washington Bi- 
centennial (Inc.)," and Congress appropriated $100,000 
from the District revenues in aid of the local celebration. 

With the president of the District commission. Dr. Cloyd 
Heck Marvin, and with Dr. George C. Havenner, executive 
vice president, the executive committee, through a subcom- 
mittee styled "committee on program," held frequent meet- 
ings, at which plans were formulated for events throughout 
the bicentennial year, and in agreeable arrangement was 
made with respect to such events as were of national and 
local character, respectively. 

The commemorative ceremony in honor of the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of the birth of George Washington was 
officially inaugurated at a joint session of Congress in the 
House of Representatives on February 22, 1932, at 12 o'clock, 
noon, on which occasion the President of the United States, 
Herbert Hoover, delivered the opening address. The con- 
gressional joint committee on arrangements consisted of the 
congressional members of your executive committee, supple- 
mented by the Hon. Clifton A. Woodrum, of Virginia. 

The official ceremony was held under the auspices of the 
United States Commission, and the exercises which followed 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



at the east front of the Capitol Building were arranged and 
conducted by the District of Columbia Commission. At 
night the official Washington's Birthday celebration climaxed 
with a costume ball at the Mayflower Hotel. 

From the birthday anniversary, February 22, until Thanks- 
giving Day, November 24, a succession of events took place 
in the city of Washington, in the forms of military and civic 
parades, pageants, plays, and religious exercises, which were 
locally a reflex of the thousands of similar activities engaged 
in all over the country and in many parts of the world. 
Great credit is due the District of Columbia commission 
for its fine spirit of cooperation and for the successful exe- 
cution of its plans. Every facility and possible assistance was 
rendered to it by Director Bloom and his force, and under 
the direction of your subcommittee. 

The entire net charge upon the Federal Treasury, covering 
the entire life of the commission, is estimated at $208,170.91, 
and this amount may yet be reduced considerably through 
the sale of commemorative postage stamps and the sale of 
sets of the Definitive Writings. 

Congress appropriated for the work of the commission, 
including the cost ($56,000) for preparing the manuscript 
of the Definitive Writings, a total of $1,270,716.02, of which 
$13,946.02 were reappropriations of unexpended balances of 
the Bunker Hill and Lexington and Concord appropriations. 
To February 1, 193 3, the amount impounded from the ap- 
propriations pursuant to the economy act was $7,203.52, 
leaving a balance of $66,98 5.39 available for requisition. 
This amount, together with the disbursing officer's check 
book balance as of February 20, 1933, of $120,499.71, makes 
the total available funds $187,485.10, from which will be 
deducted amounts hereafter impounded. 

The minimum estimate made by the Post Office Depart- 
ment of profit derived from the sale of bicentennial stamps 
is $1,000,000, which sum, together with the amount paid 
the Public Printer of $62,545.11 for the production of the 
definitive writings which will be returned to the Treasury 
from proceeds of sale of that work, aggregate $1,062,545.11, 
leaving net $208,170.91 as the total cost for each and every 
item of expense incurred by the commission covering a period 
of seven years. The estimates of the amounts to be derived 
from the sales mentioned are conservative; it is quite likely 
that the reimbursement from such sales will nearly, if not 
fully, cover the total amount of appropriations, and possibly 
with some increment. 

In concluding this preliminary report in which details of 
the operation of administration have been left to be covered 
by the preliminary report of the Director, the executive com- 
mittee wishes to express the confident belief that the bicen- 
tennial of the birth of George Washington was commemor- 
ated in the manner in which such event was contemplated 
without resorting to spectacular and ephemeral devices; and 
to those persons who expected or anticipated a celebration 
in the form of displays of material progress and development 
of resources, invention, and scientific achievements, which at 
best are evanescent, we desire to say that it was the spirit of 
George Washington, the simplicity of his life, and the virtue 
of his character, the renown of his deeds, and the principles 
of his Americanism that we aimed to teach and to inculcate 
in the minds and hearts of the American people as the most 
fitting and lasting tribute that could be paid him by a 
grateful people through the use of agencies for the dissemi- 
nation of knowledge and accurate information deemed by 
him to be essential in a Government founded on the prin- 
ciple that all just powers are derived from the consent of 
the governed. 

Acknowledgment is here made and recorded of the fact 
that the late Col. John A. Stewart, of New York, was one of 
the first to think of the idea of commemorating the bicen- 
tennial of the birth of George Washington. 



Two Notable Proclamations 

During the year of Celebration in honor of 
George Washington two proclamations were issued 
by Herbert Hoover, President of the United States, 
that were notable because of their reference to the 
Celebration itself. The first of these proclama- 
tions was issued February 2, 1932, and was as 
follows: 

The happy opportunity has come to our generation to 
demonstrate our gratitude and our obligation to George 
Washington by fitting celebration of the 200th anniversary 
of his birth. 

To contemplate his unselfish devotion to duty, his cour- 
age, his patience, his genius, his statesmanship and his accom- 
plishments for his country and the world refreshes the spirit, 
the wisdom and the patriotism of our people. 

Therefore, I, Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States of America, acting in accord with the purposes of the 
Congress, do invite all our people to organize themselves 
through every community and every association to do honor 
to the memory of Washington, during the period from Febru- 
ary 22 to Thanksgiving Day. 

And I hereby direct that on the anniversary of his birth 

the flag of the United States be appropriately displayed on 

all Government buildings in the United States, and all 

embassies, legations, and offices of the United States abroad. 

(Signed) Herbert Hoover. 

Later in the year President Hoover issued a 
Proclamation of Thanksgiving Observance in 
which he embodied George Washington's first 
Thanksgiving Proclamation. President Hoover's 
proclamation follows: 

Whereas at this season of the year our people for genera- 
tions past have always turned their thought to thankfulness 
for the blessings of Almighty God. 

Now, therefore, I, Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States, do set aside and declare Thursday, November 24, 1932, 
as a day of national thanksgiving, and I do urge that they 
repair to their places of public worship, there to give thanks 
to the Beneficent Providence from whom comes all our good: 
and I do further recommend, inasmuch as this year marks 
the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, 
the Father of Our Country, whose immeasurable services to 
our liberties and our security are blessings perennially renewed 
upon us, that our people refresh their memory of his first 
Thanksgiving proclamation, which I append and incorporate 
in this present proclamation. 

"By the President of the United States of America. 

"Whereas it is the duty of all Nations to acknowledge the 
providence of Almighty God, to obey his will, to be grateful 
for his benefits, and humbly to implore his protection and 
favor — and Whereas both Houses of Congress have by their 
joint committee requested me 'to recommend to the People 
of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, 
to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the 
many signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording 
them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of govern- 
ment for their safety and happiness.' 

"Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, 
the 26th day of November next, to be devoted by the People 
of these States to the service of that great and glorious 
Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, 
that is, or that will be — That we may then all unite in 
rendering unto him our sincere and humble thanks — for 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



29 



his kind care and protection of the People of this country 
previous to their becoming a Nation — for the signal and 
manifold mercies and the "favorable interpositions of his 
providence, which we experienced in the course and con- 
clusion of the late war — for the great degree of tranquility, 
union, and plenty, which we have since enjoyed — for the 
peaceable and rational manner in which we have been en- 
abled to establish constitutions of government for our safety 
and happiness, and particularly the national One now lately 
instituted — for the civil and religious liberty with which we 
are blessed and the means we have of acquiring and diffusing 
useful knowledge; and in general for all the great and various 
favors which he hath been pleased to confer upon us. 

"And also that we may then unite in most humbly offering 
our prayers and supplications to the great Lord and Ruler 
of Nations, and beseech him to pardon our national and 
other transgressions — to enable us all, whether in public or 
private stations, to perform our several and relative duties 
properly and punctually — to render our national government 
a blessing to all the People by constantly being a govern- 
ment of wise, just, and constitutional laws, discreetly and 



faithfully executed and obeyed — to protect and guide all 
Sovereigns and Nations (especially such as have shown kind- 
ness unto us) and to bless them with good government, peace, 
and concord. — To promote the knowledge and practice of 
true religion and virtue, and the increase of science among 
them and us — and generally to grant unto all mankind such 
a degree of temporal prosperity as he alone knows to be best. 
"Given under my hand at the City of New York the third 
day of October in the year of our Lord 1789. 

"Geo. Washington." 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, this third day of Novem- 
ber, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and thirty-two 
and of the independence of the United States of America 
the one hundred and fifty-seventh. 

Herbert Hoover. 
By the President: 

Henry L. Stimson, 

Secretary of State. 




n the Revolution and in the period of 
constructive statesmanship immediately following it, 
for our good fortune it befell us that the highest 
military and the highest civic attributes were em- 
BODIED in Washington, and so in him we have one of 

THE UNDYING MEN OF HISTORY A GREAT SOLDIER, IF POS- 
SIBLE AN EVEN GREATER STATESMAN, AND ABOVE ALL A 
PUBLIC SERVANT WHOSE LOFTY AND DISINTERESTED PATRIOT- 
ISM RENDERED HIS POWER AND ABILITY ALIKE ON FOUGHT 

FIELDS AND IN COUNCIL CHAMBERS OF THE MOST FAR- 
REACHING SERVICE TO THE REPUBLIC. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 



Opening of the Celebration 




jLTHOUGH many functions commemo- 
rative of George Washington were held 
in various parts of the country prior 
to February 22, 1932, the official open- 
ing of the Celebration period of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington, marked the beginning of the formal 
functions. Interest at that time naturally centered 
in the National Capital where many ceremonies 
were scheduled in which thousands took part and 
other thousands witnessed. The official ceremonies 
began February 21, and that day being Sunday, 
they were generally of a religious character. In- 
deed, throughout the nation, the churches of all 
faiths commemorated the birth of Washington 
with special ceremonies relating to his life and 
unfaltering dependence upon the God of nations 
and of men. Never in the history of this country 
was there such a unanimity of religious thought 
and tribute in which the virtues of a human being 
were held up as a whole to the nation as worthy 
of emulation. 

The religious exercises in the National Capital 
began at 8:00 A. M. with a Requiem Mass cele- 
brated in the Church of the Holy Comforter as a 
tribute to the departed dead of the Holy Name 
Union, and in honor of the Bicentennial Anni- 
versary of the birth of George Washington. The 
ceremonies were conducted by Rev. J. A. Nestor, 
Pastor of the Church. 

Extolling the religious motives which dominated 
the life of George Washington and praising his 
strict adherence to a policy of religious freedom, 
Rev. Peter Guilday, Professor of History at Catho- 
lic University, honored Washington in a eulogy 
delivered at the Bicentennial Mass in St. Mary's 
Church, Alexandria, Virginia, at 10.00 o'clock. 
Reverend Dr. Guilday emphasized Washington's 
sincere dependence upon Almighty God and his 
love for his fellow men. Continuing he said: 

There is a stateliness about his diction when he speaks of 
Almighty God which is seldom heard in our day, and no 
man can mistake the profound reverence of the heart which 
voiced its faith in such phrases as the Great Arbiter of the 
Universe, the Omnipotent and Supreme Being, Sovereign 
Ruler of the Nation: God, Our Benign Parent, Divine 
Munificence, and the words which occur the most, Divine 
Providence. 

Nowhere is this fact seen to better advantage than in his 
reply to the different religious congregations and communi- 



ties which addressed him in felicitation during the first year 
of his Presidency. 

In all this there was no deceit, no pretense. Washington 
was never ostentatious in his profession of belief in God or 
in his devotional life. But that deep abiding sense of de- 
pendence upon the Creator is visible in all his public utter- 
ances. His early education, his pioneer days in the wilderness 
of the frontier, his life in the mountains, along the streams 
and under the stars, begot in him an honest, forthright, re- 
ligious sincerity and humanity which places him apart from 
the other founders of our republic. 

Washington's first official act as President, after taking 
the oath of office on April 31, 1789, was to bow down 
reverently and to kiss the Bible upon which his hand rested 
while Chancellor Livingston read the oath. That same day 
in his first inaugural address to Congress, without any mis- 
givings or faltering, he avowed publicly that the rise of the 
American republic was due to the divine stream of provi- 
dential design for the betterment of the human race, and 
he stressed the necessity of our realizing that the preserva- 
tion of the republic depended upon the indissoluble union 
between virtue and happiness, between duty and advantage, 
between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous 
policy, and the solid rewards of public prosperity and felicity. 

He warned his listeners that "the propitious smiles of 
heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregards the 
eternal duties of order and right which heaven itself has 
ordained." 

Honorable in all his actions, Washington never failed to 
refer to Almighty God, the Divine Providence, to heaven's 
assistance, to the source of all public and private blessings, 
to the great governor of the universe, — the phrases are all 
his own — whatever success came to him in the performance 
of those duties which patriotic love of country had placed 
upon his shoulders. 

Time moves swiftly, and our children will be holding in 
solemn manner less than a score of years from now the 
150th anniversary of Washington's death, as we today are 
joyfully celebrating the bicentennial of his birth. To them, 
as to all succeeding generations, the dominant thought will 
then be, as it is today with ourselves, whence came this 
man's greatness? 

The ideal patriot, the supremely model citizen of our 
republic, the founder of a government which "changed man- 
kind's ideas of political greatness," wherein lies the secret 
of his heroism, of the noble symmetry of his life? 

It is a secret not hard to discover. If, honestly and sym- 
pathetically, we search the records of Washington's life we 
shall find that it is fundamentally his sincere dependence 
upon Almighty God and his love for his fellow men. We 
are not inclined in these days to dwell much upon the re- 
ligious motives which dominated the careers of our great 
leaders, and yet, without understanding Washington's 
Christian faith, his whole life becomes an enigma. 

Higher than all, nobler than all, stands Virginia's greatest 
son, the victorious leader and founder of our republic, the 
first and noblest of all our presidents, George Washington. 
As we honor him today in this most sacred of all religious 
ceremonies, we dedicate anew our lives to that idealism 
which has placed us above the peoples of the earth and to 
that sincere patriotism which the life and the achievements 
of Washington have taught to every generation of Ameri- 
cans down the century and a half of our national existence. 

St. Mary's Church, had as its principal founder 
the closest link between the Roman Catholic 
Church and George Washington, in Col. John 



30 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



31 



Fitzgerald, Secretary and Aide-de-Camp of George 
Washington during the Revolutionary War. The 
traditions of the parish have it that Washington 
was present at a dinner at which the project of 
founding the parish was begun. 

Attending this church Celebration as guest of 
honor were His Excellency, the Ambassador of 
France, Mr. Paul Claudel, Secretary of the Interior 
Ray Lyman Wilbur, Major-General Paul B. Malone, 
and other dignitaries of the government. The 
Celebrant was Reverend Father Richard B. Wash- 
ington, Hot Springs, Virginia, a collateral de- 
scendant of George Washington. A company of 
Marines from Quantico, Virginia, led the proces- 
sion from the rectory to the church and were in 
attendance during the ceremonies. 

At Historic Christ Church 

Immediately following the Mass at St. Mary's 
Church many of the guests repaired to beautiful 
Christ Church in Alexandria, which was the home 
church of the first President. Here, a special 
service had been arranged. President and Mrs. 
Hoover arrived from the White House and were 
escorted through the church yard, studded with 
ancient stones marking the graves of Washington's 
compatriots. They were then led to the pew which 
Washington occupied as a member of the church. 
The Chief Executive and Mrs. Hoover listened 
with rapt attention to a sermon by Dr. Berryman 
Green, former Dean of the Virginia Theological 

I Seminary. Dr. Green emphasized George Wash- 
ington the man as one with a warm heart, "a man 

iof temper but of integrity and of unflinching 
determination. Praise has concealed rather than 
revealed Washington's greatness," he said. "We 
have bowed so low that we have not seen the real 
man." 

The Director's Historic Broadcast 

One of the outstanding events of a notable day 
of religious observance was an address delivered at 
historic Pohick Church by the Honorable Sol 
Bloom, Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. This 
ancient religious shrine, located not far from 
Mount Vernon and to which George Washington 
and his family repaired almost every Sunday 
morning, when opportunity permitted, is a center 
of special historic and romantic interest. 

The address delivered by the Director was 
broadcast throughout the nation and was the high 







Pohick Church, Pohick, Virginia 

Where General Washington worshipped 

spot of the day's observances. Its reception 
throughout the nation was so remarkable in the 
interest and enthusiasm which it aroused in its 
religious and patriotic fervor that thousands of 
letters were received in commendation of the sen- 
timents expressed. Particularly, however, it serves 
to preserve certain historical data that students 
would find difficult to locate. The address can be 
found in Volume II, page 126, of this series. 

Other Church Ceremonies 

The religious significance of the life of George 
Washington was the theme of sermons and cere- 
monies in thousands of churches throughout the 
United States on Sunday, February 21, 1932. 
Music and pageantry told the symbolism and 
spiritual implications of the Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion. 

In Bethlehem Chapel of the Washington 
Cathedral, Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman, Bishop of 
the Diocese of Washington, delivered an eloquent 
eulogy in the afternoon. The address was broad- 
cast, as were all of the notable events of the day 
and the day following. Bishop Freeman said: "We 
shall only bring further confusion to our disturbed 
country if we, at this time, acclaim with high 
praise the deeds of Washington, and forget his 
ringing call to unselfish service. If we would con- 
tinue as a nation we must do more than chronicle 
the names of our patriots in bronze and marble. 
We must make their principles vital forces." 

Two interesting services were held on Sunday in 
historic Falls Church Episcopal Church, in Falls. 



32 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Church, Virginia, a suburb of the National Capi- 
tal. George Washington was intimately associated 
with this church, the edifice which preceded the 
present structure being the one with which Augus- 
tine Washington, father of George Washington, 
was affiliated as a Vestryman. George Washington 
was associated with the present church as a Vestry- 
man. A pew in the church has been dedicated to 
Washington and another to General Robert E. Lee. 
The services, morning and afternoon, were con- 
ducted by the Rev. Charles Stewart McClellan, Jr. 
Space does not permit a description of the 
principal church services held in honor of George 
Washington on February 21, 1932. Suffice it to 
point out here that practically every church in the 
United States, of every denomination, joined in 
these religious exercises which ushered in the Cele- 
bration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington. 

National Educators Meet 

The Department of Superintendence of the 
National Education Association met in annual con- 
vention in Washington, Sunday, February 21, 
1932, the first day of the convention being given 
over to preliminary exercises of a religious and 
patriotic nature. The Superintendents made 
patriotic pilgrimages to the Washington Monu- 
ment and the Lincoln Memorial and attended serv- 
ice at old Christ Church in Alexandria, Virginia. 
Making the principal address at the service in 
Christ Church, Herbert S. Weet, Superintendent 
of schools at Rochester, New York, told the super- 
intendents that: 

... to us is coming with increasing clearness the conviction 
that the sole purpose and defense of our free public school 
system is to realize the fulfillment of the dreams and ambi- 
tions of George Washington. The educators of the country 
can best pay tribute to Washington by a quickening of our 
faith in the great essentials for which Washington stood and 
a strengthening of our hearts to go forward and realize these 
essentials in the youth of America. 

A wreath was laid at the Washington Monu- 
ment by President Edwin C. Broom and one at 
the Lincoln Memorial by George C. Bush, super- 
intendent of schools at South Pasadena, California, 
vice president of the Department of Superinten- 
dence. Norman R. Crozier, superintendent of 
schools at Dallas, Texas, and first vice president of 
the Department, laid a wreath at the Tomb of the 
Unknown Soldier. A male quartet sang at all 
three places. 

A vesper service representing the first general 



session of the Department of Superintendence was 
held Sunday afternoon at Constitution Hall. Dr. 
Rufus B. von Kleinsmid, president of the Univer- 
sity of Southern California, the principal speaker, 
addressed the superintendents on "Spiritual Values 
in Education." In the evening a radio program 
was broadcast by the National Broadcasting Com- 
pany. The two speakers were Dr. Edwin C. 
Broom of Philadelphia, President of the Depart- 
ment of Superintendence, and Dr. William John 
Cooper, United States Commissioner of Education. 
On Monday, February 22, the educators took 
important part in the day's observance. At the 
hour of George Washington's birth, 10:15 o'clock, 
the Superintendents in session at Constitution Hall 
rose and gave the Pledge to the Flag and sang 
"America." By special arrangement amplifiers had 
been placed in the hall so that the delegates heard 
the exercises that were conducted at the Capitol. 
Many of the delegates went to Mount Vernon in 
the afternoon where President Broom placed a 
wreath on the tomb of George Washington, and 
Miss Florence Hale, President of the National 
Education Association, placed a wreath upon the 
tomb of Martha Washington. The delegates as- 
sembled upon the lawn at Mount Vernon and 
were later addressed by President Hoover after he 
had visited the tomb. 

First Performance "The Song of Faith" 

The first public performance of the ode, "The 
Song of Faith," by the famous American com- 
poser, John Alden Carpenter, was broadcast from 
New York, Sunday afternoon, February 21, 1932, 
by the great Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra 
under the direction of Dr. Walter Damrosch. 
Previous to the performance of the "Ode," Di- 
rector Bloom, in Washington, introduced to the 
radio audience John Alden Carpenter, who was in 
Chicago. Through a triangular hook-up Mr. Car- 
penter responded in a few words, after which Dr. 
Damrosch raised his baton and the great "Ode" 
was broadcast from coast to coast, from New York 
City. 

The Historic Masque, "Wakefield" 

As an appropriate dramatic overture to the 
world-wide Celebration, the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, with the 
cooperation of the District of Columbia George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, gave a 
presentation of "Wakefield," a folk-masque of 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



33 



America written by the distinguished American 
poet and dramatist, Percy MacKaye. The first 
presentation of this truly monumental poetic work 
took place at Constitution Hall, the City of Wash- 
ington, February 21, 1932. The performance was 
repeated February 25 and 26 following. In the 
preface to the book of the Masque, Percy MacKaye, 
the author, states: 

WAKEFIELD is a poem: a symbolic folk-poem, designed 
to be spoken, acted, danced and sung. Interpreting aspects 
! )f the American Folk Movement through the art of the 
;heatre, it approaches history not from the concept of 
ealism but of symbolism. It aims to express its vast theme 
n a new form of festival drama, wherein the motives of 
luman psychology are based in symbols of folk-legendry and 
ore peculiarly the world-heritage of America. The Masque 
s a tribute of folk-spirits to our greatest of folk-heroes, 
Washington, 

In choosing for its central character the designation 
WAKEFIELD (after the birthplace of Washington), the 
mthor has sought to give to THE FOLK-SPIRIT OF 
\MERICA (that "airy nothing" which is our very essence) 
'a local habitation and a name." 

i Never before in the history of dramatic art in 
America has any attempt been made to produce a 
pageant-masque upon such a scale of sumptuous- 
less and glittering magnificence, even in the 
Nation's Capital where the spectacular is almost 



commonplace, and before a cosmopolitan audience 
representing the leading nations of the world. 

The masque, "Wakefield," was a poetic revela- 
tion which enthralled perhaps the most distin- 
guished audience ever gathered to witness a stage 
play upon American soil. But when one says a 
stage play this refers merely to part of the action, 
for in very truth it was a dramatic event in which 
the audience in reality took part and was swept 
forward with the actors themselves in an amazing 
series of episodes that depicted the folk-spirits of 
the Republic. 

Throughout the performance many groups of 
costumed players filled the aisles and trumpeters 
in various parts of the great hall made the audience 
feel the exaltation of the enactment itself and that 
they were indeed part of the drama. For more than 
two hours the festival drama held the stage, evok- 
ing from the audience in the overflow seating 
capacity of the great auditorium, gasps of admi- 
ration of the elaborate costuming of the cast of 
1,000 actors, and novel musical and lighting effects. 

The text of the Masque is in thirty-three sections 
and five tableaux, with a prologue and epilogue. 
Throughout the entire performance the music 



t:he United States 6eorge Washington JSiccntennial Commission 

and the Bistrict of Colombia (5eorcjc Washington bicentennial Commission 

request the honor of pur presence 

at the performance of the Masque "Wakefield," bu_ gcrcg ftaEage 

either on £undau the ttoentg-first dan of jtbruarg or on 

i ridaji the ttoentg-sixth dag of jfebruaq) 

Bineteen hundred and thirty ttoo, precisely at eight-fifteen o'clock, p. m. 

at Constitution ft all 



TICKETS WILL BE SENT TO YOU UPON NOTICE OF 

ACCEPTANCE AND CHOICE OF NIGHT OF PERFORMANCE 

R. S. V. P. BEFORE FEBRUARY FIFTEENTH 

TO THE UNITED STATES 

GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION 

WASHINGTON BUILDING. WASHINGTON. D. C. 



Facsimile of Invitation to the Wakefield Masque Presented in Constitution Hall, Washington, D. C. 



Groups Participating in the Wakefield Masque 




Ml MBERS OF THE AMERICANIZATION SCHOOL ASSOCIATION AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Who PARTICIPATED IN THE PRO- 
CESSIONAL of Foreign Groups in the Wakefield Masque, as Follows: 1. Russian Group; 2. Swedish Group; 
3. German Group; 4. Danish Group; 5. Italian Group; 6. Welsh Group. 
The Foreign Groups were under the direction of K. C. Kiernan-Vasa, Washington, D. C. 



34 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



35 



features were outstanding, the adapter and com- 
poser of the music being John Tasker Howard, 
eminent musical authority. The great production 
was expertly directed by Percy Jewett Burrell and 
Marie Moore Forrest with a large staff of assistants. 
The instrumental music was furnished by the United 
States Marine Band Orchestra under the direction 
of Capt. Taylor Branson, and the choral numbers 
were under the direction of Dr. Albert Harned. 
The assisting groups in the production were: 
Americanization School Association, American 
Legion, Henry D. Spengler Post and Unit Ameri- 
can Legion Auxiliary, Arts Club, Avondale Coun- 
try School, Community Center Department D. C. 
Public Schools, Caroline McKinley Studio, Com- 
mittee on Religious Drama and Pageantry, Wash- 
ington Federation of Churches, D. C. Boy Scouts, 
Drama Guild, Friendship House, Helen Griffith 
Studio, Howard University, Indian Bureau, De- 
partment of Interior, Jewish Community Center, 
Knights of Columbus, National Capital Choir, 
Neighborhood House, Shakespeare Society, South- 
ern Society, Virginia State Society, Washington 
Club, Marie Zalipsky Vocal Studio, Scottish Clan 
McClellan, Alliance Francaise, St. Sophia's Greek 
School, Polish National Alliance, Danish Society, 
Swedish Lutheran Church, Russian Orthodox St. 
Nicholas Church, Ladies' Auxiliary to the Hiberni- 
ans, St. David's Society. 

The part of "Wakefield" was taken by Margaret 
Anglin, one of the most celebrated of American 
actresses, and the ten other leading characters were 
assumed by men and women of distinguished 
talent. 

The stage acting took place with one set of 
scenery. This set was built upon massive lines, 
and by skillful use of lighting effects and trans- 
parencies it assumed many aspects. The move- 
ment of the performance was upon a vast and 
intricate scale, involving great processionals and 
group movement representing folk characters not 
only of America, but those which had their origin 
in other lands. As interpreted by H. I. Brock, 
the action is all that of characters purely symboli- 
cal. This includes, on the lower plane, Wakefield, 
the mother, who is a witch of white magic; Folk- 
Say, who is the canny old goodman gossip of the 
crossroads store and speaks in hodge-podge dialect; 
Brave and Free, refugees from tyrant-ridden old 
Europe, seeking on this more grateful (or less dis- 
illusioned) Continent asylum for the exercise of 



their virtues; and Drift, a many-legged composite 
monster. Drift is the villian of the piece. His 
object is to fling his net of Fog and so ensnare 
Brave and Free, as these two lie beside Wakefield's 
fire within the fairy ring of her excellent enchant- 
ment while she tells them the story of the birth 
of the Savior of the State. 

The Mystical Setting 

Overhanging the spot where the fire glows, a 
mighty cedar stands, backed by a great towering 
rock, through a cleft of which, away high up, the 
North Star shines. Mighty deep-rooted cedar, 
towering, steadfast rock, and unwavering North 
Star; these form a symbolic trinity of Washing- 
ton's qualities. They furnish the mystical setting 
of the piece, the background of the whole perform- 
ance, which overflows into the auditorium in the 
Max Reinhardt "Miracle" manner. Curtains 
simulate the rock, and serve to focus the permanent 
scene of action. 

But at times the North Star is not merely a 
point of light. He is embodied in a figure in 
human semblance and speaks from his high place 
in the character partly of chorus and partly of 
master of ceremonies. For example, in the very 
beginning, after community singing by the Ages 
we are heir to, after rolling drums, pealing chimes 
and soaring trumpet calls blown by the Angels of 
the Four Winds from the four corners of the hall, 
the star becomes the impressive personage Polaris, 
and proclaims: 

"now the lonely wild 
Bears one who never shall be child 
To immortal memory." 

Then he summons the constellations Orion and 
Cassiopeia to leave the sky and attend upon the 
destiny of the newly-born hero. Obedient they 
appear as heavenly lights. But Orion becomes 
anthropomorphically embodied and his seven-star 
children trip on as members of the corps de ballet. 
Cassiopeia takes human form in turn, and on trip 
her six star-children. Thus are assembled poeti- 
cally the thirteen stars of the original States and 
thus inevitable logic introduces a rhythmic dance 
into the patriotic spectacle. 

Music for the Drama 

This is preliminary to the two parts or acts of 
the drama proper, the first showing the ensnaring 
of Free (while lulled by Wakefield's talk) in the 



Groups Participating in the Wakefield Masque 




3. Scotch Group; 4. Grecian Group; 5. Irish Group; 6. Norwegian Group. ' 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



37 



Fog net of Drift, and the second presenting the 
rescue of Free by Brave, who goes out upon a 
Quest to get him with a charm supplied by Folk- 
Say — Self-Heal, it is called. 

There is, of course, a great deal of music, as- 
sembled and joined together by John Tasker How- 
ard, as composer of the masque. And the music, 
like the pageantry of the entertainment, is a medley 
collected with a wide-flung net. Choral numbers 
are the author's "Chorus of the Ages," to the music 
of Dvorak's "New World Symphony"; Shape - 
speare's "Who Is Sylvia," sung to Schubert's music; 
the "Coronation Hymn," to music by Oliver Hol- 
den; an interlude entitled "Rebirth," words by the 
author, music by Johann Sebastian Bach; "The Old 
Folks at Home" (with Stephen C. Foster duly 
credited with words and music) ; "The Star- 
Spangled Banner" — a new stanza by Percy Mac- 
Kaye, and "Summer in Y-cumen In," elected in its 
quality as the earliest English folksong, and there- 
fore certainly a part of the rightful heritage of an 
English-speaking country. 

In such fashion our general background of musi- 
cal tradition is recognized without discrimination 
against foreigners. The range is widened by the 
inclusion of a Negro Spiritual and an American 
Indian song in the language of the Red Man. But 
we are the melting pot of all Europe. Hence a 
composite processional in the second part or act 



brings in the songs of thirteen non-English con- 
tributing nations and races, each song sung in the 
language or dialect of its origin and the whole 
related for contrapuntal effects. These songs are 
Scotch, Welsh, Irish, German, Norwegian, French, 
Dutch, Italian, Greek, Hebrew, Bohemian, Polish 
and Russian. 

A Medley of Dances 

But a masque is mystic. Fantasy, not logic, 
rules when entertainment of this sort is being con- 
cocted. There is also a medley of dances. After 
the dance of the thirteen stars comes "The Turkey 
in the Straw," done by Uncle Remus's animal set. 
Drift executes a movement with his many legs in 
slow rhythm; there is an old English folk dance, 
and then a grand minuet of Shakespeare's charac- 
ters — Florizel with Perdita, Romeo with Juliet, 
Orlando with Rosalind, Hamlet with Ophelia, 
Falstaff with Anne Page, Oberon with Titania, 
though the facile monarch deserts his queen to 
tread a measure with Sylvia, who has arrived 
poetically attended by the maidens Holy, Fair and 
Wise. The music for this duet is Boccherini's. All 
this is set down so that it may not be missed that 
in the nation's tribute to the Father of his Country 
there has been no scruple in gathering flowers for 
the nosegay wherever they could be found. 

But to return to the spectacle. In the cleft of 
the rock above which hangs the North Star are 




Members of the Americanization School Association appearing in the Wakefield Masque. 



38 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



revealed tableaux. One is "Washington crossing the 
Delaware, with George W. Chadwick's music. 
Another is Valley Forge, with Edward MacDow- 
ell's music. Another shows Washington putting 
away a proffered kingly crown, yet another, 
Washington presiding over the convention that 
made the Constitution, and finally Washington 
with his friends and family safe home again at 
Mount Vernon. 

The Climax of the Masque 

The climax of the piece shows in the cleft of 
the rock the cloaked figure of Washington, ma- 
jestic in mien and bearing, silhouetted against the 
sky as the rosy flush of dawn begins to irradiate 
the heavens. Thereupon Orion and Cassiopeia 
unroll themselves down the face of the rock as the 
drums roll again, the chimes peal, the trumpets 
blare from the four points of the compass. With 
the circle of all the multitude of folk creatures 
gathered below, the cloaked Presence speaks. 
Speaking, he used the very words of the living 
Washington — words recovered from a letter writ- 
ten in 1786 to Arthur Young, an Englishman 
whose paramount interest, like that of Washington 
himself, was in agriculture. 

"Reflect (says the master of Mount Vernon) 
How much more delightful to an undebauched 

mind 
is the task of making improvements on the earth 
than all the vain glory which can be acquired 
from ravaging it 
by conquest." 

Distinguished Audience 

The audience which greeted the opening per- 
formance of February 21, 1932, was made up in 
large part of officers of the government and their 
wives, diplomats, other dignitaries and distinguished 
citizens. The box-holders were: 

The President of the United States and Mrs. Hoover 

The Vice-President of the United States, accompanied by Mr. 

and Mrs. Edward Everett Gann 
His Excellency The Ambassador of Italy and Nobil Donna 

Antonietta de Martino 
His Excellency The Ambassador of Cuba and Senora de 

Ferrara 
His Excellency The Ambassador of France and Madame 

Claudel 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of Turkey, Mr. Ahmet 

Muhtar 
His Excellency The Ambassador of Japan and Madame 

Debuchi 



His Excellency The Ambassador of Poland and Madame Fili- 

powicz (Absent) 
His Excellency The Ambassador of Belgium and Madame May 
His Excellency The Ambassador of Argentina, Senor Dr. Felipe 

A. Espil 
His Excellency The Ambassador of Mexico and Senora de 

Puig Casauranc. 
Mrs. Woodrow Wilson 

The Chief Justice and Mrs. Charles Evans Hughes 
The Minister of Portugal and Viscountess d'Alte 
The Minister of Uruguay and Madame Varela (Absent) 
The Minister of Switzerland and Madame Peter 
The Minister of Hungary and Countess Szechenyi 
The Minister of Finland Mr. L. Astrom 
The Minister of Greece and Madame Simopoulos 
The Minister of Austria and Madame Prochnik 
The Minister of Bulgaria and Madame Radeff 
The Minister of Sweden and Madame Bostrom 
The Minister of Albania Mr. Faik Konitza 
The Minister of Netherlands and Madame van Royen 
The Minister of Norway and Madame Bachke 
The Minister of Guatemala and Senora de Recinos 
The Minister of Lithuania and Madame Balutis (Absent) 
The Minister of Czechoslovakia and Madame Veverka 
The Minister of Irish Free State and Mrs. MacWhite 
The Minister of Nicaragua and Senora de Sacasa 
The Minister of Yugoslavia Dr. Leonide Pitamic 
The Minister of Rumania Mr. Charles A. Davila 
The Minister of Union of South Africa and Mrs. Louw 
The Minister of Venezuela and Senora de Arcaya 
The Minister of Denmark and Madame Wadsted 
The Minister of Haiti and Madame Bellegarde (Absent) 
The Minister of Colombia and Senora de Lozano 
The Minister of Canada and Mrs. Herridge 
The Minister of Dominican Republic Senor Roberto De- 

spradel 
The Minister of Honduras and Senora de Davila 
The Minister of Egypt Sesostris Sidarouss Pasha 
The Minister of Bolivia and Senora de Abelli 
The Minister of El Salvador and Senora de Leiva 
The Minister of Ecuador and Senora de Zaldumbide 
The Minister of Siam and Madame Subarn Sompati 
The Minister of Panama and Senora de Alfaro 
The Minister of China and Madame Yen (absent) 
Mr. Justice and Mrs. Owen J. Roberts 
The Attorney General and Mrs. William D. Mitchell 
The Secretary of Agriculture and Mrs. Arthur M. Hyde 
The Secretary of Commerce and Mrs. Robert P. Lamont 
The Secretary of Labor and Mrs. William N. Doak 
The President Pro Tempore of the Senate and Mrs. George 

H. Moses 
Senator and Mrs. James E. Watson 
Senator Arthur Capper 
Senator and Mrs. Arthur R. Robinson 
Representative and Mrs. Bertrand H. Snell 
The Chief of Operations of the Navy and Mrs. W. V. Pratt 
The Undersecretary of the Treasury and Mrs. Arthur A. 

Ballantine 
The Assistant Secretary of War and Mrs. Frederick H. Payne 
The Charge d'Affaires of Luxembourg and Baroness de Waha 

(absent) 
The Charge d'Affaires of Persia and Madame Azodi 
The Charge d'Affaires of Paraguay and Senora de Ynsfran 
The Charge d'Affaires of Costa Rica and Senora de Gonzalez 
The Consul General of Latvia and Mrs. Lule 
The Consul General of Esthonia and Madame Mutt 
The Financial Attache of Russia and Madame Ughet 
Mrs. Nicholas Longworth 

The United States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



39 



The District of Columbia George Washington Bicentennial 

Commission 
The Daughters of the American Revolution 
Descendants of the Washington Family 
Sons of the American Revolution 
The Order of the Cincinnati 
Huguenot Society 
The Society of Colonial Dames 
Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman, Chairman, Committee for 

George Washington Bicentennial Ball 
Mrs. McCook Knox, Chairman, Portrait Committee, George 

Washington Bicentennial Historical Loan Collection 
Mrs. James Carroll Frazer 
Mrs. J. Borden Harriman 
Mrs. Rose Gouverneur Hoes 
Mrs. Leander Loose 
Mrs. Marie Moore Forest 
Mr. and Mrs. Percy MacKaye 
Mr. and Mrs. John Tasker Howard 

The Director of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission and Mrs. Sol Bloom with their daugh- 
ter, Miss Vera Bloom, were hosts to members of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, who 
were: Senator Simeon D. Fess, Senator Arthur Capper, Sena- 
tor Millard E. Tydings, Representative and Mrs. Willis C. 
Hawley, Representative and Mrs. John Q. Tilson, Represen- 
tative and Mrs. Joseph W. Byrns, Honorable R. Walton Moore, 
Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman, Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, 



Honorable C. Bascom Slemp, and Dr. Albert Bushnell Flart. 

The members of the District of Columbia George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission who attended were: John 
Poole, Mrs. Philip Sidney Smith, Clarence A. Aspinwall, 
George F. Bowerman, William W. Bride, A. K. Shipe, Ernest 
N. Smith, Edgar C. Snyder, Merle Thorpe, Dr. Charles Stan- 
ley White, Lloyd D. Wilson, Brig. Gen. George Richards, 
Charles Moore, J. Leo Kolb, Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor, Isaac 
Gans, Robert V. Fleming, Col. Harrison H. Dodge and 
Thomas E. Campbell. 

An interesting and interested group of guests who occu- 
pied boxes at the Masque were members of the Washington 
family. This group was composed of descendants of Au- 
gustine Washington: Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Freeman and 
Mr. Washington Perine and Miss Perine. 

Descendants of Gen. Washington's sister, Betty Washing- 
ton Lewis, were: Mr. and Mrs. Owen B. Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. 
Carter Grymes. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Augustine Washington and Mr. and 
Mrs. Thomas Hite Willis, with their daughter, Miss Jane 
Washington Willis, from Chicago, who are descendants of 
John Augustine Washington, were in the party. 

Descendants of Samuel Washington were: Mrs. Samuel 
Walter Washington and Mr. and Mrs. George K. Bradfield 
and Mr. and Mrs. Augustine Todd. 

Representing the descendants of Charles Washington was 
Mr. George Sullivan of New York. 




ALICE COULD NEVER BLAST HIS HONOUR, 



AND ENVY MADE HIM A SINGULAR EXCEPTION TO 
HER UNIVERSAL RULE. FOR HIMSELF HE HAD 
LIVED ENOUGH, TO LIFE AND TO GLORY. FOR HIS 
FELLOW-CITIZENS, IF THEIR PRAYERS COULD HAVE 
BEEN ANSWERED, HE WOULD HAVE BEEN IMMOR- 
TAL. . . . His example is now complete, and 

IT WILL TEACH WISDOM AND VIRTUE TO MAGIS- 
TRATES, CITIZENS, AND MEN, NOT ONLY IN THE 
PRESENT AGE, BUT IN FUTURE GENERATIONS, AS 
LONG AS OUR HISTORY SHALL BE READ. 



John Adams (1799). 



February 22, 1932 



HE GREAT DAY marking the actual 
anniversary of George Washington's 
birth, February 22, 1932, dawned in 
^S_KIM the National Capital with clear skies 
and comfortable temperature. It was a day 
crowded with events commemorative of the Cele- 
bration. From early morning until long after 
midnight, the different features of the day were 
continued in all parts of the city and nearby his- 
toric shrines. Various patriotic groups had their 
programs during the morning hours and at noon 
practically all of the visitors and thousands of resi- 
dents of the city went to the National Capitol to 
observe the out-door features of the Celebration 
there. It was reported that 3 5,000 visitors filled 
every hotel room in the City and that at least 
65,000 more were staying with friends or in 
rooming houses. 

At the Washington Monument 

During the morning hours many pilgrimages to 
the Washington Monument were made by indi- 
viduals and groups wishing to lay wreaths at the 
base of the mighty shaft. The Massing of the 
Colors was a beautiful and impressive ceremony. 
Forty-eight flags, representing all the States, were 
raised around the monument by the Office of 
Public Buildings and Public Parks, and a wreath 
from Col. U. S. Grant, 3d, Director of the Office, 
was laid. This ceremony took place at 8 A. M. 
and representatives of the Daughters of 1812 took 
part. Later, wreaths were laid from President 
and Mrs. Hoover, Association of Oldest Inhabi- 
tants, Military Order of the Loyal Legion, Knights 
of Columbus, District Federation of Patriotic 
Observants, District Department, Veterans of 
Foreign Wars, Sons of Union Veterans, and the 
local department of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public. Masonic clubs of Washington held brief 
exercises and other pilgrimages were made by rep- 
resentatives of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, Sons of the American Revolution, and 
the District Department of the American Legion. 

The Association of Oldest Inhabitants observed 
the day by meeting in the Old Fire Engine House 
on H Street and beating the famous Northern 
Liberty Bell two hundred times. Allen C. Clark, 
President of the Columbia Historical Society, ad- 
dressed a group and the exercises were broadcast 
over a nation-wide network. 




Acme 

Lieut. Commander G. A. Poindexter, Naval 
Aide to President Hoover, shown placing the 
Presidential wreath at the base of the 
Washington Monument in the City of 

Washington, February 22, 1932. 

Order of the De Molay 
Headed by Grand Master Counselor Ernest A. 
Reed, of Newark, New Jersey, approximately 
2,500 members of the Order of De Molay arrived 
in Washington on Sunday, February 21, 1932, for 
the Fifth Annual Pilgrimage of that organization 
to the National Capital. About 30 states were 
represented by delegations. The members of the 
Order visited Mount Vernon February 22, where a 
wreath was laid upon the tomb of George Wash- 
ington. There an address was made by Grand 
Master Counselor Reed, in which he said: 

There is too much disposition on the part of our youth 
to form a mental picture of Washington as a stern, elderly 
man, riding a white horse and carrying the burden of affairs 
of state on his shoulders. We forget that Washington was 
also a young man, fond of sports, dancing and the good 
times of his day. 

Later in the day the delegates placed a wreath 
at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and also paid 
a visit to the National Masonic Memorial at 
Alexandria. 



10 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



41 



Military Mass 

One of the early events of a memorable day was 
the Military Mass sung at the Church of the 
Immaculate Conception, with the collateral de- 
scendant of the First President, the Reverend 
Richard Blackburn Washington, as celebrant. 

The Reverend Joseph Koch, U. S. A., chaplain 
at Walter Reed Hospital, served as deacon, and 
the Rev. Vincent Girski, U. S. N., chaplain of the 
Quantico Marine base, was subdeacon. The late 
Reverend Francis J. Hurney, pastor of the church, 
presided. 

Just before the mass began a mounting of the 
colors of every local post of the American Legion 
took place in the sanctuary. Thirty-five marines 
from Quantico served as guard of honor. A ser- 
mon on George Washington was preached by the 
Rev. Ignatius Smith, O.P. 

Among the guests were Senators Thomas J. 
Walsh, of Montana; Henry F. Ashurst, of Arizona, 
and Edwin S. Broussard, of Louisiana; Represen- 
tatives William P. Connery, Jr., of Massachusetts; 
John J. Boylan and James M. Fitzpatrick, of New 



York; Melvin J. Maas, of Minnesota; Joachim O. 
Fernandez, of New Mexico; Mrs. James Couzens, 
Joseph Tumulty, Admiral William H. Benson, 
Departmental Commander Frank Fraser, of the 
American Legion; Frank J. Hogan, Isaac Gans, 
William Leahy, D. J. Callahan, Mrs. Peter Drury 
and John Saul. 

Ceremony at Wakefield 
At Wakefield, Virginia, where George Wash- 
ington was born, the State of Virginia officially 
paid homage to her illustrious son in a most digni- 
fied and impressive ceremony, upon the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of his birth. Delegations from 
the General Assembly of Virginia, the oldest law- 
making body in the United States, were chief par- 
ticipants in the ceremonies that began at 10 in 
the morning on February 22, 1932. These cere- 
monies were held at the mansion house, being a 
replica of the original. The delegation from the 
Virginia House of Delegates was headed by Speaker 
J. Sinclair Brown and the one from the Senate by 
Senator Robert O. Norris. The principal address 
was made by Speaker Brown, who reviewed the life 




Military Mass, February 22, 1932, at the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Washington, D. C. 




Undersecretary of State, Honorable WilliaiM R. Castle, and His Excellency, the Ambassador 
of the Republic of Cuba, Don Orestes Ferrara, inspecting the floral tributes at the bust of 
George Washington, in the Pan American Building, Washington, D. C, on February 22, 1932. 



42 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



43 



of the Washington family at Wakefield Manor 
from the time the title was taken by John Wash- 
ington the immigrant, great grandfather of George 
Washington, early in 1657, until it passed into 
other hands more than a century later. The 
speaker recalled the fact that both George Wash- 
ington's father and grandfather were born at 
Wakefield. John Washington, he said, was associ- 
ated with Nathaniel Bacon in the rebellion against 
the royal governor Berkeley, thus identifying this 
family for a century with the forces arrayed 
against the mis-rule of the English kings. 

Speaker Brown called attention to the fact that 
within the past month the Wakefield Manor prop- 
erty had been deeded to the National Park Service, 
thereby giving assurance for all times the affection 
of the American people for this birthplace of 
Washington will find expression through this im- 
portant department of our government. Recall- 
ing the presence of the Potomac River in the near 
distance, Speaker Brown declared that "it seems 
the ebb and flow of the tides of this river carry 
the pulse of affection between Wakefield Manor, 
the place of Washington's Birth and Mount Ver- 
non, his final resting place." 

In his address Senator Norris asserted: 

This privilege of speaking to you has been given to me 
because in the district represented by me in the Virginia 
Senate are located Epping Forest, the birthplace of Mary 
Ball, the mother of Washington, and Wakefield, the birth- 
place of Augustine Washington, father of George Washing- 
ton, and of George Washington. 

He declared that at no other place in the United 
States could the opening exercises of the United 
States Celebration more appropriately be held. 
George Washington, he recalled, became a member 
of the House of Burgesses on his 27th birthday 
anniversary, February 22, 1759: 

Two hundred years ago on this day, at this place and at 
this hour, George Washington was born. The General 
Assembly of Virginia now in regular session at Richmond 
has set aside this entire day in which to pay tribute to the 
memory of her great son. The Governor of Virginia and 
the entire General Assembly are pilgrims today to Wakefield, 
Fredericksburg, Alexandria and Mount Vernon. 

The ceremony at Wakefield was broadcast over 
a nation-wide radio hook-up. 

Throughout the entire State of Virginia Cele- 
brations were held on February 21 and 22 by 
Sunday schools, and patriotic and civic organiza- 
tions. Notable memorial services were held in St. 
George's Episcopal Church in Fredericksburg. The 



sermon was delivered by the Reverend St. George 
Tucker, D.D., Bishop of the Diocese of Virginia. 

Immediately after the church service the entire 
assembly made its way to the grave of Mary, the 
mother of Washington. Gathered at the monu- 
ment, the Bishop of Virginia offered a short prayer 
and wreaths were then laid by representatives of 
many states, patriotic societies, members of local 
civic and fraternal societies and prominent indi- 
viduals. 

In Richmond, the state capital, the entire legis- 
lative day was given over to the honoring of the 
memory of George Washington. The legislators 
witnessed the unveiling of the Washington Bicen- 
tennial Memorial at the John Marshall Hotel, which 
was followed by a formal Washington Bicentennial 
Service in the State Capitol. There was also a 
ceremony at the Equestrian Statue of George 
Washington in Capitol Square, and a beautiful 
colonial ball. 

An interesting ceremony was held at St. John's 
Episcopal Church of Elizabeth City Parish, the 
oldest parish in continuous existence in America. 

Congress Honors Mary Ball Washington 

Under the Authority of House Concurrent 
Resolution No. 19, a Committee representing both 
Houses of Congress went to Fredericksburg 
on the morning of February 22 and laid two 
wreaths upon the grave of Mary Ball Washington, 
the mother of the first President. The Senate was 
represented by Honorable Carter Glass and the 
House of Representatives by Representative S. O. 
Bland. Wreaths were also laid on behalf of the 
President and Mrs. Hoover. 

Pan American Ceremonies 

On February 22, 1932, at 11 A. M., the 
Governing Board of the Pan American Union, 
composed of the representatives of the 20 Republics 
of Latin America and the Secretary of State of 
the United States, met in special session to com- 
memorate the day. The assemblage in the impos- 
ing Hall of the Americas of the Pan American 
Union was but a small part of those who shared 
in the ceremonies, broadcast over nation-wide 
chains throughout the United States and also sent 
by short wave to all the other countries of the 
American Continent. The Marine Band orchestra 
played a program of music as part of the exercises. 



44 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



The Vice Chairman of the Board, His Excellency 
Dr. Orestes Ferrara, Ambassador of Cuba, made 
an eloquent address on behalf of his colleagues, 
paying homage to Washington in the following 
words: 

The great principles which sum up the experiences of 
mankind do not suffice to show us the path of duty and 
the road to salvation in times of difficulty. On the other 
hand, the life of a man, converted into a symbol, may domi- 
nate our minds, guide our hearts, and elevate our spirits. A 
great man is the noblest work of God, for he is the incarna- 
tion of beauty and goodness, of honor and service, of that 
eternal virtue which illumines the straight and narrow way 
of thought and deed. 

George Washington is one of the beacons placed at inter- 
vals along the highroad of history. For his country he 
serves as a guide in time of stress and a refuge in tranquil 
moments; a never-failing example of true goodness; a warn- 
ing to turbulent youth; and a mute accusation of selfish 
interests. Thus it is always he who vivifies the moral 
principles of his fellow countrymen. The difficult and ab- 
sorbing scene in which he played the leading role did not 
mar his personality. He was a redoubtable agitator because 
the times required it, yet he always preserved his serenity 
of spirit; he was an energetic revolutionary, imbued, how- 
ever, with the ideal of order; he was a politician, but not 
an opportunist; a citizen of a new democracy, but not a 
martyr. His character was admired by his contemporaries 
and is venerated by posterity. 

Washington is an example of perfect balance, of perfect 
harmony. He was equally great in peace and in war, in 
the little acts of daily life and in the principles which he 
followed with constancy and devotion. 

The people of the United States, with legitimate pride, 
hold him their greatest glory. But although Washington 
gave himself only to the service of the thirteen Colonies of 
North America, his life is a heritage belonging to the whole 
world. Virtue claims him for her own and, regardless of 
frontiers, makes him a citizen of every corner of the globe. 

The example of Washington, the chief leader in securing 
the independence of his country, was an inspiration to the 
free governments organized on the vast continent discovered 
by Spain. The American Revolution was a notable step 
forward along the path of progressive ideas and because of 
this, as well as for geographical reasons, it had a far-reaching 
effect on the peoples to the South of the United States. All 
the institutions erected on the ruins of Colonial rule were 
modeled on the constitution which their brethren of the North 
had previously written for themselves. 

In the heroic struggle for independence throughout the 
wide lands of Latin America, many were the illustrious and 
glorious leaders who, with magnificent generosity, offered 
their strength and their intellect to the cause of Liberty. 
To them the name of Washington was a shining symbol, 
and each son of a new Republic who rendered the greatest 
service to the nascent democracy was figuratively called the 
"Washington" of his country. 

The precedent that no President should succeed himself 
for a third term, although not included in the Constitution 



of the United States by the signers of that document, was 
nevertheless established by Washington in his country by 
his own volition. Latin America, however, adopted this 
principle in its written constitutions, maintaining it not- 
withstanding crises and lapses. The precedent set by George 
Washington in refusing to bow to the will of the majority 
of his compatriots, who would have elected him to the 
Presidency for the third time, has for more than a century 
been the Latin American constitutional principle that is most 
cherished and respected by the masses. 

The parting advice given to his fellow citizens in his 
Farewell Address, not to take part in European struggles and 
not to intervene in the controversies which geography and 
history might occasion in that noble and ancient continent, 
was a solemn warning heeded also by Latin America. The 
statesmen of the twenty Republics which were successively 
established managed to keep themselves aloof from the con- 
fused fluctuations of European politics, thus preventing the 
balance of power in Europe, when disturbed, from being 
redressed as a result of conflict in America, according to 
the phrase and the desire of an eminent statesman of the 
last century. 

Universal applause, without dissent and without reserve, 
is a worthy tribute to the admirable picture presented by 
the life of George Washington. The voice of his soul told 
him that only noble purposes and good deeds inspire and 
nourish unselfishness. His mental powers gave him, from 
his earliest years, a clear comprehension of the fact that in 
our mortal life the part reserved for each one of us is but 
small and fleeting, for from birth we live with others and 
for others. His penetrating intelligence, trained in the school 
of integrity, taught him that all men, even confirmed egoists, 
look outside themselves to study the great truths handed 
down from age to age and to strive eagerly in fathoming 
the secrets of that future which they themselves will not 
see. Washington in his maturity learned how to impose 
upon himself and his soldiers the supreme sacrifice in homage 
to an ideal. 

His life was a hymn in praise of honor, uprightness, and 
patriotism. Therefore, on this day, the two hundredth 
anniversary of his birth, let us hail a man whose personality, 
at once martial and benevolent, is our inspiration in hours 
of sorrow as well as in hours of rejoicing. 

The Chairman of the Board, Honorable Henry 
L. Stimson, Secretary of State, responded on behalf 
of the Government of the United States: 

Permit me to express to you the deep appreciation of the 
Government of the United States for the fine tribute which 
you have today paid to the memory of Washington. The 
eloquent address of the Vice Chairman of the Board, His 
Excellency the Ambassador of Cuba, which has been heard 
far beyond the confines of this building, will, I am certain, 
make a deep impression on the people of this country. 

Washington belongs to that great company of patriots — 
founders of the Republics of this continent — animated by a 
common purpose and inspired by a common ideal. In honor- 
ing his memory we are in a very real sense doing honor to 
those principles upon which rests the fabric of government 
throughout the American Continent. 



Formal Celebration in Congress-1932 




h¥ THE many thousands of celebrations 
* in all parts of the world honoring the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington, the most 
impressive was that which was held in the House 
of Representatives in the United States Capitol at 
noon February 22, 1932. This was the official 
recognition of the government of the United States 
of an event which it had sponsored and which it 
desired to endorse officially on the one day of each 
year which the Congress devotes to eulogies of the 
First President. It has been the custom for many 
years for both Houses of the Congress to assemble 
in the hall of the House of Representatives of the 
National Capitol for this purpose. 

Special preparations had been made for the 
observance of the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington on February 
22, 1932. Both Houses of the Congress met as 
usual and then recessed. At noon, the doorkeeper 
of the House announced the Vice President of the 
United States and members of the United States 
Senate. 

The members of the House arose. 

The Senate, preceded by the Vice President and 
by the Secretary and Sergeant-at-Arms, entered 
the Chamber. 

The Vice President took the chair at the right 
of the Speaker, and the Members of the Senate 
took the seats reserved for them. 

The doorkeeper announced the following guests, 
who took the places assigned to them: 

The Chief Justice of the United States and the 
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

The ambassadors and ministers and charges 
d'affaires of foreign governments. 

The Chief of Staff of the United States Army, 
the Chief of Naval Operations of the United States 
Navy, the Major General Commandant of United 
States Marine Corps and the Commandant of the 
United States Coast Guard. 

The Governor of Virginia and the Governor of 
North Dakota. 

The United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission and members of the District 
of Columbia Bicentennial Commission. 

The representatives of the family of George 
Washington. 



The members of the President's Cabinet. 

The President of the United States. 

The President was escorted to the Speaker's 
rostrum. 

At the entrance of the President the service 
bands of the Army, Navy and Marines, under the 
leadership of the late John Philip Sousa, played 
"Hail to the Chief." 

The Interstate Male Chorus and the audience, 
under the direction of Commissioner Clyde B. 
Aitchison, sang two verses of America. 

The Vice President took the chair and recognized 
Representative Woodrum of Virginia, a member of 
the Joint Committee on Arrangements. Mr. 
Woodrum announced that the following concur- 
rent resolution had been passed by Congress January 
20, 1932: 

RESOLVED BY THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
(THE SENATE CONCURRING), That in commemoration 
of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington the two Houses of Congress shall assemble in the 
Hall of the House of Representatives at 11:30 o'clock A. M. 
on Monday, February 22, 1932. 

That the President of the United States, as the chairman 
of the United States Commission for the Celebration of the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington, is hereby invited to address the American people in 
the presence of the Congress in commemoration of the Bicen- 
tennial anniversary of the birth of the first President of the 
United States. 

That invitations to attend the ceremony be extended to the 
members of the Cabinet, the Chief Justice and Associate 
Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, the 
Diplomatic Corps (through the Secretary of State), the 
General of the Armies, the Chief of Naval Operations, and 
the Major General Commandant of the Marine Corps, and 
such other persons as the joint committee on arrangements 
shall deem proper. 

Following the reading of the resolution the In- 
terstate Male Chorus sang "The Recessional," by 
Reginald DeKoven. 

The Vice President recognized the Vice Chair- 
man of the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission, Senator Fess of Ohio, who 
presented the President of the United States in the 
following words: 

President Hoover, ladies and gentlemen, for the first time 
in the history of mankind a nation is celebrating in an all- 
year program the memory of its founder. Not only all 
America and all Americans, wherever found, but most coun- 
tries throughout the world are paying tribute today to the 
memory of George Washington. It is proper that this pro- 
gram begin in the Capital of his country, in the city that 
bears his name. It is eminently fitting and appropriate that 
it should be opened by the present head of the Government 
of which Washington is known as the father and was the 



45 




46 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



47 



first President. To those in this official assembly and to those 
listening in on two hemispheres, I present the President of the 
United States. 

President Hoover then addressed the brilliant 
and distinguished assembly in an address of pro- 
found eloquence. This address follows: 

ADDRESS 

OF 

HERBERT HOOVER 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

Delivered at a Joint Session of Congress 
February 22, 1932 

Just one hundred years ago in this city Daniel Webster, in com- 
memoration of the birth of George Washington, said: 

"A hundred years hence, other disciples of Washington 
will celebrate his birth with no less of sincere admiration 
than we now commemorate it. When they shall meet, as 
we now meet, to do themselves and him that honor, so 
surely as they shall see the blue summits of his native moun- 
tains rise in the horizon, so surely as they shall behold the 
river on whose banks he lived, and on whose banks he rests, 
still flowing on toward the sea, so surely may they see, as 
we now see, the flag of the Union floating on top of the 
Capitol; and then, as now, may the sun in his course visit 
no land more free, more happy, more lovely, than this, our 
own country." 
The time that Webster looked forward to is here. We "other 
disciples of Washington" whom he foresaw are gathered today. 
His prophecy is borne out, his hope fulfilled. That flag "still 
floats from the top of the Capitol." It has come unscathed 
through foreign war and the threat of internal division. Its only 
change is the symbol of growth. The thirteen stars that Wash- 
ington saw, and the twenty-four that Webster looked upon, now 
are forty-eight. The number of those who pay loyalty to that 
flag has multiplied tenfold. The respect for it beyond our 
borders, already great when Webster spoke a hundred years ago. 
has increased — not only in proportion to the power it symbolizes, 
but even more by the measure in which other peoples have em- 
braced the ideals for which it stands. To Webster's expression of 
hope we may reasonably answer, Yes — "The sun in his course 
visits no land more free, more happy, more lovely, than this, our 
own country." Proudly we report to our forefathers that the 
Republic is more secure, more constant, more powerful, more 
truly great than at any other time in its history. 

Today the American people begin a period of tribute and grati- 
tude to this man whom we revere above all other Americans. 
Continuing until Thanksgiving Day they will commemorate his 
birth in every home, every school, every church, and every com- 
munity under our flag. 

In all this multitude of shrines and forums they will recount 
the life history and accomplishments of Washington. It is a 
time in which we will pause to recall for our own guidance, and 
to summarize and emphasize for the benefit of our children, the 
experiences, the achievements, the dangers escaped, the errors re- 
dressed — all the lessons that constitute the record of our past. 

The ceremonial of commemorating the founder of our country 
is one of the most solemn that either an individual or a nation 
ever performs; carried out in high spirit it can be made one of 



the most fruitful and enriching. It is a thing to be done in the 
mood of prayer, of communing with the spiritual springs of patri- 
otism and of devotion to country. It is an occasion for looking 
back to our past, for taking stock of our present, and, in the light 
of both, setting the compass for our future. We look back that 
we may recall those qualities of Washington's character which 
made him great, those principles of national conduct which he 
laid down, and by which we have come thus far. We meet to 
reestablish our contact with them, renew our fidelity to them. 

From this national revival of interest in the history of the 
American Revolution and of the independence of the United 
States will come a renewal of those inspirations which streng- 
thened the patriots who brought to the world a new concept of 
human liberty and a new form of government. 

So rich and vivid is the record of history, that Washington 
in our day lives again in the epic of the foundation of the Re- 
public. He appears in the imagination of every succeeding gen- 
eration as the embodiment of the wisdom, the courage, the 
patience, the endurance, the statesmanship, and the absence of all 
mean ambition, which transformed scattered communities of the 
forest and the frontiers into a unity of free and independent 
people. 

It is not necessary for me to attempt a eulogy of George Wash- 
ington. That has been done by masters of art and poetry during 
more than a hundred years. To what they have said I attempt 
to make no addition. 

The true eulogy of Washington is this mighty Nation. He 
contributed more to its origins than any other man. The influ- 
ence of his character and of his accomplishments has contributed 
to the building of human freedom and ordered liberty, not alone 
upon this continent but upon all continents. The part which 
he played in the creation of our institutions has brought daily 
harvest of happiness to hundreds of millions of humanity. The 
inspirations from his genius have lifted the vision of succeeding 
generations. The definitions of those policies in government 
whch he fathered have stood the test of 150 years of strain and 
stress. 

From the inspiration and the ideals which gave birth to this 
Nation, there has come the largest measure of liberty that man 
has yet devised. So securely were the foundations of this free 
Government laid that the structure has been able to adapt itself 
to the changing world relations, the revolutions of invention and 
the revelations of scientific discovery, the fabulous increase of 
population and of wealth, and yet to stand the kaleidoscopic 
complexities of life which these changes have brought upon it. 

What other great, purely human institution, devised in the 
era of the stage coach and the candle, has so marvelously grown 
and survived into this epoch of the steam engine, the airplane, 
the incandescent lamp, the wireless telephone, and the battleship? 

If we are to get refreshment to our ideals from looking back- 
ward to Washington, we should strive to identify the qualities in 
him that made our revolution a success and our Nation great. 
Those were the qualities that marked Washington out for im- 
mortality. 

We find they were not spectacular qualities. He never 
charged with a victorious army up the capital streets of a con- 
quered enemy. Excepting only Yorktown and Trenton, he won 
no striking victories. His great military strength was in the 



48 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



strategy of attrition, the patient endurance of adversity, stead- 
fast purpose unbent by defeat. The American shrine most 
associated with Washington is Valley Forge, and Valley Forge 
was not a place of victory — except the victory of Washington's 
fortitude triumphant above the weakness and discouragement of 
lesser men. Washington had courage without excitement, 
determination without passion. 

The descriptions of George Washington by his contemporaries 
give us no clear picture of the inner man, the Washington whose 
spiritual force so palpably dominated his whole epoch. As a 
mirror, his own writings do him indifferent justice, whilst the 
writings of others are clouded by their awe or are obscured by 
their venom. We must deduce mainly from other records why 
he stood out head and shoulders above all the crowd around him. 
It was an extraordinary crowd, living at white heat, comprising 
men as varied, as brilliant, as versatile as the extraordinary de- 
mands which the times made upon them. They were men flexible 
in intellect, and versed in the ways of the world. Yet in every 
crisis, and for very role, they turned to Washington. They 
forced upon him the command of Indian fighters; they made him 
a general against trained British troops; they demanded that he 
be a constitutionalist and a national statesman; they insisted he 
must guide his country through the skillful ambushes of Euro- 
pean kings; they summoned him to establish the nonexistent 
credit of an insolvent infant nation. Why did his brilliant 
fellow-patriots always thus turn to him? 

The answer of history is unmistakable: They brought their 
problems to Washington because he had more character, a finer 
character, a purer character, than any other man of his time. In 
all the shifting pressures of his generation, all men acknowledged 
that the one irresistible force was the overwhelming impact of 
his moral power. Motives and men were measured by their 
stature when standing in his shadow. Slander fell harmless 
before him, sham hung its head in shame, folly did not risk to 
look him in the face, corruption slunk from his presence, 
cowardice dared not show its quaking knees. 

In his integrity, all our men of genius in his day found their 
one sure center of agreement. In his wisdom and authority they 
found the one sure way to practical fulfillment of their dreams. 

We need no attempt to canonization of George Washington. 
We know he was human, subject to the discouragements and 
perplexities that come to us all. We know that he had moments 
of deepest anxiety. We know of his sufferings, and the sacrifices 
and anguish that came to him. We know of his resentment of 
injustice and misrepresentation. And yet we know that he 
never lost faith in our people. 

Nor have I much patience with those who undertake the irra- 
tional humanizing of Washington. He had, indeed, the fine 
qualities of friendliness, of sociableness, of humanness, of simple 
hospitality; but we have no need to lower our vision from his 
unique qualities of greatness, or to seek to depreciate the unparal- 
leled accomplishments of the man who dominated and gave birth 
to the being of a great nation. 

What we have need of today in this celebration is to renew 
in our people the inspiration that comes from George Washington 
as a founder of human liberty, as the father of a system of 
government, as the builder of a system of national life. 

It is of primary importance that we of today shall renew that 
spark of immortal purpose which burned within him, shall know 



of the resolution and the steadfastness which carried him for- 
ward to the establishment of a Nation. That establishment was 
not a momentary flash of impulse in a people rebellious and pas- 
sionate under oppression, destined to fade into a dictatorship or 
the chaos so often born of revolutions. On the contrary, it was 
builded upon foundations of principles and ideals which have 
given the power and strength that made this Nation and inspired 
the establishment of ordered liberty in a score of other nations. 

We have need to refresh to the remembrance of the American 
people the great tests and trials of character of the men who 
founded our Republic. We have need to remember the fiber of 
those men who brought to successful conclusion the eight years 
of revolution. We have need again to bring forth the picture 
of the glories and the valor of Lexington and Concord, of Bunker 
Hill, the sufferings and fortitude of Valley Forge, the victory of 
Yorktown. We have need to revive the meaning and the sheer 
moral courage of the Declaration of Independence, the struggle 
of the Continental Congress, the forming of the Constitution. 
We have need at all times to review the early crises of the 
Republic, the consolidation of the Union, the establishment of 
national solidarity, the building of an administration of govern- 
ment, and the development of guarantees of freedom. No inci- 
dent and no part of these great events, which have echoed and 
reechoed throughout the world for a century and a half, can be 
separated from the name and the dominant leadership of George 
Washington. 

Upon these foundations of divine inspiration laid by our fore- 
fathers, and led by Washington, our Nation has builded up 
during this century and a half a new system of life, a system 
unique to the American people. It is hallowed by the sacrifice 
and glorious valor of men. It is assured by a glorious charter 
of human rights. 

It comprises a political system of self-government by the ma- 
jority, resting upon the duties of individual men to the com- 
munity, and of the local communities to the Nation. It is a 
government designed in spirit to sustain a dual purpose; to pro- 
tect our people among nations by great national power, and to 
preserve individual freedom by local self-government. 

It comprises a social system free of inherited position, based 
upon the ideal of equality of all men before the law, the equal 
privilege of men to strive and to achieve, and the responsibilities 
of men to their neighbors. 

It embraces an economic system based upon the largest degree 
of freedom and stimulation to initiative and enterprise which 
can be permitted and still maintain the ideal of equality of oppor- 
tunity among men. 

Finally, it embraces a system of relationships to other nations 
based upon no thought of imperialism, no desire to dominate; a 
determined national self-reliance in defense and independence in 
action; freedom from all commitment to the unknown future, 
and an aspiration to promote peace and good will among all men. 

Perhaps no single part of this system is different from some 
instance in history or in some part of the world. But in its 
composite form it is distinctly unique and distinctly American, a 
system under which we have reached an assured position among 
the most powerful of the nations of the world. 

This destiny of national greatness was clearly foreseen by 
George Washington. More fully than any man of his time was 
he gifted with vision of the future. He spoke habitually of the 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



49 



"American Empire," and predicted its expansion from ocean to 
ocean. He planned and wrought for the binding forces of trans- 
portation and peaceful commerce. He thought in terms of 
almost imperial grandeur, and he wrought in terms of republican 
solidity. His far-flung dreams have come true, and he lives today 
in his works, in the names of our towns or cities and our States, 
and in the affectionate reverence of us who so immeasurably 
benefit by his wisdom. 

Our American system of national life is dependent upon a 
trust in the principles of government as established by George 
Washington; a trust in his example to our people; a trust in and 
a devotion to religious faith, which he himself so devoutly prac- 
tised; a trust in that divine inspiration which he so sedulously 
invoked and which is expressed in the common mind of our 
people; and above all a trust in the Divine Providence which 
has always given guidance to our country. 

From Washington's spirit there has grown an infusion of social 
ideals with the quality of magnanimity: upholding prosperity 
with generosity, dignity with forbearance, security without 
privilege, which has raised our institutions to a level of humanity 
and nobility nowhere else attained. 

We have the faith that Webster expressed, that a hundred 
years hence our countrymen will again celebrate his birth, will 
review the memory of his services with no less sincere admiration 
and gratitude than we now commemorate it, and that they too 
will see, as we now see, "the flag of the Union floating on the 
top of the Capitol." 

From the room where I conduct my high office I hourly see 
the monument which Washington's proud and grateful country- 
men have raised to his memory. It stands foursquare to the 
world, its base rooted steadfast in the solid substance of American 
soil. Its peak rises towards the heavens with matchless serenity 
and calm. Massive in its proportions, as was the character of 
Washington himself, overwhelming in its symmetry, simplicity, 
and sincerity, it most fittingly, beautifully, and nobly proclaims 
the founder of our commonwealth and our acceptance of his 
faith. Around that monument have grown steadily and surely 
the benevolent and beneficent agencies of orderly government 
dedicated to the spirit of Washington. 

Beyond any other monument built by the hand of man out 
of clay and stone, this shaft is a thing of the spirit. Whether 
seen in darkness or in light, in brightness or in gloom, there is 
about it a mantle of pure radiance which gives it the aspect of 
eternal truth. It is a pledge in the sight of all mankind, given 
by Washington's countrymen, to carry forward the continuing 
fulfillment of his vision of America. 

Following this address the assembly rose and sang 
"The Star-Spangled Banner." The Vice President 
then dissolved the Joint Session and the President 
of the United States and the entire audience pro- 
ceeded to the east front of the Capitol where a vast 
crowd has assembled awaiting the appearance of 
the President. 

Dr. George C. Havenner, Executive Vice Chair- 
man of the District of Columbia George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission called the assembly 



to order and presented Dr. Cloyd Heck Marvin, 
Chairman of the District of Columbia George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, who pre- 
sided. On the arrival of the President "Hail to 
the Chief" was played by the massed bands of the 
United States Army, United States Navy and 
United States Marine Corps, conducted by Lieut. 
Commander John Philip Sousa. 

At a signal given by the President, the entire 
assembly joined in the singing of "America." A 
national and international radio hook-up made 
possible the simultaneous singing of this hymn all 
over the United States and abroad. Chief among 
the singing units were 10,000 Washington school 
children and an adult chorus of 2,000. The sing- 
ing upon the plaza was conducted by Dr. Walter 
Damrosch, accompanied by the service bands. 

An address of welcome was given by Dr. Luther 
H. Reichelderfer, President of the Board of Com- 
missioners of the District of Columbia who spoke 
as follows: 

Mr. President and fellow citizens, my task today, although 
brief, is none the less a privileged one, as we stand here at the 
heart of the Government to commemorate the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington. 

Here in enduring stone and standing four square to every 
storm, is the temple of our political liberties, the expression in 
objective and visible form of those principles of liberty and 
self-government which Washington gave to our Nation and 
through our Nation to all the world. No more fitting place 
could be found for this solemn commemoration. 

My duty today is the more pleasant because of the inti- 
mate partnership between the Federal and District of Colum- 
bia Governments. As a representative of what Washington 
himself liked to call the Federal City, I welcome to these 
ceremonies all those who have come here today to honor the 
founder of our Capital City, not only our fellow Americans 
from far and near, but the sojourners within our gates from 
foreign shores. The lesson which Washington taught us is 
larger than mere local boundaries, and we desire nothing 
narrow or restricted in the scope and spirit of the celebration 
here in this city which honors Washington's memory by its 
very name. 

Everything about him was big, broad, national, indeed, 
international and universal in its appeal. So we are glad to 
have such a diversified and cosmopolitan assemblage for these 
opening exercises. We ask all the world to join in this 
Bicentennial festival and to rejoice with us today. In that 
spirit the National Capital greets you and bids you welcome. 

Following this address, Honorable James M. Beck, 

Representative in Congress from Pennsylvania, 

spoke as follows: 

Mr. President and my fellow citizens, it is a gracious im- 
pulse, inspired by sentiments of pious gratitude, which has 
today brought these thousands to the Capitol of the Nation 
to honor the birthday of Washington. Such a ceremonial is 
a sacred debt to the dead, a like duty to the unborn, and the 
living generation can gain fresh inspiration and courage in 
these trying times by recalling his character and achievements. 
Today, as always, his character is "as the shadow of a great 
rock in a weary land." It is our noblest heritage. 



50 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



I am greatly honored in being asked to interpret, in a few 
words, the spirit of the occasion. I shall attempt no formal 
eulogy. The eloquent tribute to the memory of Washington 
which has just been made in the Halls of Congress by his 
lineal successor in the great office of President of the United 
States makes any other eulogy of Washington on this occasion 
an idle superfluity. Indeed, any eulogy must be inadequate, 
for the immortal substance of his reputation defies definition, 
and posterity contents itself by saying, with Abraham Lin- 
coln: "In solemn awe we pronounce the name, and in its naked 
deathless splendor leave it shining on." 

The fame of Washington is as a fixed star, whose benignant 
rays will illuminate the ages for uncounted centuries to come. 
He belongs to the few among mortal men whose fame is time- 
less. 

Ordinarily, it is presumptuous for a living generation to 
anticipate, as to any character in history, the judgment of 
posterity. Reputations come and go. Those that may seem 
great and lasting for a century or more too soon become as 
those airy streaks of cloud which, with the first breath of a 
new morning, "fade into the infinite azure of the past." 

Walking once in Westminster Abbey, where kings and 
queens are mingled in the promiscuity of death, a verger told 
me that Dean Stanley had had a long search for the grave of 
a king who had been buried in some former century with 
pomp and circumstance. It recalls the sad comment of Ed- 
mund Burke: "What shadows we are and what shadows we 
pursue." 

The Greeks of the classic age realized the presumption of 
such anticipations of posterity when they condemned Phidias 
to prison for sacrilege because he had sought to perpetuate his 
name by furtively chiseling his own image upon the shield of 



Minerva. And if this were true in simpler days, it is even 
more true in this age of crowded and fast-speeding wonders, 
when, as the collective power of civilization waxes, the indi- 
vidual wanes. "The best of this kind are but shadows." It 
thus becomes increasingly hazardous to assign to any man a 
place among the immortals. 

And yet there is born each century a man of whom it can 
be safely said that his fame defies that never-ending stream of 
time which washes away the dissoluble substance of temporary 
reputations. Such a man is Washington. The ages have 
enthroned him in the great arena of history as a Homeric 
king of men, and before him the unending generations pass 
with the salutation, "Morituri, te salutamus." His preemi- 
nence can be tested by the fact that if the wise and good of 
all the cultural nations of our present civilization were asked 
to select the three noblest characters of history, the name of 
Washington would be on almost every list. Name another 
of whom this could be said. 

It can be said of few men, moreover, that they were the 
founders of a state, for these mighty organisms rarely evolve 
from the predominant work of one man. There have, how- 
ever, been a few such founders — Alexander, Caesar, Charle- 
magne, and Napoleon. Their empires have all vanished, but 
the great Republic, which Washington founded, and which is 
his noblest monument, remains, and will remain as long as his 
people are faithful to his ideals of government. Never before 
was its power so great or its prestige so resplendent. Its star 
is still ascendant in the constellation of the nations, for who 
can ignore the momentous shifting of the world's center of 
gravity in the last half century. To those ancient seats of 
power on the Nile, the Tiber, the Danube, the Rhine, the 
Seine, and the Thames can now be added the Hudson and the 




The National Capital Ooserves Washington's Birthday. Under the direction of Dr. Walter 

Damkosch, a throng of 20,000 people gathered in front of the Capitol on February 22, 1932, 

and sang patriotic songs as part of the washington, d. c. observance. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



5 1 



Potomac. As the Republic grows in power and majesty, the 
fame of Washington becomes more resplendent. 

To exert a beneficent influence in the councils of civiliza- 
tion the Republic need only follow his wise advice, as elo- 
quently set forth in that noblest testament that the founder 
of a state ever gave to his people, the immortal Farewell 
Address. Speaking as "an old and affectionate friend," not 
only to his generation but to all that were to follow in the 
tide of time, Washington advised his people not to implicate 
themselves "in the ordinary vicissitudes of her [European] 
politics, or the ordinary combinations and collusions of her 
friendships, or enmities." His reiteration of the word "ordi- 
nary" is most significant. It implies that in extraordinary 
crises of civilization America should not pursue a policy of 
isolation but should assume its due share of the collective 
responsibility of nations for the maintenance of peace through 
justice. He would still recognize that elemental forces in- 
finitely greater than political institutions have united the once 
scattered nations in a world community of purpose and action. 

He believed that America should be a helpful member in 
the family of nations, but without sacrificing its independence 
in decision and action by any entangling alliance. Such 
would be his policy to-day, for, to quote his own words, he 
would have us "independent of all and under the influence 
of none." 

He gave us the shining ideal and ultimate objective of 
our foreign policy in urging us always "to give to mankind the 
magnanimous and too novel example of a people always 
guided by an exalted justice and benevolence." 

As all great and noble soldiers, he deprecated war, except 
as a last resort, and yet regarded it as preferable to a craven 
acquiescence in injustice, for in accepting the command of 
our Army he announced his belief that even peace could be 
too dearly purchased. When he delivered his fifth annual 
address in December, 1793, the world was, to quote his own 
words, "in an uproar," and the difficult task of the United 
States was, as he then said, to "steer safely between Scylla 
and Charybdis." Recognizing that perpetual peace could 
never come while the spirit of injustice remained, he solemnly 
warned his Nation "not to indulge a persuasion that, contrary 
to the order of human events, they will forever keep at a 
distance those painful appeals to arms with which the his- 
tory of every other nation abounds." And he solemnly added: 
"There is a rank due to the United States among nations 
which will be withheld, if not absolutely lost, by the reputa- 
tion of weakness. If we desire to avoid insult, we must be 
able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace, one of the most 
powerful instruments of our rising prosperity, it must be 
known that we are at all times ready for war." 

He never believed, however, that preparations for war 
would alone insure peace. With nations, as with individuals, 
peaceful relations must in the last analysis depend upon a 
mutual spirit of "good faith and justice." Therefore, he 
urged that we should at all times observe such "good faith 
and justice towards all nations [and] cultivate peace and 
harmony with all." To observe that policy in its letter and 
spirit is to be true to Washington, to ourselves; and if we 
are thus true, we can not then be false to any nation. 

He would have welcomed the present noble effort of the 
nations to insure peace by an equitable limitation of arms, 
with its resulting growth in the spirit of amity, for one of the 
last letters he ever wrote contained the declaration that it was 
"time to sheath" the sword of war and "give peace to man- 
kind"; but he had no illusions as to its possibility until all 
nations had a sincere desire for justice as the only basis of 
peace. Let us today reverently thank the God of our fathers 
not only for the words and deeds of Washington, but for the 
lasting inspiration of his noble character. It illuminates, as 
none other, the very soul of America. From his simple grave 
in Mount Vernon he still guides the destinies of the American 



people. When the seas are smooth we may little feel his 
presence and sometimes are unmindful of his wise admoni- 
tions; but when the ship of state plunges into a storm and 
is threatened by angry seas his mighty shade is again in our 
consciousness as the true and eternal helmsman of the 
Republic. 

There is a painting by the great English artist, Burne- 
Jones, which depicts the closing incident of that Arthurian 
saga which embodies the chivalry of our English-speaking 
race. The picture reveals King Arthur upon his deathbed at 
Avalon. Over a couch hangs his sword with which he had 
defended his people, and beside the bed stands a trumpeter 
who, if ever England were in desperate need, would sound 
his trumpet, at whose call King Arthur would rise again from 
his couch of death in defense of his nation. 

Our Arthur — bravest of the brave and knightliest of the 
knightly, — sleeps at Mount Vernon, but whenever disaster 
menaces our institutions the American people again become 
conscious of his potent influence, for "the path of the just is 
as a shining light, which shineth more and more unto the 
perfect day." 

The school children then sang "Washington, 
Fair Capital," conducted by Dr. E. N. C. Barnes, 
accompanied by the United States Army Band, 
Captain William J. Stannard, leader. This was 
followed by a solo, "Carry Me Back to Old Vir- 
ginia," by Honorable Clifton A. Woodrum, Mem- 
ber of Congress from Virginia, accompanied by 
the United States Army Band. 

The school children then sang "To Thee, O 
Country," conducted by Professor A. H. Johnson, 
accompanied by the United States Navy Band, 
Lieut. Charles Benter, leader. 

The great "George Washington Bicentennial 
March" by Sousa was played by the massed bands 
of the United States Army, the United States 
Navy and the United States Marine Corps, con- 
ducted by the late Lieut. Commander John Philip 
Sousa. With the playing of "The Star-Spangled 
Banner," sung by the assemblage led by Dr. E. N. 
C. Barnes, accompanied by the United States 
Marine Band, Captain Taylor Branson, leader, the 
exercises were ended. 

President at Alexandria, Virginia 

Soon after the great demonstration at the east 
front of the Capitol, President and Mrs. Hoover, 
accompanied by members of the Cabinet, other 
high officials and members of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
visited Alexandria, Virginia, to review a patriotic 
parade. 

For two hours thousands of marchers in colorful 
array of revolutionary and modern days traveled 
over the streets in a long line of march through 
dense lines of spectators who crowded every pos- 
sible point of vantage. It was estimated that the 



n 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



pageant was viewed by 100,000 persons. The 
arrival of the President was signalized by a salute 
of 21 guns from naval vessels anchored in the 
nearby Potomac. Just before the arrival of the 
President, the Monticello Guards, attired in their 
historic Continental Army uniforms, paid a visit 
of honor to the grave of the Unknown Soldier of 
the Revolutionary War in the churchyard of the 
Old Presbyterian Meeting House. After this 
ceremony the Guards formed an honorary escort 
to the President and his party to the reviewing 
stand where the President and Mrs. Hoover were 



greeted by Governor John Garland Pollard of Vir- 
ginia and other guests were similarly greeted by 
Virginia dignitaries. 

Artillery, infantry and cavalry of the regular 
army, detachments of the Navy, Marine Corps 
and Coast Guards of Virginia and the District of 
Columbia National Guard units marched by the 
reviewing stand and saluted the Chief Magistrate. 
Then came the Monticello Guards, the Richmond 
Blues, the Richmond Grays, Petersburg Grays and 
other historic organizations which met with roars 
of applause from the masses along the festooned 




President Hoover at the Tomb of George Washington, Mount Vernon, Virginia, on February 22, 1932. 
The President laid the wreath on the tomb of the first President while hundreds of persons on the rolling 
grounds of the old Washington estate joined in silent tribute as the President stood bareheaded before the tomb. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



53 



boulevard. Veterans of the Spanish War and the 
World War, and many other interesting units of 
marchers filed past the reviewing stand. Numer- 
ous historic floats depicting scenes and incidents in 
the life of Washington formed a high spot of the 
gorgeous spectacle. 

President and Mrs. Hoover left the reviewing 
stand at 4:00 o'clock and proceeded to Mount 
Vernon where the President laid a wreath upon 
the tomb of George Washington. Returning to 
the Mount Vernon mansion, the President extended 
greetings to several thousand members of the 
National Education Association, gathered upon the 
lawn. Their visit to Mount Vernon was incidental 
to the meeting of their Convention in Washing- 
ton. To the teachers, President Hoover addressed 
these brief remarks: 

It is a signal event that the representatives of teachers of 
our whole country should meet at Mount Vernon this day 
because our teachers, more than any other group, have both 
the privilege and the duty to guide the steps in each new 
generation on the road of democracy, to instruct them with 
understanding and reverence for the spiritual benefits which 
flow from the history of this great man, and to instill our 
children with the accomplishments of the men who have made 
and guided our Nation. 

We meet here today in one of the places which physically 
in itself is enchanting and beautiful in its grounds, build- 
ings and associations, but it is not these which attract hither 
the steps or thoughts of millions of Americans. It is the 
memory and the spirit of the greatest man of our race which 
pervades these grounds; it is a national shrine, the very name 
of which swells our hearts with pride and gratitude. It has 
been preserved and cared for all these many years by the 
women of America, in whose trusteeship the Nation can find 
no greater assurance of its meaning, its sanctity and 
reverence. 



You have come from every part of our country — from 
homes, towns, cities and States unknown to Washington's 
life — yet each and every one of which received untold bless- 
ings from his life and his public service. To you more than 
any one else we entrust the translation of Washington to our 
children. 

At the conclusion of his address, President 
Hoover and his party re-entered their cars and 
returned to Washington. 

Washington's Lodge Celebrated 

Among all the thousands of celebrations held on 
February 22 in honor of the greatest American, 
none was more deeply significant than the tribute 
paid to Washington the Mason at a Masonic ban- 
quet held the evening of February 22 in the lodge 
room of the Alexandria-Washington Lodge, of 
which George Washington was the first Worshipful 
Master. It has been a custom of this lodge since 
the death of its most illustrious member to hold a 
meeting in commemoration of his life and services 
on the annual recurrence of his birthday. 

In the fellowship of the banquet, the Alexandria 
Masons were joined by representatives of the Con- 
stitutional Lodge of Beverly, England, and the 
Liberty Lodge of Beverly, Massachusetts. Ad- 
dresses were made by His Excellency, the Ambas- 
sador of Poland, Mr. Tytus Filipowicz; Most Wor- 
shipful Harry K. Green, Grand Master of Masons in 
Virginia; Right Reverend James E. Freeman, Bishop 
of Washington; and Honorable Allan T. Tread- 
way, Representative from Massachusetts. Dr. S. 
Nelson Gray, Worshipful Master of the Alex- 
andria-Washington Lodge, presided. 



The Bicentennial Ball 




||HE GREAT George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Ball, organized and sponsored 
by the United States George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission, was held 
in the City of Washington the night of February 
22, 1932. The event was the climax of a crowded 
day of brilliancy and color and momentous official 
recognition of the importance of the occasion. 
This great Colonial Ball and pageant rivaled in 
beauty and splendor any spectacle of its kind ever 
held in the National Capital, which is noted for 
its long list of glittering social events. The entire 
first floor of the Mayflower Hotel had been re- 
served for the ball and two thousand guests in 
colonial attire gave the scene an unrivaled charm 
and historical significance. 

The Vice President of the United States and the 



Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court 
were the ranking Governmental officials present. 

The pages of history were turned back to George 
Washington's time when the pageant of Colonial 
days opened the Ball in the great ballroom of the 
hotel. The pageant was a scene of bewildering 
beauty and was enacted by men and women in 
resplendent costumes. Many of the gowns and 
uniforms were heirlooms of old American families 
preserved from the period which they represented. 

The great Ball and Pageant was arranged by a 
special committee appointed by the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
under the supervision of the Director. The Com- 
mission is greatly indebted to Mrs. Walter R. Tuck- 
erman who was Chairman, Mrs. James Carroll 




The party of the Vice President of the United States, Honorable Charles Curtis, and his Sis- 
ter, Mrs. Edward Everett Gann. At the right is the party of the Chief Justice of the United 
States and Mrs. Charles Evans Hughes. 



54 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



55 



Frazer, Vice Chairman, and the committee which 
consisted of the following: 



Mrs. 
Mrs. Edward Everett Gann 
Mrs. John N. Garner 
Mrs. George Sutherland 
Mrs. Harlan Fiske Stone 
Mrs. Henry L. Stimson 
Mrs. Patrick J. Hurley 
Mrs. Walter F. Brown 
Mrs. Ray Lyman Wilbur 
Mrs. Robert P. Lamont 

Mrs. Charles Alden 
Mrs. Lars Anderson 
Mrs. A. A. Ballantine 
Mrs. James M. Beck 
Miss Mabel Boardman 
Mrs. Wilbur J. Carr 
Mrs. Robt. Hollister Chapman 
Mrs. William D. Connor 
Mrs. A. P. Gordon Cumming 
Mrs. Henry S. Dimock 
Mrs. Gibson Fahnestock 
Mrs. Frederick Gillett 
Mrs. McCormick Goodhart 
Annie M. Hegeman 
Robert Hinckley 
Rose Gouverneur Hoes 
s. Ernest Lee Jahncke 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mi 



Mrs. Marshall Langhorne 
Mrs. Demarest Lloyd 
Mrs. Cloyd Heck Marvin 
Mrs. Edward B. McLean 



Hoover 

Mrs. Charles Evans Hughes 
Mrs. William Van Devanter 
Mrs. Pierce Butler 
Mrs. Owen J. Roberts 
Mrs. Ogden L. Mills 
Mrs. William deWitt Mitchell 
Mrs. Charles Francis Adams 
Mrs. Arthur M. Hyde 
Mrs. William N. Doak 

Mrs. Chandler P. Anderson 
Mrs. Frederic Atherton 
Mrs. Sol Bloom 
Mrs. Mark Bristol 
Mrs. William R. Castle, Jr. 
Mrs. Sidney A. Cloman 
Mrs. Henry C. Corbin 
Mrs. John W. Davidge 
Mme. Ekengren 
Mrs. James Carroll Frazer 
Mrs. Charles Glover, Jr. 
Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor 
Mrs. Guy V. Henry 
Mrs. Reynolds Hitt 
Mrs. Davis S. Ingalls 
Mrs. Frederick Keep 
Mrs. Henry Leonard 
Mrs. Breckenridge Long 
Mrs. Nicholas Longworth 
Mrs. George T. Marye 
Mrs. Eugene Meyer 



Mrs. Frank B. Noyes 
Mrs. Eleanor Patterson 
Mrs. Walter G. Peter 
Mrs. William V. Pratt 
Mrs. Henry A. Strong 
Mrs. Corcoran Thorn 
Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman 
Mrs. Francis White 

The members of the Genera 
Thirteen States were: 



Mrs. Arthur O'Brien 

Mrs. Frederick Huff Payne 

Mrs. Mahlon Pitney 

Mrs. Mary Roberts Rinehart 

Mrs. Charles Shepard 

Mrs. William Howard Taft 

Mrs. Lawrence Townsend 

Mrs. J. Mayhew Wainwright 

1 Committee for the orginial 



VIRGINIA— 1607 
Mrs. John G. Pollard 
Mrs. Claude A. Swanson 
Mrs. Richard Evelyn Byrd 
Mrs. Spencer Carter 
Mrs. Richard Crane 
Mrs. Robert Daniel 



Mrs. Fairfax Harrison 
Mrs. J. Allison Hodges 
Miss Frances Scott 
Mrs. Alexander W. Weddell 



MASSACHUSETTS— 1 620 
Mrs. Joseph B. Ely 
Mrs. Marcus A. Coolidge 
Mrs. Copley Amory 
Mrs. William C. Endicott 
Mrs. Godfrey Cabot 
Mrs. John Lowell 



Hon. Edith Nourse Rogers 
Mrs. Nathaniel Thayer 
Mrs. Augustus Thorndike 
Mrs. Roger Wolcott 



NEW YORK— 1623 
Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt 
Mrs. Royal S. Copeland 

Mrs. F. Ashton DePeyster Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt 

Mrs. H. Casimir DeRham Miss Florence VanRensselaer 

Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James Mrs. Wm. B. VanRensselaer 

Honorable Ruth Baker Pratt 




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Facsimile of Appointment Announcement Sent to Members of the Various State Committees 
for the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, D. C. 



56 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



NEW HAMPSHIRE— 163 2 
Mrs. John G. Winant 
Mrs. Henry W. Keyes Mrs. George H. Moses 

Mrs. Charles MacVeagh Mrs. Gordon Woodbury 

Mrs. William H. Schofield 



Mrs. William L. Blackford 
Mrs. William Cabell Bruce 
Mrs. Bruce Cotten 
Mrs. William Ellicott 
Mrs. Bladen Lowndes 



MARYLAND— 1634 

Mrs. Tunstall Smith 
Mrs. DeCoursey Thorn 
Mrs. Miles White, Jr. 
Mrs. Huntington Williams 
Mrs. N. Winslow Williams 



RHODE ISLAND— 163 5 
Mrs. Norman S. Case 
Mrs. Jesse H. Metcalf Mrs. Felix Hebert 

Mrs. Richard S. Aldrich Mrs. Harold J. Gross 

Mrs. John N. Brown 
Mrs. Paul Fitzsimons 



Miss Maude Wetmore 



Lucius Robinson 
George C. F. Williams 



CONNECTICUT— 163 6 
Mrs. Wilbur Cross 
Mrs. Hiram Bingham 
Mrs. Frederick F. Brewster 
Mrs. Irving Chase 
Miss Annie B. Jennings 

NORTH CAROLINA— 1664 
Mrs. O. Max Gardner 
Mrs. Cameron Morrison Mrs. Josiah W. Bailey 

Mrs. Katherine P. Arrington Mrs. Edwin C. Gregory 
Mrs. Josephus Daniels Mrs. Angus W. MacLean 

Mrs. Benjamin N. Duke 



NEW JERSEY— 1664 
Mrs. Hamilton Fish Kean 
Mrs. John Grier Hibben 
Mrs. Edwin C. Jameson 
Mrs. Dwight Morrow 
Mrs. S. E. Murray 



Mrs. Thomas J. Preston 

Mrs. Grafton H. Pyne 

Mrs. Percy Hamilton Stewart 

Mrs. H. Otto Wittpen 



Mrs. Ellison D. 
Mrs. Robert E. 



Mrs. David A. Reed 
Mrs. J. Wilmer Biddle 
Mrs. John Cadwalader 
Mrs. Robert K. Cassatt 
Mrs. George Dallas Dixon 



SOUTH CAROLINA— 1665 

Mrs. I. C. Blackwood 
Smith Mrs. James F. Byrnes 

Lee Mrs. Julian Salley 

PENNSYLVANIA— 1681 
Mrs. Gifford Pinchot 

Mrs. James J. Davis 

Mrs. George Wharton Pepper 

Mrs. Henry R. Rea 

Mrs. Edward T. Stotesbury 

Mrs. James Francis Sullivan 



DELAWARE— 1703 



Mrs. Daniel O. Hastings 
Mrs. Thomas F. Bayard 
Miss Elizabeth Draper 
Mrs. Lammot duPont 
Mrs. A. L. Foster 



Mrs. Alfred M. Waddell 



Miss Lyla Townsend 
Miss Anne B. Gray 
Mrs. John O. Nields 
Mrs. Rowland W. Paynter 
Mrs. Henry Ridgely 

GEORGIA— 173 3 
Mrs. William J. Harris 

Mrs. Martha Berry Mrs. Charles Graves Matthews 

Mrs. Corra Harris Mrs. George Winship 

Mrs. Joseph Lamar Mrs. Bun Wylie 

Mrs. Walter D. Lamar 



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'*?/ 



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y£v-/f<*6 /rts/ett/eriy . A///fi»r. SS^iar/t 



Facsimile of Invitation to the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, D. C. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



57 



The members of the General Committee for the remaining 
states were: 

ALABAMA 

Mrs. D. M. Miller 
Mrs. Hugo L. Black Mrs. John H. Bankhead 

Mrs. Herbert Ryding Mrs. Charles A. Thigpen 

ARIZONA 
Mrs. Henry F. Ashurst Mrs. Carl Hayden 

Mrs. William Brophy Mrs. Dwight B. Heard 

Mrs. John Greenway 

ARKANSAS 
Mrs. Harvey Parnell 
Mrs. Joseph T. Robinson 

Mrs. Charles H. Brough Mrs. George B. Rose 

Mrs. R. N. Garrett 

CALIFORNIA 
Mrs. James Rolph, Jr. 
Mrs. Hiram Johnson 
Mrs. Robert J. Burdette Mrs. William Gibbs McAdoo 

COLORADO 
Mrs. Charles W. Waterman Mrs. Edward P. Costigan 

Mrs. James Rae Arneill Mrs. Verner Z. Reed 

Mrs. James B. Grant 

FLORIDA 
Mrs. Doyle E. Carlton 
Mrs. Duncan U. Fletcher 
Mrs. John Leonardy 
Mrs. John W. Martin 

IDAHO 
Mrs. C. Ben Ross 
Mrs. William E. Borah Mrs. John Thomas 

Mrs. Frank Johness 

ILLINOIS 

Mrs. Louis L. Emmerson 
Mrs. Otis F. Glenn Mrs. J. Hamilton Lewis 

Mrs. Silas H. Strawn 

INDIANA 
Mrs. Harry G. Leslie 
Mrs. Arthur R. Robinson 

Mrs. Hinckle Hays Mrs. Harriett Toner 

Mrs. J. E. P. Holland 

IOWA 
Mrs. Dan W. Turner 
Mrs. Smith W. Brookhart Mrs. L. J. Dickinson 

Mrs. Clyde Brenton Mrs. H. M. Towner 

Airs. William Larrabee 



Mrs. T. V. Moore 
Hon. Ruth Brvan Owen 



KANSAS 



Mrs. Albert H. Denton 
Mrs. C. W. Hunter 



Mrs. R. L. Merrick 
Mrs. E. L. McDowell 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 

Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs, 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Mrs 
Mrs 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 



LOUISIANA 
Edwin S. Broussard 

Charles deC. Claiborne Mrs. George Q. Whitney 
Walter O. Denegre Mrs. John P. Richardson 

Payne Fenner 

MAINE 
Mrs. William Tudor Gardiner 
Wallace H. White, Jr. 

John A. Peters Mrs. John Wilson 

Blaine S. Viles 

MICHIGAN 
Mrs. Wilbur M. Brucker 
James Couzens Mrs. Arthur H. Vandenberg 

Frederick N. Alger Mrs. H. B. Joy 

MINNESOTA 
Thomas D. Schall Mrs. Henrik Shipstead 

John S. Dalrymple Mrs. Frank Kellogg 



Pat Harrison 
Myra Hazard 
Daisy McLaurin Stevens 



MISSISSIPPI 

Mrs. Ellen S. Woodward 



MISSOURI 
Harry Bartow Hawes Mrs. Roscoe Patterson 

Charles Channing Allen Mrs. J. W. Lyman 
Howard Bailey Mrs. Jacob Leander Loose 

MONTANA 
Mrs. J. E. Erickson 
Burton K. Wheeler 

Isaac Edinger Mrs. E. C. Carruth 

William J. Brennan Mrs. George Y. Patten 

Grover C. Cisel 

NEBRASKA 
Mrs. Charles W. Bryan 
George W. Norris 
John G. Maher Mrs. Addison Sheldon 

NEVADA 

Mrs. Frederick B. Balzar 
Key Pittman Mrs. Tasker L. Oddie 

James Cashman Mrs. Francis G. Newlands 

Charles B. Henderson Mrs. Silas E. Ross 

NEW MEXICO 

Mrs. Arthur Seligman 



KENTUCKY 
Mrs. R. Laffoon 
Mrs. Alben W. Barkley Mrs. M. M. Logan 

Mrs. Alvin T. Hert Mrs. Flem D. Sampson 



Mrs. 


Sam G. Bratton 




Miss 


Isabel Eckles 


Mrs. E. T. Lasseter 


Mrs. 


A. W. Hockenhull 






NORTH DAKOTA 




Mrs. 


George F. Shafer 


Mrs. 


Gerald P. Nye 


Mrs. Lynn J. Frazier 


Mrs. 


Edmund Hughes 


Mrs. J. A. Jardine 


Mrs. 


Thomas F. Kane 


Mrs. Albert E. Jones 
OHIO 


Mrs. 


Robert J. Bulkley 




Mrs. 
Mrs. 


Chester Bolton 
Atlee Pomerene 


Mrs. A. B. Pyke 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



OKLAHOMA 

Mrs. Elmer Thomas Mrs. Thomas P. Gore 

Mrs. W. B. Bizzell Mrs. S. K. Gaylord 

OREGON 

Mrs. Julius Meier 
Mrs. Frederick Steiwer Mrs. Charles L. McNary 

Mrs. George T. Gerlinger Mrs. C. S. Jackson 

Mrs. Reade Ireland Mrs. Isaac Patterson 

SOUTH DAKOTA 
Mrs. W. J. Bulow Mrs. Peter Norbeck 

TENNESSEE 
Mrs. Henry H. Horton 



Mrs. Cordell Hull 
Mrs. Benton McMilli 



Mrs. Lawrence D. Tyson 



TEXAS 
Mrs. Ross Sterling 
Mrs. Morris Sheppard Mrs. Tom Connally 

Mrs. Edward House Mrs. Ernest Thompson 

UTAH 
Mrs. George H. Dern 
Mrs. Reed Smoot Mrs. William H. King 

Mrs. W. Mont Ferry Mrs. Joseph H. Rayburn 

Mrs. Edward E. Jenkins 

VERMONT 
Mrs. Stanley C. Wilson 
Mrs. Porter H. Dale Mrs. Warren R. Austin 

Mrs. Collins M. Graves Mrs. George M. Orvis 

Mrs. H. Nelson Jackson 




The Box Party of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
(The group of ladies in costume sitting in front of the box were guests at the Ball.) Seated in the box, 
reading from left to right, are: Senator Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission; Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, Presidential Commissioner from Pennsylvania; 
Count Nobile Carlo Andrea Soardi, Secretary of the Italian Embassy, accompanying the Ambassador; His 
Excellency, Nobile Giacomo de Martino, the Royal Italian Ambassador and Dean of the Diplomatic Corps; 
Count Alberto Marchetti di Mnraiglio, Counselor of the Italian Embassy, accompanying the Ambassador; 
Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman, Presidential Commissioner from Colorado; Senator Arthur Capper, of Kan- 
sas, and a guest of Senator Capper. 

Other Members of the Commission present at the Bicentennial Ball were: Honorable Joseph W. Byrns, and 
Mrs. Byrns, Honorable John O. Tilson, Honorable C. Bascom Slemp, and Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



v-j 



WASHINGTON 
Mrs. Roland H. Hartley 
Mrs. Clarence C. Dill 
Mrs. Scott Bullitt Mrs. Arthur Karr 

WEST VIRGINIA 
Mrs. William G. Conley 
Mrs. M. M. Neely 
Mrs. Stephen B. Elkins 
Mrs. Guy D. Goft' 

WISCONSIN 
Mrs. John J. Blaine Mrs. Robert M. LaFollette 

WYOMING 
Mrs. A. M. Clark 
Mrs. John B. Kendrick Mrs. Robert Davis Carey 

Mrs. Frank Mondell Mrs. F. E. Warren 

The Floor Committee for the George Washing- 



Miss Laura Landen Mitchell 
Mrs. Samuel W. Washington 



ton Bicentennial Ball consisted of the following 
members, one member being designated from each 
of the original thirteen states: 

VIRGINIA Major S. R. Miller, Jr. 

MASSACHUSETTS Honorable William P. Connery 

NEW YORK Major General Franklin W. Ward 

NEW HAMPSHIRE Honorable Roland H. Spaulding 

MARYLAND Mr. Bruce Cotten 

RHODE ISLAND Mr. Robert H. I. Goddard 

CONNECTICUT Honorable Frederic C. Walcott 

NORTH CAROLINA Mr. Thomas H. Wright 

NEW JERSEY Commander Robert Clowry Roebling 

SOUTH CAROLINA Honorable John J. McSwain 

PENNSYLVANIA General David J. Davis 

DELAWARE Colonel George A. Elliott 

GEORGIA Governor Richard B.' Russell, Jr. 

Brigadier General William E. Horton, U. S. A., ret. 
Chairman of Floor Committee 

The Honorary Committee from all of the states 




Box Party of the Director of the George Washington Bicentennial Commission and Mrs. Sol Bloom 
Reading from left to right, in the box are: Miss Vera Bloom; Dr. Stanley K. Hombeck, Chief of the Far Eastern 
Division of the Department of State; Madame Claudel, wife of the French Ambassador; directly behind Madame 
Claudel (and hardly visible) is His Excellency, the Polish Ambassador, Mr. Tytus Filipouicz; Lieut. Col. Marco 
Pennaroli, Military Attache of the Italian Embassy; His Excellency, the French Ambassador, Mr. Paul Claudel; 
Frau von Prittwitz und Gaffron, wife of the German Ambassador; Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission; and Flis Excellency, the German Ambassador, Dr. Friedrich 
W. von Prittwitz und Gaffron — the three Ambassadors representing the countries which gave the greatest assist- 
ance to the Colonics during their struggle for independence. In the group in front of the box are Senator and 
Mrs. Marcus A. Coolidge, of Massachusetts. 



60 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



was most carefully selected, in many cases through 
names sent in by the Governors or Senators of the 
various states. But throughout the pageant of the 
Colonial states the various characters, with the 
exception of George Washington, were all repre- 
sented by actual descendants. In the case of 
George Washington, direct descendants of the 
Washington family in its various branches depicted 
him. Washington, the young surveyor, was rep- 
resented by John Augustine Washington, de- 
scended from one of Washington's half-brothers. 
Washington, the owner of Mount Vernon, was 
depicted by Walter D. Davidge, a descendant of 
another branch of the family, and the part of 
George Washington, the General, was taken by 
Robert E. Lee Lewis, a direct descendant of George 
Washington's sister, Betty Washington Lewis. 

The great pageant was in reality a glittering 
Processional of the distinguished men and women 
of Colonial America. It was written and arranged 
by Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman, Chairman of the 
Ball Committee, and Mrs. James Carroll Frazer, 
Vice Chairman. 

Both Mrs. Tuckerman and Mrs. Frazer were 
most gracious and generous in arranging and di- 
recting the great ball. Being social factors in the 
National Capital of preeminence and acknowl- 
edged leadership, their sponsorship was invaluable. 
The George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
gratefully accords them the tribute which their 
high services merit. The Commission is equally 
appreciative of the help so kindly given by Briga- 
dier General William E. Horton, U. S. A., Retired, 
Chairman, and his associates of the Bicentennial 
Floor Committee. 

In the following list of characters, unless other- 
wise mentioned, every part was taken by a direct 
descendant. In most instances the costumes are 
copies of the originals made from old family por- 
traits, and in many cases are dresses actually worn 
at the time. This Processional was in itself the 
most historic event of its kind ever held in this 
country. In original representation and modern 
personnel, it involved elaborate and painstaking 
research, and today no more authentic roster of 
these families and their direct descendants exists. 

"Hear ye not the voices ringing down the ages 
Echoing still their message, though their task be done 
Voices born of heroes, poets, prophets, sages 
Yearning yet to share the wisdom they had won." 



Early Settlers of the Thirteen States 

Virginia 

1607 

The Princess Pocahontas . . Miss Eleanor Faulkner Flood 
Daughter of Chief Powhatan and Wife of John Rolfe 

William Byrd of Westover Captain Thomas Boiling 

The "Black Swan" 

Mrs. William Byrd, 2nd, of Westover 

Mrs. Richard Evelyn Byrd, Sr. 

Elizabeth Eskridge Mrs. Henry Ridgely 

Wife of George Eskridge of Sandy Point and Grandmother of 
Mary Ball Washington 

Captain Roger Jones Commander Robert Jones 

British Navy — Came to Virginia with Lord Culpeper 

Sir James Lamont Col. Wm. A. McCain 

Lady Jean Douglas Mrs. William A. McCain 

Wife of Sir Charles Francis Swan of Swan's Point, Hanover 

Evelyn Byrd Mrs. Mary Byrd Consolvo 

In Gown of Court 

Col. and Mrs. William Ball 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Jeffries Chewning 

Great-Great-Grandparents of George Washington 

Captain and Mrs. Henry Custis 

Mrs. Edith M. Custis Kitchen 

and Miss Ruth Custis Kitchen 

Massachusetts 

1620 

John Cabot — 1497 Cabot Stevens 

Elder Brewster N. L. Turner 

Mary Chilton Miss Alice Noel Tuckerman 

First Woman to Land on Plymouth Rock, 1620 

John Alden J. Holland Beal 

Priscilla Alden Miss Yolande de Moduit 

Richard Warren Lawrence Grinnell Knowles 

Mayflower Pact — 1620 

Margaret Cary Miss Margaret Cary Tuckerman 

Governor John Bradford Major Robert W. Daniels 

Lydia Elliott Mrs. Robert Jones 

Sister of John Elliott, Apostle of the Indians 

Capt. Richard Walker — 1629 Ernest George Walker 

Dorothy Dudley Mrs. DeCoursey Fales 

President, Colonial Dames of America 
Wife of Governor Dudley 

Ann Dudley Mrs. Thomas Robins 

Wife of Governor Simon Bradstreet 

John Holbrook John Parkinson Keyes 

1630 — Captain in King Phillip's War 

Roger Conant E. A. Harriman 

First Settler of Salem, Massachusetts 
The Rev. Richard Mather, 163 5 Rufus Graves Mather 

Honour Treat Mrs. William A. Scully 

Daughter of Richard Treat, 1637 
Abigail May Duchess de Richelieu 

New York 

1623 

Governor Pieter Stuyvesant — 1647 Dr. Edward King 

Mrs. Pieter Styvesant Miss Janet Fish 

Mrs. Samuel Bayard Miss Elizabeth Dupont Bayard 

Nicholas Bayard Miss Edith North King 

Balthazar Bayard Miss Margaret Bayard Wright 

Pieter Bayard Alexis Bayard 

Vrouw Johannes de Peyster 

Miss Alice Townsend de Peyster 

Johannes de Peyster Frederick Ashton de Peyster, Jr. 
Mrs. Jeremias Van Rensselaer Wick 

Mrs. William Bayard Van Rensselaer 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



61 



Mrs. Van Cortlandt Miss Florence Van Rensselaer 

Katherine Hendricks Mrs. Lucian Cooth 

Wife of Frederick Lubbert, Sr. 

Earl of Warrington Col. Lucian Cooth 

Margarita Van Slichtenhorst Miss Christine Ekengren 

Wife of Phillip Pieterse Schuyler of Albany 
Helena Glenn Mrs. David M. Goodrich 

Wife of Jacob Gerritse Lansing 

New Hampshire 

1623 

Mrs. Nathaniel Peaslee Mrs. Harry Reade 

Mary Heard Mrs. Kate Hyde Scully 

Wife of John Heard, Founder of New Hampshire 
Deborah Brackett Weeks, Mrs. John Washington Davidge 

Maryland 
1634 

Father White Rev. Father Coleman Neville, S.J. 

President, Georgetown University- 
Missionary — 1634 

Eleanor Darnall Mrs. Franklin Rogers 

Wife of Daniel Carroll 

Dorothy Meade Mrs. Thomas Taliaferro 

Wife of Roger Brook, of Brook Place, St. Mary's 

Mrs. Alexander Contee Mrs. Allan Richards Boyd 

Mrs. Greene Mrs. Moncure Burke 

Wife of Governor, 1647 

Clement Hill— 1645-1708 Ralph Snowden Hill 

Mistress Margaret Brent Miss Norah D. Hill 

Colonel Ninian Beall Walter A. Wells 

Commander-in-Chief of the Provincial Forces of Maryland 
in the French and Indian Wars 

John Hallowes C. C. Magruder 

Original Settler — 1634 

Rhode Island 
1647 

Roger Williams 

Mrs. Roger Williams Mrs. Henry Horton Benkhard 

Elizabeth White Herrenden 

Miss Florence Elizabeth Ward 

Connecticut 
1636 

Mrs. John Lockwood Mrs. James E. Hughes 

Fairfield, Connecticut — 1736 

Mary Selden Mrs. Lord Andrews, III 

Wife of Abner Lloyd, Jr., Old Lyme, Connecticut 

Dorothy Mrs. E. A. Harriman 

Wife of Major John Chester Armiger 

Elizabeth Rosewell Mrs. John W. Turrentine 

Wife of Governor Gurdon Saltonsall 

John Webster Harold Webster 

Governor of Connecticut 

Mrs. Noah Webster Miss Annabel Mayo-Smith 

Mrs. Thomas Welles Miss Annie B. Jennings 

Second Wife of Governor Welles 

Dorothy Buckley Mrs. James Griswold Wendt 

Daughter of Rev. Peter Buckley 
Comfort Deming Mrs. Robert F. Dickens 

New Jersey 
1664 

Sir Edmund and Lady Plowden 

. . . Mrs. John J. Hegarty, Mr. Edward Russell Tolbert 
Charter from Charles I — 1634 



Lord Proprietary of New Albion 
Group of Early Settlers. 

South Carolina 
1665 

Huguenot Group — In charge of Mrs. Lowell Fletcher Ho- 
bart, President, D. A. R., and the Rev. Dr. Florian 
Vurpillot. 

Pennsylvania 
1681 

William Penn Reverend Leon Shearer 

Sibyll Price Miss Margaret Graham Townsend 

Came to Pennsylvania on the Welcome in 1688 

Mary Nicholas Cowpeland Miss Sophie Casey 

Mrs. Pastorius Miss Beatrice Pastorius Turner 

Wife of Francis Daniel Pastorius, Friend of William Penn 

Ruth Hollingsworth, Quakeress 

Ruth Hollingsworth Tuckerman 

Great-Granddaughter of Valentine Hollingsworth, Who 
Came Over With William Penn 

Delaware 

1703 

Mrs. Jean Paul Jaquette Miss Kate Marshall Jaquette 

Wife of First Governor of Delaware 

Georgia 

1733 

Sir Patrick Houston Houston R. Harper 

President of Kings Council — Came with Lord Oglethorpe 
as His Secretary — 1733 

In George Washington's Day in the 
Colonies 

Virginia 

1. George Washington (the Young Surveyor) 

Dr. John Augustine Washington 

Elizabeth Carter Randolph Carter Randolph Andrews 

Daughter of John Carter of Corotoman, Wife of Col. 

Robert Randolph of Eastern View 

Miss Washington Jane Washington Willis 

"Little Sister" Betty Washington Margaret Byrd 

Sarah Smith Mrs. Eliphalet Fraser Andrews 

Daughter of Major Lawrence Smith, Wife of John 
Taliaferro, "The Ranger" 

Mildred Reade Mrs. Hogatt Clopton 

Daughter of Col. George Reade, Wife of Augustine Warner 

Annie Steptoe Mrs. Augustine Jaquine Todd 

Wife of Samuel Washington of Harewood 

Augustine Warner Augustine Jaquelin Todd 

Major Charles Lawrence Smith Hugh S. Cumming, Jr. 
of Gloucester — 1676 

Billington McCarty Jack McCarty 

Mrs. Billington McCarty Mrs. George Cochran 

2. George Washington and His Friends at Mt. Vernon 

George Washington Walter Dorsey Davidge 

Martha Washington Mrs. Wilfred Mustard 

Mrs. Lawrence Lewis (Nellie Custis) 

Miss Emily McCormick 

(Original costume) 
Mrs. Dandridge (nee Pendleton) Miss Nan Thomas 

(Original costume) 
Mrs. Richard Blackburn Miss Rose M. MacDonald 



62 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



(Original costume) Grandmother of Mrs. Bushrod 
Washington 

Mr. and Mrs. George Steptoe Washington 

Mr. and Mrs. James Madison Cutts, III 

Anne Rogers Clark Mrs. Leland Dotson Webb 

Wife of Col. John Field of Culpeper County, Lt. Col. 
under General Washington 

Colonel John Field 

Lt. Commander Leland Dotson Webb, U. S. N. 

Colonel and Mrs. Thomas Peter 

Mr. and Mrs. John Custis Peter 

Aide to Gen. Washington and son-in-law of 
Mrs. Washington 

Chief Justice and Mrs. Marshall 

Mr. and Mrs. Robt. Kirkland Barton 

General Steele Hugh Barbour Hutchinson 

Mrs. George Reade Miss Maria S. Copeland 

Eleanor Parke Custis Miss Emily Stevens 

Daughter of John Parke Custis and Martha Dandridge 

Mary Lloyd Miss Alice Garrett Wilkins 

Wife of Benjamin Talmadge 

Mary Marshall Tabb Mrs. Joseph Edwin Washington 

Wife of Robert Boiling of Bollingbrook 

Colonel and Mrs. Lewin Powell 

Miss Elizabeth Dunlop and Wm. Laird Dunlop 

Colonel Sim of Alexandria Edward Burr Powell 

Founder of Society of Cincinnati and Pallbearer at 

George Washington's Funeral 

Antoinette Eppes Mrs. J. Wilmer Biddle 



Dolly Payne Mrs. George Small 

Wife of President Madison 

Mr. and Mrs. John Washington 

. . John Washington Davidge and Miss Maude Davidge 

Elisabeth Churchill Bassett 

Mrs. Elizabeth Bassett Darling 

Bridget Cary Bassett Mrs. Margaret Bassett Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. John Augustine Washington 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas C. Washington 

Mr. Corbin Washington Mr. Thomas C. Washington, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Jefferson 

Captain and Mrs. Thomas J. Betts 

Ann Mason Mrs. James Carroll Frazer 

Daughter of Thomas Mason of Raspberry Plain and 
Wife of" Richard McCarty Chichester 

Robert Lewis Churchill Eisenhart 

Son of Fielding Lewis 

Edmund Beauchamp Mr. S. Sahs Smith 

Anna Maria Dandridge Mrs. S. Sahs Smith 

Sister of Mrs. Washington 

Burrell Bassett Burrell Bassett Smith 

Lucy Carter Mrs. Burrell Bassett Smith 

Mrs. Fielding Lewis Miss Laura L. Mitchell 

Betty Carter Brown Miss Virginia Lewis Mitchell 

Massachusetts 

Susan Apthorp Mrs. Arthur MacArthur 

Wife of Thomas Bulfinch 

Elizabeth Bulfinch Miss Mary Elizabeth MacArthur 

Wife of Joseph Coolidge (original costume) 






General View of a Portion of the Ball Room at the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, D. C. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



63 



Elizabeth Chevalier Madame de Moduit 

Wife of Joseph Adams III 

Mary Richardson Miss Margaret I. Frazer 

Wife of John Patten 

Maria Temple Winifred Holt Mather 

Daughter of Sir Richard Temple 

Anne Suller Mrs. Ridley McLean 

Son of Anne Suller Galen McLean 

Mary Elizabeth Lounsbury Mrs. Cabot Stevens 

Sarah Trowbridge Mrs. Royal D. Mead 

Wife of Artemus Ward, Commander-in-Chief of Revolu- 
tionary Forces — April 20, 1775, to July 3, 1775 

Lt. Col. Ebenezar Bancroft John Philip Hill 

7th Middlesex Regiment 

Mrs. Thomas Weld Mrs. Frank Anderson 

Mr. and Mrs. Thorndike Dr. and Mrs. Augustus Thorndike 
Miss Amory Miss Amory 

New York 

Mrs. John Willson Princess Ruspoli de Toggio Suase 

Mrs. Henry Wade Miss Ethel Claire Randall 

Mrs. Perry Webster Miss Elizabeth Eakins Randall 

Mr. and Mrs. Dominic Lynch 

Mrs. Hayes and Lynch Laquer 

Mrs. James Nicholson I Mrs. Adolph Ladenburg 

Wife of Commodore James Nicholson, U. S. Navy 
Hon. Henrietta Cobham Miss Winifred Holt Bloodgood 

Lord Cobham Joseph Holt Bloodgood 

Mrs. Elbridge Gerry Mrs. Townsend Phillips 

Wife of Signer of Declaration of Independence 

Lady Gage Mrs. Alonzo Tyner 

Wife of General Gage 

Chancellor Robert R. Livingston Robert R. Livingston 

Administered the Oath to General Washington at the 

First Inaugural 

Margaret Beekman Miss Virginia Livingston Hunt 

Wife of Chancellor Livingston 

Robert Gilbert Livingston, Jr Rev. George Kincaed 

Gen. and Mrs. James Clinton 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Ellis Brown 

Lady Nichols Mrs. James Francis Sullivan 

Wife of the Governor 

Maryland 

Governor Thomas Johnson Sidney William Ramsey 

Ann Ridgley of Montpelier Mrs. Gibson Fahenstock 

Wife of Thomas Snowden 
Mrs. Clement Sewell of Claxon Hill 

Miss Dorothy Sollers 

Colonel Tench Tilghman Michael Tilghman 

Aide to General Washington 

Mrs. Tench Tilghman Mrs. Hamilton Lamar 

Lucy Beall Miss Helen Wolfe 

Wife of Samuel Wade Magruder 

Margaretta Augustine Brice Mrs. Guy Castle 

Wife of Major Andrew Leitch, Aide to General Washington 

Mrs. Thomas Clagett Miss Frances Eunice Rumsey 

Wife of Bishop Clagett 

James Poultney James Poultney 

Mrs. Sidney George Mrs. Thomas F. Bayard 

Dinah Warfield Mrs. R. T. MacKenna 

Wife of Brice John Gassaway 

Mary Claire Carroll Miss Nancy Jordan Carroll 

Dr. Gustavus Brown Moncure Burke 

of Rich Hill, Charles Co. 

Lady Anne Arundel Mrs. George F. Becker 

Wife of Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore 

Mrs. Charles Calvert of Riverside Mrs. William Ellicott 

(original costume) 



Mrs. Charles Alexander Warfield 

Hon. Mrs. Tunstall Smith 

Mrs. William Fairfax of Belvoir Mrs. Clarence Roberts 
Mrs. George Diggs of Warburton Manor 

Mrs. Richard S. Hill 

Rhode Island 

Major Thomas Clark of the Revolution 

Brig- Gen. William E. Horton 

Major Clark's Early Ancestor Was One of the Founders of 

Rhode Island 

Group of Soldiers of Revolution 

Mrs. Gibbs Mrs. Stephen Ogden Fuqua 

Mother of William James Gibbs 

Connecticut 

Mrs. Elijah Chapman of Tolland 

Mrs. Charles Morgan Post 

Lt. and Mrs. Jonathan Mason 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Mason Remey 

John Witherspoon Rev. Dr. Albert Jos. McCartney 

Presbyterian Minister and Chairman, National Capi- 

Signer of Declaration of tol Presbyterian Commis- 

Independence sion of the General As- 

sembly 

Mrs. Jabez Huntington Mrs. Deming Jarves 

Wife of Signer of Declaration of Independence 

Right Rev. Bishop Samuel Seabury 

Rev. Cannon Raymond Wolven MacBryde 

Consecrated Bishop of Connecticut, 1784 

Ouvi R Wolcott Meade Bolten 

Signer of Declaration of Independence 
Laura Wolcott Miss Laura Wolcott Tuckerman 

Wife of Oliver Wolcott 

Susan Ursula Wolcott Mrs. Allen Goodrich Kirk 

Wife of Governor Matthew Griswold 

Sarah Holt Mrs. Joseph Colt Bloodgood 

Wife of William Holt of New Haven 

Gi ni'iul Israel Putnam Rufus T. Putnam 

Eunice Wells Richards Miss Janet Richards 

Wife of Col. William Richards 

Mrs. Matthew Griswold of New London 

Mrs. Robert Hollister Chapman 

Daughter of Roger Wolcott and Mother of Governor Roger 
Griswold 

North Carolina 

Sir Christopher and Lady Gale 

Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Weddell 

Chief Justice of North Carolina and the Bahamas 

Governor and Mrs. Dudley 

Dr. and Mrs. Daniel Shewbrooke 

First Elected Governor of North Carolina 

Mrs. John Hardee Mrs. Peter Arrington 

Wife of Colonel John Hardee, Chairman of Committee of 
Safety, Pitt Co., 1771 

Mrs. Benjamin Hawkins 

Miss Katherine Pendleton Arr'ngton 

Wife of Benjamin Hawkins on General Washington's Staff 
Also First U. S. Senator from North Carolina 

Mrs. Sterling Ruffin Miss Sylbert Pendleton 

Mother of Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin 

Mary Foulke Miss Jessica Randolph Smith 

Wife of Willis Riddick, Original Member of the Cincinnati 

Grace Bennett Hill 

Wife of Major Green Hill, Revolutionary Army 
Colonel Charles McLean Rear Admiral Ridley McLean 

Mrs. Thomas Hicks Mrs. Margaret Peirce Orme 

Wife of Thomas Hicks, Member of Colonial Assembly, 1754 
Captain in 1774 



64 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Mrs. Polk Miss Lucia Hodson 

Wife of Gen. Thomas Polk Mrs. Edward Gibson 

Abigail Daggett Mrs. Thomas Sim Lee 

Wife of Captain Thomas Harvey, of Lyme, Conn. 

Sarah Hill Mrs. Edward Gibson 

Wife of Henry McCullough 

New Jersey 

Mrs. Abraham Clarke Mrs. Jacob Leander Loose 

Wife of Signer of Declaration of Independence 
Group of Colonists 

South Carolina 

Mrs. Sarah Longshire Mrs. Louis T. Clephane 

Group of Colonists 

Pennsylvania 

Elizabeth Larne Mrs. Lewis Henry Esler 

Wife of Garret Vansant 

Captain Adam Esler Lewis Henry Esler 

Anne Willing Miss Sophie Cadwalader 

Wife of Tench Francis 

Mrs. Turner Camac Mrs. John Cadwalader, Jr. 

Colonel William Cooper Wade H. Cooper 

Revolutionary Army 



Rabbi Gershom Mendz Setxas Rabbi Abram Simon 

One of the Fourteen Ministers Who Participated in the First 

Inaugural of George Washington 

Mrs. Benjamin Rush Mrs. Edward H. McKeon 

Mrs. James Abercrombie Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman 

Wife of Rev. James Abercrombie, First Rector of Old 

St. Peter's in Philadelphia 

Juliana Chew Mrs. Dallas Dixon 

Catherine Harrison Miss Katherine Torrance 

Wife of Col. Isaac Mason 

Mrs. Shallus Mrs. Andrew J. Turner 

Wife of Jacob Shallus 

Officer on Expedition to Canada and at Siege of Quebec 

and Deputy Commissioner of Pennsylvania in 1777 

Mrs. William West Mrs. Henry Baily 

Ann Thompson Mrs. Effingham Thompson 

Delaware 

Anne Van Dyke Mrs. Bruce Cotten 

Wife of Chancellor Kensey Johns 

Mrs. Joseph Vaughan Mrs. Chas. H. LeFevre 

Wife of Col. Jos. Vaughan, One of the Founders of the 
Order of Cincinnati 

Mrs. Richard Bassett Mrs. Norman Underwood 

Wife of Governor of Delaware 




The Receiving Line at the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, D. C, February 22, 193 2. 

Reading from right to left, those in the Receiving Line are: Mrs. fames Carroll Frazer, Vice Chairman of the Bicentennial 

Ball Committee; Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman, Chairman of the Bicentennial Ball Committee; Mrs. Sol Bloom; Mrs. Edward 

Everett Gann, sister of Vice President Curtis (who had stepped out of the Receiving Line for a moment) ; and Honorable 

Sol Bloom, Director of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



65 



Polly Long 
Sally Wright 



Mrs. fm. D. Sterrett 
Miss Byrd Wright 



Georgia 
Mary Anne Williams Helen Tucker Andrews 



Mary Habersham 



Mrs. Robert W. Daniel 



Daughter of Col. Joseph Habersham, First Postmaster General 
of U. S. 

"Spirit of 1776" 

Drum and Fife Corps of the Revolution 

French Group 

Lafayette, Rochambeau and DeGrasse 

German Group 

Baron Von Steuben 

Polish Group 

Pulaski and Kosciuszko 

General George Washington and His Stafi 
General Washington Robert E. Lee Lewis 

Minuet in Whiti: 

The Spirit of the Colonial Days 

Miss Marian Chace and Partner 

The Star Spangled Banni-r 

The scene in the Ballroom as the guests passed 
through from the Chinese Room where they were 
received by the hosts of the evening was unrivalled 
in gorgeousness and splendor. At the head of the 
Receiving Line was Mrs. Edward Everett Gann, 
sister of the Vice President of the United States. 
The other persons in the receiving line were Hon- 
orable Sol Bloom, Director of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, and 
Mrs. Sol Bloom, Mrs. Walter R. Tuckerman, Chair- 
man of the Ball Committee, and Mrs. James Carroll 
Frazer, Vice Chairman. 

The box holders at the Ball represented the 
highest circles of the political and social life of 
the National Capital. Director and Mrs. Sol Bloom 
entertained a large party in their box, their guests 
being His Excellency, the French Ambassador and 
Madame Claudel; His Excellency, the German 
Ambassador and Frau von Prittwitz und Gaffron; 
and His Excellency, the Polish Ambassador, Mr. 
Tytus Filipowicz, as the envoys of the three nations 
to whom America owes the greatest debt of grati- 
tude for their aid in the Revolution; Mile. Reine 
Claudel, Miss Vera Bloom; the military attache of 
the Italian Embassy, Lieut. Col. Marco Pennaroli; 
and the Chief of the Far Eastern Division of the 
State Department, Dr. Stanley K. Hornbeck. 

The members of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission entertained 
the dean of the Diplomatic Corps, His Excellency, 



the Italian Ambassador and Nobil Donna Antoni- 
etta de Martino, in their box. The Commissioners 
present were: Senator Simeon D. Fess, Senator 
Arthur Capper, Honorable Joseph W. Byrns, 
accompanied by Mrs. Byrns, Honorable John Q. 
Tilson, Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman, Honorable 
C. Bascom Slemp, Dr. Albert Bushnell Hart, and 
Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook. 

His Excellency, the Ambassador of Cuba and 
Senora de Ferrara, and His Excellency, the Peruvian 




Representative Ruth Bryan Owen with His Excel- 
lency, the British Ambassador, Sir Ronald Lindsay, at 
the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, D. C. 

Ambassador, Senor don Manuel de Freyre y San- 
tander, the Minister of Denmark and Mrs. 
Wadsted, and Mr. and Mrs. Lars Anderson formed 
a distinguished group, and they were guests in Mr. 
and Mrs. Walter D. Denegre's box. 

His Excellency, the Ambassador of Turkey, Mr. 
Ahmet Muhtar, was in Mrs. Ernest Thompson 
Seton's box, and her other guests included Mrs. 
Dorothy deMuth Watson, Mr. and Mrs. John 
Walker Holcombe and Mr. E. Price Porter. 



66 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Mrs. Jacob Leander Loose had His Excellency, 
the Japanese Ambassador and Mme. Debuchi, 
Brigadier General William E. Horton and the Sur- 
geon General of the Army and Mrs. Patterson with 
her in her box. The President of the Chamber of 
Commerce of the United States and Mrs. Silas 
Strawn, and the former's sister, Miss Julia Strawn, 
were also guests of Mrs. Loose. 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Schoelkopf entertained 
His Excellency, the British Ambassador and Lady 







Underwood A- U ndcrwood 

The Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Commodore 
Ernest Lee Jahncke, and Mrs. Jahncke, as they ap- 
peared ATTENDING THE BICENTENNIAL BALL, WASHINGTON, 

D. C. Commodore Jahncke represented the Marquis 

df. Lafayette, and Mrs. Jahncke represented the 

Marquise de Lafayette. 

Lindsay and Admiral and Mrs. Mark Bristol and 
Mrs. Irving Chase in their party. 

The Minister of Finland, Mr. Astrom, was a 
guest of Mrs. Eugene Griffin, who also entertained 
in her box the Minister of Yugoslavia, Dr. Leonide 
Pitamic, her daughter and grand-daughter Mme. 
Mauduit and Mile. Yolande de Mauduit, Mrs. Frank 
T. Mitchell and Mr. Holland Beal of Boston. 

His Excellency, the Ambassador of Chile, Sefior 
Don Miguel Cruchaga, and the Minister of Nica- 



ragua and Seiiora de Sacasa were with Mrs. Thomas 
Greene in her box. 

The Chief Justice and Mrs. Charles Evans 
Hughes entertained a party of notable guests in 
their box, as did also the Assistant Secretary of 
the Navy and Mrs. Ernest Lee Jahncke and the 
Assistant Secretary of War and Mrs. Frederick H. 
Payne. 

Representative and Mrs. Percy Hamilton 
Stewart had the Austrian Minister and Mme. 
Prochnik, the Bishop of Washington and Mrs. 
Freeman and Mr. and Mrs. Charles Mason Remey 
in their box. 

Judge and Mrs. Chauncey G. Parker entertained 
the Minister of Norway and Mme. Bachke and 
also Mr. and Mrs. Cortlandt Parker. 

Mrs. Gibson Fahnestock's box party included 
the Swedish Minister, Mr. W. Bostrom, Gen. 
Blanton Winship and Miss Dorothy Sellers. 

Mrs. Deming Jarves had the Minister of Czecho- 
slovakia and Madame Veverka in her box, and Mrs. 
Mahlon Pitney was hostess for His Excellency, the 
Brazilian Ambassador and Mme. de Lima e Silva. 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenna entertained the Minister of 
South Africa and Mrs. Louw, together with other 
guests in their box. 

The Minister of the Irish Free State and Mrs. 
MacWhite, the Attorney General and Mrs. William 
DeWitt Mitchell, the President of George Wash- 
ington University and Mrs. Cloyd Heck Marvin 
and Miss Mary F. Hewins of Boston were with Mrs. 
Henry Alvah Strong in her box. 

Several other members of the Cabinet circle 
were in the large assemblage, among them the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture and Mrs. Arthur M. Hyde, 
who were accompanied by their daughter, Miss 
Caroline Hyde; Mrs. Robert P. Lamont, wife of 
the Secretary of Commerce, and Mrs. William N. 
Doak, wife of the Secretary of Labor, all of whom 
were in costume. 

Senator and Mrs. John B. Kendrick, Senator and 
Mrs. Royal S. Copeland, Senator and Mrs. Arthur 
H. Vandenberg and Senator and Mrs. Joseph T. 
Robinson were among the senatorial group occupy- 
ing boxes. 

Senator and Mrs. Sam G. Bratton were hosts to 
Mrs. E. T. Lassiter, Sr., W. R. Lovelace, Randolph 
Lovelace and Miss Isabel Iccles. 

Representative Ruth Bryan Owen had a number 
of guests in her box, among them Mr. and Mrs. 
Maxim Karolik. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



67 



Governor John Garland Pollard of Virginia 
with his son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. 
Horace Lee Boatwright, Jr., together with a num- 
ber of others from Virginia were guests in Mrs. 
Robert Hollister Chapman's box. 

The members of the Washington family who 
occupied boxes were: Mrs. Samuel Walter Wash- 
ington, Miss Jane Washington Willis, Mr. and Mrs. 
Thomas H. Willis, Miss Eliza Willis, Miss Pattie 
Willis, Miss Virginia Bassett Mitchell, Miss Laura 
Landon Mitchell, Dr. John Augustine Washington, 
Washington Perine, Anne Washington Perine, Mr. 
and Mrs. Lewis Washington, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas 
Washington, Mr. and Mrs. S. Fahs-Smith and Mr. 
and Mrs. Burwell Bassett Smith, Mr. and Mrs. 
Augustine Jaquelin Todd, Mrs. William A. 
Scully, Mrs. Kate Hyde Scully, Mr. and Mrs. Wil- 
liam Jeffries Chewing, Jr., Mrs. Samuel Williams 
Earle, Mrs. Horace MacFarland, Mr. and Mrs. 
Bushrod Corbin Washington, Mrs. Chester Baxter, 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Campbell Washington, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Rufus Graves Mather entertained 
in their box Mr. and Mrs. John Bigelow, Dr. and 
Mrs. Joseph Holt Bloodgood and Miss Bloodgood, 
Mrs. George F. Becker and Miss Eleanor Houston. 
Others in their box were: Mr. L. G. van Hoorn, 
Counselor of the Legation of the Netherlands, 
Prince Andrew Sapieha of the Polish Embassy, 
Judge John Barton Payne, Commander Robert E. 
Emmet, Mr. Henry Page, Mr. Walter Lewis, Mr. 
Poultney, Mr. Hugh Barbour Hutchinson and Mr. 
Gordon Sheen. 

Mrs. Lowell Fletcher Hobart, President Genera! 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution, had 
as her guests Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Reed, Mrs. 
George Maynard Minor, Mrs. Charles Humphrey 
Bissell, and Mr. and Mrs. Wade H. Ellis. 

Mrs. Edward Walker and General and Mrs. 
Andre Brewster entertained His Excellency, the 
Belgian Ambassador and Madame May. 

Former Senator and Mrs. George Wharton 
Pepper, of Philadelphia, were in a box with Mrs. 
Gordon Woodbury and Mrs. Schofield, also of 
Philadelphia. 

Mr. and Mrs. George Dallas Dixon, of Phila- 
delphia, were in the box with Miss Lamberton. 

Miss Annie B. Jennings was in the box of the 
regents of the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association 
of the Union. 

Mrs. Adolph Ladenburg sat with members of 
the Order of the Cincinnati. 



Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Gouverneur Morris of New 
York and the Duchess de Richelieu were in a box. 

Mrs. DeCoursey Fales, President of the Colonial 
Dames of America, sat in the box of that Associa- 
tion with Mrs. J. Wilmer Biddle, President of the 
Philadelphia Chapter, Mrs. James Francis Sullivan, 
Mrs. Henry Bankhead, Mrs. R. Tait MacKenzie, 
Miss Van Renssalaer, Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Cotton, 
Mr. and Mrs. Tunstall Smith, Miss Gardiner, 
Princess Raspoli di Poggi Suasa, Mrs. Frank Ander- 
son and Mrs. Guy Castle. 




Underwood & Unde; 



The Assistant Secretary of War, Honorable Frederick 
H. Payne, and Mrs. Payne, as they appeared attending 
the Bicentennial Ball, Washington, D. C. They rep- 
resented Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Payne, of Hingham, 
Massachusetts, ancestors of Mr. Payne. 

Dr. and Mrs. Augustus Thorndike, Miss Susan 
Amory and Mrs. John Lowell, all of Boston, occu- 
pied a box. 

Mrs. Alvin T. Hert entertained in her box Mr. 
and Mrs. James Stone, Mrs. Robert J. Burdette 
and Mrs. Sidney Cloman. 

Mrs. Richard Evelyn Byrd, of Virginia, enter- 
tained a number of friends from her state. 

Others occupying boxes included Mrs. Stapleton 
and Mr. and Mrs. Leitner. 



6$ 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



The Bicentennial Ball Supper, beginning at 
midnight in the main dining room of the hotel, 
was in itself an inspiring scene of brilliant anima- 
tion. With almost every guest in Colonial cos- 
tume, the great room was a riot of color. As in 
the foyer and Chinese Room in which the dancing 
took place and all other parts of the lower floor 
of the hotel, the decorations were a notable feature 
of the occasion. Everywhere, flags, bunting, 
flowers and other appropriate decorative elements 
contributed to the illusion that time had turned 
backward to colonial days. In the Supper Room 
table decorations were profuse, blending the colors 
of innumerable flowers with those of the bright 
costumes of the guests. The menu itself was 
unique in that it featured distinctive viands of 



Colonial Virginia, including Mount Vernon bis- 
cuits, Virginia meats and Mary Ball Washington 
ginger bread, the latter being from the original 
recipe of Mary Ball Washington, the mother of 
George Washington, as served to LaFayette. 

Naturally, the music furnished was of a char- 
acter appropriate to the time and place. It set 
the pace for the gracious dignity of this fete — 
minuets, Virginia reels, quadrilles were featured, 
such as Lady Washington chose when she enter- 
tained at Mount Vernon. Two orchestras played, 
and the leader of each, Meyer Davis and Sidney 
Seidenman, had composed special numbers for the 
Ball, a "Bicentennial March," and a waltz, "The 
Spirit of Mount Vernon." 




i 





An interesting family group at the George Washington Bicentennial Ball 
Reading from left to right are: Suzanne Carroll Hill, as Mrs. Charles Carroll, Jr., of Carrollton (Harriet 
Chew), her great-great-great grandmother; Elsie Bancroft Hill as Mrs. John Eager Howard ("Peggy" 
Chew), her great-great-great aunt; Catherine Clayton Hill as Mary Dandridge Bancroft, her great-great- 
great aunt; Suzanne Howell Carroll Hill, as Mrs. Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, her great-great-great grand- 
mother; and the Honorable John Philip Hill as Colonel Ebenezer Bancroft, his great-great grandfather 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



69 



Dance Program 

Following were the dance numbers of each of 
the orchestras: 

MEYER DAVIS AND HIS ORCHESTRA 
Programme 

Marching Songs of '76 
Medley of Virginia Reels 

Brother Soldiers, All Hail! 

(Popular Revolutionary March) 

Martha Washington's Favorite Minuets 

Hail to the Chief 

The Stars and Stripes Forever 

The Spirit of Mount Vernon Meyer Davis 

(Original waltz number played for first time) 

Father of the Land We Love George M. Cohan 

Star Spangled Banner 

SIDNEY SEIDENMAN AND HIS MAYFLOWER 
ORCHESTRA 

Programme 

Father of the Land We Love George M. Cohan 

Drink to Me only with Thine Eves 

George Washington Bicentennial March 

John Philip Sousa 

The Wayworn Traveller 

Believe Me if all those Endearing Young Charms 

Potpourri of Colonial Melodies 

From the Days of George Washington 

Arranged by Schmidt 

Bicentennial Ball March Sidney Seidenman 

(Written especially for and dedicated to the occasion) 



A unique event was the cutting of the great 
George Washington birthday cake by Honorable 
Sol Bloom. Mr. Bloom used the famous Lafayette 
sword presented by the Continental Congress to 
General Lafayette in recognition of his part in the 
Revolutionary War. The mammoth cake was cut 
into small pieces and distributed to all who gathered 
for the event. This cake was sent to the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion by the organized Women's Committee of 
Spokane, Washington, and was made at the sugges- 
tion of Mrs. John Bruce Dodd, under the direction 
of Miss Mammie Johnson. It followed as nearly as 
possible the recipe used by Mary Washington. There 
were six pounds of frosting and 60 pounds of fruit 
cake, totalling 66 pounds. The decorations were 
carried out in a beautiful patriotic design of flags 
and a replica of Houdon's bust of George Wash- 
ington. 

Each of the great broadcasting companies made 
special arrangements to send an account of the 
spectacle to every corner of the nation. The 
broadcasters followed the program of events with 
suitable comment, mentioning the better-known 
guests and describing the costumes worn by those 
in colonial dress. This was an exceedingly lively 




Arrival of Brigadier General Wm. E. Horton, U. S. A., ret., Chairman of the Floor Committee of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Ball at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, D. C, the Evening of Feb. 22, 193 2 

Brigadier General Horton was accompanied by Col. John Washington Davidge, Col. M. C. Buckcy, and Charles Mason 
Kemey. The driver and footman were enlisted men from Fort Mycr, Virginia. 



70 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



feature of the ball and one in which the guests 
themselves took much interest. During the broad- 
casting, Director Bloom, of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, was 
sought out by each of the broadcasting units and 
addressed a few words to the great audience of 
the air. Several of the rarer of the old minuets 
were also put on the air, and added color to the 
broadcasts. 

A few of the larger news and commercial pho- 
tographic services had equipped temporary studios 
in the hotel and hundreds of the guests posed be- 
fore their cameras. In this way, interesting 
mementos were secured of an event that can never 
be forgotten by those who were present. 

A truly picturesque touch was given to the Ball 
by the arrival of several members of the Floor 
Committee by coach and all in Colonial Costume. 
The coach was driven by an enlisted man from 
Fort Myer with an assistant, both of whom were 
in Colonial costume. The members of the Floor 
Committee who occupied the coach were: Brigadier 
General William E. Horton, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee, Col. John Washington Davidge, Col. M. C. 
Buckey and Charles Mason Remey. 

Ball at Gadsby's Tavern 

In the historic City of Alexandria, Virginia, 
where so many festivities were held in honor of 
George Washington during his lifetime, there was 
reenacted on the night of February 22, 1932, one 
of the famous Birthnight Balls reminiscent of the 
annual events in honor of George Washington 
which were held at this old tavern. 

The Ball was given under the auspices of three 
historic organizations of Alexandria. Mrs. Mauch- 
lin Niven represented the Colonial Dames as Gen- 
eral Chairman of the Committee. The other 
organizations were represented by: William B. 
McGroarty, President of the Washington Society 
of Alexandria; John B. Gordon, Master of Cere- 
monies; and Mrs. C. A. S. Sinclair, representing 
the Mount Vernon Chapter, Daughters of the 
American Revolution. 

Direct descendants of the old friends and neigh- 
bors whom George Washington mentioned so often 
in his diaries were hosts, and the Ball was intended 
to reproduce the last Birthnight Ball at Gadsby's 
Tavern, which George Washington attended on 
February 22, 1799. 

The hosts upon that occasion were represented 
by prominent Alexandrians of the present day, 



most of whom are direct descendants of the origi- 
nal guests at the last Birthnight Ball, and some of 
them wore costumes which graced the other gay 
occasion in 1799. 

Although space was restricted, many hundreds 
of guests attended from Washington and other 
cities, and most of them were given only the op- 
portunity of paying their respects. 

The invitations to the Ball were reproduced from 
the original Birthnight Ball and were quaint sou- 
venirs of the occasion. Old-time fiddlers in cos- 
tumes of the period played Virginia reels and other 
old dance airs. Refreshments reminiscent of 
Colonial days were served. 

All States Ball 

"A tableau of living pictures from the diary 
of the life of George Washington," was the feature 
of the All States Officers Society Bicentennial fete 
at the Shoreham Hotel the night of February 22, 
1932. The hostesses representing their states were: 
Mrs. Smith W. Brookhart, wife of Senator Brook- 
hart of Iowa; Mrs. Hendrick Shipstead, wife of 
Senator Shipstead, Minnesota; Mrs. L. C. Dyer, wife 
of Representative Dyer, and President of the Con- 
gressional Club, Missouri; Mrs. H. J. Drane, wife 
of Representative Drane, Florida; Mrs. Robert 
Ramspeck, wife of Representative Ramspeck, 
Georgia; Mrs. Ellis A. Yost, wife of Mr. Yost, of 
the Federal Radio Commission, West Virginia; 
Mrs. Richard A. Allen, Virginia; Mrs. M. E. Wood- 
ward, Connecticut; Miss Mary V. Merrick, Mary- 
land; Miss Pearl Mount, Alabama; Mrs. Robert P. 
Smith, Pennsylvania; Mrs. Paul Wooton, Louisi- 
ana; Miss Grace McGerr, Mississippi; Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Chenowith, Nebraska; Mrs. Dennis Chavez, 
New Mexico; Mrs. Roy C. Potts, Oklahoma, and 
Mrs. Frank Mondell, Wyoming. 

The feature of the ball, "The tableau of living 
pictures," was given at 9 o'clock in the main 
lounge of the hotel, after which there was dancing 
in the main ballroom restricted to those attending 
in Colonial costume. 

New England States Ball 

Another outstanding feature of an evening of 
gala social events in the National Capital on the 
evening of February 22, 1932, was the beautiful 
ball of the New England State Societies and the 
states which formed the original thirteen colonies 
which was given at the Willard Hotel. The Ball 
was in charge of a committee of which Mr. Law- 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



71 



rence Moran was Chairman. A special entertain- 
ment was arranged to precede the dancing. On 
this occasion the honor speakers of the evening 
were Representative William Rogers of New 
Hampshire and Mrs. Donald D. Caldwell, vice 
president general of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. This part of the program was com- 
pleted with a minuet dance, and this was followed 
by general dancing. 

Many delegations were in attendance, including 



the Richmond Blues, Children of the American 
Revolution, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Sons of the American Revolution and the 
National Education Society of New England. 

In the receiving line were Dr. and Mrs. Charles 
E. Morganston of Connecticut, Dr. William Davis, 
New York, Representative and Mrs. Samuel Ken- 
dall of Pennsylvania, Representative and Mrs. 
Robert Huston of Delaware, Mr. Frank Hickey of 
Massachusetts and Major and Mrs. Ely Dennison 
of North Carolina. 




THE WASHINGTON FAMILY AT HOME 

Painted by Alonzo Chappel 
Engraved by H. B. Hall 

Copy of the picture used as the frontispiece of the beautiful 
Program of the George Washington Bicentennial Ball, held on 
February 22, 1912, at the Mayflower Hotel, Washington, D. C. 



Radio Broadcasts on February 22 



fcu 



77a HE GREAT radio chains gave generous 
^M time on the air for the various features 



'±J, 



of the Bicentennial day in the National 



Capital. Many of the usual features 
were cancelled to give extensive attention to the 
events which ushered in the period of American 
history set aside to commemorate the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington. 

At 10 o'clock, the exercises at the Bicentennial 
observance at Wakefield, Virginia, were broadcast. 
A little later, the programs of the Oldest Inhabi- 
tants Association of the District of Columbia and 
the Celebration of the Sons of the American 
Revolution were heard. 

At 1 1 o'clock, the exercises at the Pan American 
Building by representatives of the Union of Pan 
American Republics was broadcast, and at 11:30, 
all networks carried the exercises at the United 
States Capitol, where the address of the President 
of the United States, Herbert Hoover, was delivered 
before a joint session of Congress, and afterwards 
exercises at the East Front of the Capitol were also 
broadcast. At 11:40, General John J. Pershing 
gave an address before the Boy Scouts at Valley 
Forge. 

At 1:30, a Bicentennial program from Boston, 
under the auspices of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery Company, with the Governor, Honorable 
Joseph B. Ely, as the principal speaker, was broad- 
cast. 

At 2 o'clock, a patriotic international program 
from Stockholm, Sweden, and one from London, 
were broadcast. At 2:45, the listeners were given 
a description of the colorful George Washington 
parade at Alexandria which was followed by the 
official program at Mount Vernon. 



Another interesting foreign exchange during the 
afternoon was a tribute to Polish patriots who 
assisted George Washington in his fight for the 
independence of the United States. Still another 
program consisted of music typical of the time of 
Lafayette which was broadcast under the title 
"France." 

Broadcast from the east portico of Mount Ver- 
non, a program was put on the air at 3 P. M., with 
Governor John Garland Pollard as the principal 
speaker. A short address was made by Edwin C. 
Broom, President of the Department of Superin- 
tendence of the National Education Association, 
and one by William J. Beagan, Superintendent of 
Schools of Chicago, who "extended a message to 
boys and girls from Mount Vernon." 

At 3:30 o'clock there was an international 
patriotic broadcast to Germany, followed by a 
similar broadcast from Germany. At 5 o'clock 
there was another international broadcast from 
France. The principal speaker on the latter pro- 
gram was President Doumer of France. 

At 9 P. M., a broadcast was given from the 
Armory in Alexandria, where a banquet was held 
by the Alexandria-Washington Masonic Lodge. 

At 10:45 P. M., Attorney General William D. 
Mitchell broadcast an address on "The Supreme 
Court of George Washington's Time." This was 
followed by broadcasts from the George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Ball at the Mayflower Hotel, and 
the Birthnight Ball from Gadsby's Tavern. 

Many of the regular programs of the Broadcast- 
ing Companies contained patriotic references to 
the Celebration. 



72 



General Pershing at Valley Forge 



||HE BICENTENNIAL Birthday of 

'"' j& George Washington, February 22, 1932, 

§| was the occasion of an interesting cere- 

JSjgs^z, mon y at Valley Forge, Pa., on the 
historic camp ground of General Washington and 
his Continentals. More than 9,000 Boy Scouts 
and twice that number of other persons gathered 
before the Washington Memorial Chapel where 
General John J. Pershing extolled the military 
genius of George Washington by describing him 
as "the great Commander." 

"The remarkable achievements of Washington 
during the war in the face of every discourage- 
ment," General Pershing said, "gave him great 
prestige and confirmed him in the minds of his 
countrymen as an unquestioned leader, not only 
in military but in civil counsel as well. A broad- 
minded, many-sided patriot he was then, and he 
stands today the ideal American citizen. 

The strength and majesty of his character, the devotion 
which he inspired, were not diminished with the years. And 
as we look at him from a more distant age we must conclude 
that during the Revolution our armies were commanded by 
one of the greatest Captains of all time. Valley Forge is an 
outstanding example of a carefully selected major position. 
The troops camped in this valley, were sheltered from the 



winds of the winter, and more important still, from the 
observation of the enemy. The slopes of the surrounding 
hills were ideal for defense against weapons and methods of 
the eighteenth century. The position was large enough to 
demand a major effort on the part of Lord Howe if he sought 
attack. 

Under conditions of hardship and discontent, 
General Pershing declared, "it is no exaggeration 
to say that the army was held together solely by 
the personality of Washington." 

Reviewing Washington's struggle to have Con- 
gress provide his suffering troops with proper 
equipment and sufficient food, General Pershing 
said: 

There was something in Washington that rose above the 
ordinary, some latent power, something that made an appeal 
to men and caused them to trust him and to rely upon his 
judgment. We call it character. We cannot explain the 
smallest part of his power by reciting his exploits. There was 
in him a persistent force which acted directly by his presence 
— a genius by whose impulses he was guided. 

General Pershing, Daniel Beard, National Boy 
Scout Commissioner, and General William E. Price, 
Commander of the Twenty-eighth Division, were 
the guests at Valley Forge of the Reverend Herbert 
Burk, rector of the Washington Memorial Chapel 
at Valley Forge, where the services were held. 




General John J. Pershing at Valley Forge, February 2 2, 1932. Dr. W. Herbert Burk (left), Rector of the 
Washington Memorial Chapel at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, presented the General with a medal from 
the Valley Forge Historical Society, incident to the ceremonies in Valley Forge at which General 
Pershing addressed more than 9,000 Boy Scouts gathered to honor the memory of George Washington. 



73 



Tribute of the Pan American Union 




iHE PAN AMERICAN UNION, under 
its director, Dr. Leo S. Rowe, gave 
invaluable assistance to the Commission 
in connection with Foreign Participa- 
tion in the George Washington Bicentennial, par- 
ticularly in the twenty other Republics of the 
Western Hemisphere. 

Months before the opening of the Celebration 
the Union translated a great deal of informational 
material from the publications and press releases 
of the Commission and sent these translated articles 
to the Spanish, Portuguese and French speaking 
republics that comprise our Latin American 
neighbors. More than 600 Spanish and Portuguese 
language papers in Latin America received this 
material, as well as 2,000 Ministers of Education, 
public schools and education publications. The 
files of the Commission, with their hundreds of 
newspaper clippings and often whole issues, or at 
least sections, of daily papers as well as magazines, 
show how thoroughly the Pan American Union 
disseminated this material. 

Naturally, the great publicity thus given the 
Bicentennial by the Latin American press aroused 
a great deal of interest in the anniversary. The 
name of Washington, however, is known to every 
school boy in the Republics to the south, for George 
Washington is credited with being the model for 
all the famous "liberators" of these Latin coun- 
tries, more than one of whom is called "the Wash- 
ington" of his country. 

Not only through the press did the Pan American 
Union stimulate interest in the Bicentennial, but 
also through the schools. The Union, through its 
Division of Education, placed hundreds of por- 
traits of Washington, furnished by the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, in public schools throughout Latin America 
during the Bicentennial Celebration. The hanging 
of these pictures was usually made the occasion of 
a Celebration and an impressive tribute from 
Americans to another American. 

February 22, 1932, the opening of the Bicenten- 
nial was marked in Washington, D. C, by a num- 
ber of memorable events, but none was more 
significant than that arranged by the Pan American 
Union. 



An account of this celebration, in which the 
heads of mission of the 20 Latin American repub- 
lics in Washington participated, together with the 
Secretary of State of the United States, has been 
included in another part of this volume in the 
account of the opening day of the Bicentennial in 
the Capital. 

The participation of the Pan American Union 
and the heads of the Latin American missions act- 
ing as a body, culminated on "Pan American Day," 
April 14, 1932, when the representatives of the 21 
Republics comprising the Union made a pilgrim- 
age to Mount Vernon. 

Acting as personal representatives of the Presi- 
dents of these Republics, the pilgrimage was a 
notable tribute to the first American President. 
The following account of this memorable event is 
taken from the Bicentennial issue of the Bulletin 
of the Pan American Union: 

The Americas Pay Homage to Washington 

A notable tribute was paid to the memory of George Wash- 
ington when the 20 Latin American Republics united on Pan 
American Day, April 14, in sending messages from their 
respective presidents to be read at his tomb at Mount Vernon 
by their Ambassadors, Ministers, and Charges d'Affaires in the 
United States, who stood with the Hon. Francis White, Assis- 
tant Secretary of State of the United States, under the open 
sky before the simple brick mausoleum containing the sar- 
cophagi of George and Martha Washington. 

One message after another eulogized Washington for the 
"strength of his uprightness," and the encouragement which 
his example gave to the American nations of the south "when 
on the threshold of their great destinies," and spoke of him 
as the hero who "represents the advent of republican demo- 
cracy in the world," "the warrior, the governor, and the 
citizen, three times great, who was born two centuries ago for 
the good of the United States, for the honor of the new conti- 
nent, and for the glory of the world." 

Thus the voice of the Americas confirmed the opinion 
expressed by Thomas Jefferson more than a hundred years ago 
when he said of Washington: "On the whole, his character 
was, in its mass, perfect, in nothing bad, in few points indif- 
ferent; and it may truly be said that never did nature and 
fortune combine more perfectly to make a man great, and to 
place him in the same constellation with whatever worthies 
have merited from man an everlasting remembrance. For his 
was the singular destiny and merit of leading the armies of 
his country successfully through an arduous war, for the 
establishment of its independence; of conducting its councils 
through the birth of a government, new in its forms and 
principles, until it had settled down into a quiet and orderly 
train; and of scrupulously obeying the laws through the whole 
of his career, civil and military, of which the history of the 
world furnishes no other example." 

The presidential tributes in full were as follows: 



74 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



75 



Argentina 

The Government and the people of the Argentine Republic 
join the Government and the people of the United States of 
America in this act in which homage is paid to the memory of 
their most illustrious citizen, Gen. George Washington, on the 
occasion of the bicentennial celebration of his birth. It be- 
hooves the nations of the New World to render this just 
tribute to him who through his heroic efforts and his exem- 
plary life gave a model of republican virtue to serve as a 
common ideal which all the nations of America strive to 
realize in their democratic life, adapting to this ideal their 
political and juridical institutions. 

By giving an impetus to the struggle for the independence 
of his country, George Washington led the way to lasting 
emancipation. 

The Argentine Republic, acclaiming once more the triumph 
of republican ideas, cherishes the memory of the hero of the 
great Nation of the North, because of the encouragement 
which the American Nations of the South received through 
his example when on the threshold of their great destinies. 

Agustin P. Justo. 
Bolivia 

The people and the Government of Bolivia join in this cele- 
bration and are proud to pay a tribute of loving respect and 
admiration to George Washington, the Father of American 
Democracy. 

Daniel Salamanca. 
Brazil 

When the United States, as all America, is commemorating 
the bicentennial of Washington's birthday and thinking of 
his venerated and beloved figure as an Apostle of Democracy, 
I have the honor to convey to the American Government and 
to the American people the sincere admiration and the friend- 
ship of the Brazilian Government and the Brazilian people. 

Getulio Vargas. 
Chili 

On this day, set apart by the American Republics to join in 
a reaffirmation of their common aspirations for peace and 
friendly cooperation, the Governing Board of the Pan Ameri- 
can Union has chosen to pay reverent and admiring homage 
to the memory of George Washington. 

To George Washington Latin America is indebted for the 
ideals he defended with incomparable brilliance and tenacity. 
When the time came for its determination to be free, the 
example of the United States was its inspiration, wherein it 
found the strength for its battles for liberty. 

George Washington was not only the father of the demo- 
cracy of this great Nation but also a model of inspiring 
genius for the great liberators of the peoples of the American 
continent. 

Juan Esteban Montero. 
Colombia 

From the life of George Washington one lesson stands forth 
that is to me of more interest than the great work he accom- 
plished in winning the independence and liberty of his coun- 
try. It is that in this great American is incarnate the type 
of statesman that is capable of converting his ideal of govern- 
ment into a practical and stable reality through the sheer 
strength of his uprightness and determination, without having 
recourse to secret machinations, to opportunism, or to that 
divergence between public and private morality of which the 
science and art of politics have been believed for many 
centuries to consist. 

Washington intrusted his success to the rectitude of his 



purpose, and he was indifferent to, if not disdainful of, the 
fortuitous and transitory unpopularity of his deeds. 

Washington is the new Prince, whose rules of government 
are studied with devotion and followed with loyalty by the 
conscientious men of all nations. 

Enrique Olaya Herrera. 
Costa Rica 

Great and powerful is the United States. Its population 
astonishes; its swift development astounds; its productive 
power is immeasurable; the rapidity of its rise on the path of 
progress appears the work of centuries, though it is the result 
of barely a hundred years. 

On the heights of this great Nation is outlined an august 
silhouette. Clothed in gentle austerity, with a faint smile 
that betokens paternal pride, with thoughtful mien, this noble 
figure sees the just and patriotic work of his hands grow from 
day to day. Along the straight road that his wisdom deter- 
mined the great Nation marches forward, proud of its youth- 
ful might, but when it stops to meditate, the soul of the 
Nation is uplifted and blesses the father of its institutions, 
the great Washington. 

Cleto Gonzalez Viquez. 
Cuba 

George Washington, guide and soul of the Revolution 
which gave independence to the thirteen Colonies, was, at 
the same time, the precursor of all the revolutions which 
have given liberty to all America. His efforts, his energy, 
the continuity of his aims in the most difficult hours as in 
those of victory, and his definite achievement were as an 
imperative mandate to the patriots of the rest of the new 
continent. In the long chain of historical events the North 
indicated to the South the route which led to the formation 
of a national conscience, the highest stage of our modern era. 

Washington, from the highest national magistracy, practic- 
ing all the virtues, became the great teacher of all rulers. 
His life, dedicated to the public good, his serenity of action, 
his equilibrium in those difficult times in which nationality, 
though already politically formed, was not morally or psycho- 
logically perfected, constitute the fundamental teaching which 
was followed by all rulers in new countries. 

Cuba, the last nation of America to cease to be a colony, 
has felt the influence of the Great American, as she could feel 
that of one of her most illustrious sons. His grandeur served 
is an example to our heroes, his high standards of morality to 
our governors, and all his acts inspired the best actions of 
our people. 

On this day, the 14th of April, which has been consecrated 
to Pan Americanism, permit me in the name of the people and 
of the Government of Cuba to unite with all the other peoples 
and Governments of the Americas in rendering our homage 
of admiration and respect to the warrior, the governor, and 
the citizen, three times great, who was born two centuries 
ago for the good of the United States, for the honor of the 
new continent, and for the glory of the world. 

Gerardo Machado. 
Dominican Republic 

To evoke the memory of George Washington on Pan 
American Day, on the occasion of the bicentenary of his 
birth, is the same as to reaffirm the continental significance 
of this great champion of liberty. The glory of Washington 
as a symbolic hero does not belong exclusively to the United 
States of America; the whole American continent claims it 
for itself. Washington represents the advent of republican 
democracy in the world, and that lofty principle in the realm 
of political ideals was developed and consolidated in modern 
times by the joint effort of all the nations of the New World 
when they became independent republics. To America is due 



76 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



the strengthening of republican ideals, which each day be- 
come more and more widely spread throughout the world, and 
the lofty figure of George Washington marks the beginning 
of this new stage in the political development of nations. 

Fervently admiring the military glories and the civic virtues 
of George Washington and fully understanding the high sig- 
nificance of his personality, I have the honor, as a faithful 
interpreter of my Government and my people, to associate 
the name of the Dominican Republic with this tribute. 

Rafael L. Trujillo. 
Ecuador 

The Pan American Union, by taking an active and leading 
part in the commemoration of the second centenary of Wash- 
ington's birth, is performing a service worthy of the highest 
praise and one that will be a stimulus to true continental 
solidarity. 

Nobility of character, a serene spirit, virile energy, and a 
heart full of sympathy, love, and humanity — these qualities 
which Washington possessed offer a magnificent exemplar for 
the ready admiration of America and the world. 

May it be our good fortune that he who was first in so 
many paths of greatness, in war, in peace, and in the hearts 
of his countrymen, may sincerely and loyally unite the nations 
of America in a lasting union of peace, prosperity, and 
progress. ALFREDO BaQUERIZO MORENO. 

El Salvador 

On the auspicious occasion of Pan American Day, I have 
the honor of offering my admiring homage to the memory of 
the great patriot, George Washington, and of paying my 
respects to the Pan American Union, which I fervently hope 
will continue to be a bond of union, a bulwark of justice, 
and a strong tie joining the Americas in constructive brother- 
hood. Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez. 

Guatemala 

Two centuries ago, by the grace of Providence, there was 
born in the thirteen Colonies of the New World that great 
man by whose hands human liberty, sacrificed through the 
absolutism of the past, was to be revived, and whose redeem- 
ing sword was to erect on a foundation of law the first 
democratic republic, the example of which would furnish to 
all nations on earth the means of their political redemption. 

By virtue thereof, George Washington ceased to be merely a 
hero of the United States and became the founder of a new 
era which united all men in the same ideals of progress through 
equality and justice. But it was in Spanish America that his 
work found the unanimous welcome and immediate applica- 
tion that brought freedom from long-endured enslavement. 

For this reason Guatemala today spontaneously and enthusi- 
astically joins the great Republic of Washington and unites 
with the rest of the continent in paying honor to his name. 
All her schools are teaching the life and work of that blame- 
less patrician and our press is publishing the different views by 
which historical criticism discovers in George Washington the 
most untarnished of memories, the purest of statesmen, and 
the most perfect of patriots. 

May it please Heaven that his example shall continue to 
serve as a beacon to our Republics in their darkest moments 
of doubt and adversity. 

Jorge Ubico. 
Haiti 

I gladly associate the Republic of Haiti on this Pan Ameri- 
can Day with the ceremony which is part of the impressive 
celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of George Wash- 
ington. 

Our continent owes to this leader, eminent among all 
leaders, its first lesson of patriotism, its first glorious deeds, 



its first breath of emancipation, its first democratic virtues, 
the first basis of its international community of interests. 

Furthermore, our hemisphere owes him that great principle 
— which he proclaimed with profound feeling in his Farewell 
Address to the American people — that the independence of 
the Nation should be considered more precious than all the 
benefits which might be obtained from abroad — a grandiose 
conception of national dignity which should be the gospel of 
the Latin American Republics. 

It is true that we have the doctrine of Pan Americanism, 
which we place today under the tutelary power of that dead 
hero. Let us invoke at his tomb the enlightenment of his 
authority so that continental union may be better understood. 

It can not be for naught that, following the example of 
George Washington, the American peoples should have cast 
off the chains of slavery, social or moral degradation, political 
domination, or the tyrannous persecution of their European 
mother countries; that they should have shaken off with no 
definite result the unhappy and unjust legacies of the colonial 
regime; that they should have approved the celebrated message 
of 1823, without enjoying in their own countries the ideas 
of liberty and independence proclaimed with respect to 
Europe; that their dreams of a regenerating civilization should 
be brutally dispelled by the selfish realities of international 
life. 

At this tomb we must draw the lessons of experience and 
of history. The peoples of America must reassert themselves. 

Appeals to solidarity, steps toward understanding and com- 
prehension, hymns of cooperation and conciliation, manifesta- 
tions of friendship and good will, efforts at closer relations, 
should be compensated by our democratic equality and by 
respect for our national independence and our liberty. 

We must put behind us destructive doctrines, legal subtle- 
ties, new and strange dogmas, as well as the entire system of 
"interpositions of a temporary character," praised by blind 
forces seeking the protection of their commercial and banking 
status abroad, but which foster doubts, rancors, reservations, 
fears, utilitarian pressure, and fictitious independence. 

Permit me to pay here a heartfelt tribute to President 
Hoover, whose powerful will is struggling against opposing 
currents and is giving proof of his liberalism, especially to the 
Republic of Haiti. President Hoover witnessed the great 
tragedy of the World War. Well he knows at the price of 
what miseries, what distress, what sufferings, what sacrifices, 
nations struggle for their independence and the maintenance 
of their rights. 

Heir to the great tradition of George Washington, like his 
predecessor he will take up his responsibilities and confront 
the obscure forces which desire to prevent his Government 
from permitting the idea of sovereignty to prevail over private 
or individual interests or over "benefits to foreign countries." 

Stenio Vincent. 
Honduras 

The Government and people of Honduras join in the 
homage that the United States of America is rendering to 
George Washington on this second centenary of his birth. 

The founder of the great American Republic will always 
merit universal admiration. So long as the spirit of demo- 
cracy abides in the world, the fundamental principles which 
he defended — the union of all; sacred respect for public 
justice; the maintenance of peace and harmony with other 
nations; the balance between the branches of government; 
tolerance for the opinions of others — these will forever be an 
inexhaustible fount of inspiration for all peoples. 

The nations of America owe him a debt of gratitude, for 
by the most constructive example that the ages have seen he 
showed them how to build on a solid foundation a republic, 
free, great, affluent, powerful, and commanding universal 
respect. 

Vicente Mejia Colindres. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



77 



Mexico 

My Government and the Mexican people associate them- 
selves with the Government and people of the United States 
of North America on the occasion of the bicentennial of the 
birth of George Washington, that exemplary patriot in whom 
America recognizes the originator of the independence of our 

continent. Pascual Ortiz Rubio. 

Nicaragua 

Upon each occasion of homage to the memory of Washing- 
ton, the people of the United States are most profoundly 
moved by the tribute of admiration offered by the whole 
civilized world. The Liberator of the United States gave not 
only liberty to his country but a national spirit that has been 
an example and an inspiration to the other nations of the 
earth. This is his greatest achievement. Greater even than 
his military triumphs, greater than his wise and noble states- 
manship, is the desire he carried in his heart for the liberty 
of all America. 

Jose M. Moncada. 
Panama 

The work of freedom accomplished by George Washington 
precedes by almost half a century the emancipation of the 
Latin American colonies. Bolivar was born in Caracas the 
same year in which Washington entered New York at the 
head of his troops after being victorious in the Revolutionary 
War and making peace with England; and the American 
Cincinnatus went to his tomb at Mount Vernon 10 years 
before the movements to regain liberty broke out in Hispanic 
America. There could, then, be no direct relation between 
Washington and the Republics of Iberian origin which today 
share with the United States the high ideals of Pan Ameri- 
canism, but to America and to the whole world George Wash- 
ington was the valiant paladin of liberty and the purest in- 
carnation of democracy. For this reason on the bicentennia 1 
of his birth it is fitting to remember that in the history of 
republics it was Washington who pointed out the way, who 
cleared the path, and who bequeathed to future generations 
imperishable examples of rectitude, unselfishness, wisdom, and 
true republicanism; and therefore, in the name of the Repub- 
lic of Panama, of which I have the honor to be President, I 
send today to the people of the United States, through the 
Governing Board of the Pan American Union, a message of 
cordial sympathy with the universal tribute which the free 
nations of the earth are rendering to the illustrious memory 
of the Liberator of the United States. 

RlCARDO J. AlFARO. 

Paraguay 

The public life of George Washington, so fertile in its 
immediate results, was fertile also in the consequences it had 
in Hispanic America. The energy and will with which he 
carried forward the great enterprise of bringing a new and 
great nation into being, his love of democracy and liberty, 
his unbounded faith in the future of the New World, were 
lessons followed in the struggles for the independence and firm 
establishment of our nations which began on the Rio de la 
Plata in 1810. 

Like a powerful beacon his memory illumined the path 
which the fathers of the Hispanic American nations followed. 
And this light has never failed; today as yesterday it shines 
supreme in the skies of American democracy. 

jose p. guggiari. 
Peru 

In this commemoration of the second centenary of the birth 
of George Washington, the founder of American indepen- 



dence, the Peruvian Government and people associate them- 
selves through me with the rejoicing of the American Gov- 
ernment and people, and pay the homage of their admiration 
to the hero and patriot who ordained in the United States the 
freest of all democracies and bequeathed to the world the 
unsurpassed example of his political integrity. 

Luis M. Sanchez Cerro. 
Uraguay 

The Republic of Uraguay, where independence and demo- 
cracy are revered by the people, joins in the homage which 
is being rendered to the memory of Washington on this second 
centenary of his birth. Washington's uprightness in the 
exercise of the highest public offices, the orientation of his 
Government in the direction of peace and respect for other 
nations, and the recognition of his virtues by his fellow 
citizens make of the first President of the United States a 
figure venerated throughout America, but particularly in 
Uraguay, where his memory and example are this year being 
honored. 

Gabriel Terra. 
Venezuela 

I am happy to take part in the homage which the Pan 
American Union is today rendering to the memory of Wash- 
ington. 

Washington it was who made the principle of the sover- 
eignty of the people prevail for the good of the country, and 
who loved peace founded on justice and mutual respect. 

Inspired with the same ideas, Bolivar strove to bring about 
the union of the nations of this continent, and Venezuela, 
modeling its policy on the counsels of the Liberator, renews 
once again on this occasion its sincere good wishes for the 
brotherhood of the Republics of America and for universal 
peace. 

J. V. Gomez. 

After the last message had been read, a wreath was deposited 
on behalf of all the speakers by His Excellency Dr. Adrian 
Recinos, Minister of Guatemala. 

Because of the departure of Secretary of State Stimson for 
Europe, the response for the Government of the United States 
was made by the Assistant Secretary of State, Hon. Francis 
White, who said: 

Gentlemen oi the Governing Board: 

I wish to assure you how deeply the Government and people 
of the United States appreciate the tribute which your respec- 
tive nations are paying to the memory of Washington. Here 
at this sacred shrine which was the scene of his activities for 
so many years, the assembling of the representatives of the 
Republics of America to do him honor possesses a special 
significance. 

It was a most gracious act on your part to devote the 1932 
celebration of Pan American Day to the founder of this 
Republic. The ideals for which he struggled have so much 
in common with those of the founders of the other Republics 
of America that I feel that we are today paying tribute to 
that great company of patriots to whom we owe the existence 
of the free nations of this Continent. Although we can 
never hope to repay the debt which we owe to them, we can 
show our devotion to the ideals for which they struggled bv 
constantly emphasizing and fostering the common interests 
of the American Republics and developing in every possible 
way the spirit of cooperation and mutual helpfulness which 
happily exists between them. 

I desire to express to you and through you to the Chiefs of 
State here represented the deep and heartfelt gratitude of the 
Government and people of the United States for this generous 
tribute. 



Official Opening of the Celebration 
in New York State 




Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York address- 
ing A MEETING IN COMMEMORATION OF THE Two HUN- 
DREDTH Anniversary of the Birth of George Washing- 
ton, at Kingston, New York. 




|HE BICENTENNIAL Celebration in 
I the State of New York was formally 



opened by commemorative patriotic ex- 
ercises held in Chancellor's Hall, State 
Education Building, in Albany, February 22, 1932, 
under the auspices of the New York State Com- 
mission for the Celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington. 
A number of distinguished speakers were present, 
including the Honorable Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
then Governor of the State of New York; Honor- 
able Benjamin N. Cardozo, then Chief Justice of 
the Court of Appeals of New York; and the 



Chairman of the New York Bicentennial Com- 
mission, Honorable Charles J. Tobin, who presided. 
In his greeting and introduction Mr. Tobin re- 
ferred to the Celebration one hundred years before 
in honor of the Centennial anniversary of Wash- 
ington's birth, at which time the orator of the day 
was Oran G. Otis of the New York Assembly. 

Today, said Mr. Tobin, the potency of the State, its citi- 
zens and their representatives, again assemble for the same 
purpose in a more imposing structure and under the shadow 
of the Capitol, the symbol of the State's power. The pur- 
pose which moved the coming together of this magnificent 
assemblage today and which inspired the procession to the 
Old North Dutch Church one hundred years ago, is a pur- 
pose we fondly believe that will cause similar assemblages 
one hundred years hence, namely, the sincere desire of the 
citizens of our state and nation to do homage to the immor- 
tal Washington. 

It is especially fitting, continued Mr. Tobin, that the 
State of New York should pay homage on this day to the 
memory of George Washington. With the exception of his 
native state, Virginia, and of Pennsylvania, the relations 
with our state of this man "whom language cannot exalt," 
were perhaps, closer, more continuous and more important 
than were those he had with any other state. Out of the 
308 battles and engagements of the Revolution, 92, or nearly 
one-third, took place on our soil. 

After the Invocation, Honorable John Boyd 
Thatcher, mayor of Albany, presented Governor 
Roosevelt. The Governor said: 

If I should die worthy of a passing thought in later years, 
it would be enough if people said "He helped to free his 
fellow men." 

Through all the ages neighbors have fought against the 
tyranny of neighbors — they have fought against enslavement 
by conquest by emperors, by kings, they have fought despot- 
ism imposed in the name of religions and of parliaments and 
of laws. 

Three centuries ago on the shores of America, a new civili- 
zation was founded by men and women seeking relief from 
the tyrannies of Europe and the opportunity of carving out 
their own lives. When, a century later, Washington was 
born on the banks of the Potomac, the descendants of the 
pioneers were discovering that the problems, the wars and the 
politics of an Old World had followed them across 3,000 miles 
of ocean. 

The span of the life of Washington marks the era which 
established representative government in the hearts of man- 
kind as the means of ending tyranny. He, more than any 
of his fellows, became the chief instrument in the attainment 
of this great desire which stirred multitudes in all nations. 

To him came the call to lead in battle those who had taken 
up the arms of freedom. To him came the plea to hold 
together in council the exhausted States when victory had 
come. Upon him fell the task as the chosen First Magistrate 
to set up the Republic of the union of States. 

Because so great a part of the scene of his service to his 
countrymen lay in the Colony and State of New York, we 
in this anniversary year of his birth, have right and reason to 



78 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



79 



remember with gratitude that George Washington gave to us 
a leadership of success, which at the same time was a leader- 
ship of unselfishness. 

To no one of the great posts of responsibility which he held 
over many years, did he aspire — to each and every one he was 
summoned by his fellows; but be it well remembered, when he 
accepted rank or office there was none who could say he did 
not lead. His was a leadership of infinite patience, of the 
quiet assembling of discordant elements, of faith in the midst 
of dark days and inconsiderate abuse; but that leadership 
would not have laid the foundation of the United States if it 
had not had the quality of stern courage to demand as a right 
from others that same singleness of purpose and sacrifice for 
good of country which was his. 

It is only once in many centuries that this old world of ours 
discovers a man who combines in himself this quality of 
courageous and sagacious leadership with a character of simple 
and unaffected unselfishness. When we record his triumphs 
let us at the same time hold the picture of Washington, his 
duty done, turning his steps with longing and love to his 
beloved Mt. Vernon. When we think of him as Commander- 
in-Chief of the War of the Revolution, or as the first President 
of our Republic, let us remember him too as a great and 
simple gentleman — a gentleman unafraid. 

Following the address of the Governor, Chair- 
man Tobin presented Honorable Benjamin N. 
Cardozo, who had already received his appoint- 
ment as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. Judge Cardozo's subject was 
"Washington, the Constitution Builder." He said: 

The heirs of a great tradition have gathered here today to 
proclaim their reverent pride in the splendor of a deathless 
heritage. 

Deathless the heritage is, for the values it embodies are 
values of the spirit. 



In Independence Hall in Philadelphia there gathered in 
May, 1787, fifty-five men who took upon themselves the task 
of framing for the tottering Republic a new charter of gov- 
ernment that would save the great experiment from ruin and 
collapse. The writs that summoned them, if narrowly inter- 
preted, would have confined them to a mere revision of the 
articles of confederation in submission to existing forms. 
They did not hesitate long in resolving that something more 
than revision was the mandate of the hour. Revision would 
have meant that the Confederate Congress must confirm and 
that every state must ratify. If unanimous approval was to 
be exacted, the delegates might as well disband, and leave the 
confederation to its doom. They were not so faint-hearted 
or so lacking in resourcefulness as to accept that counsel of 
despair. Instead, they turned themselves into a constituent 
assembly. They ordained, not a mere amendment of existing 
articles, but a new constitution, which was to have the force 
of law whenever nine of the existing commonwealths should 
give it their approval. In the name of the People of the 
United States they established in the family of nations a new 
federal state, the ends of whose being they summed up in a 
majestic preamble that thrills us even now. This newcomer 
in the family of nations was organized "in order to form a 
more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tran- 
quillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general 
welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty" for the generation 
then in being and the generations yet to follow. 

What did Washington contribute to the great result? Let 
me not belittle the nobility of his contribution by cataloging 
the sections that he approved or disapproved. Services of 
that order could have been rendered by many another. The 
supreme contribution that he made can be summed up in a 
single word. He contributed his character. Men knew from 
the beginning the source and secret of his power. Men 
knew from the beginning that here was a force that was 
greater than reasoning; here was a persuasiveness more com- 
pelling than argument; here was the radiance of a great and 
unselfish spirit, illumining the dark places with the inner 




Notable speakers at the New York State Celebration in Albany, February 22, 1932, in commemoration of 

the Birth of George Washington. 
Those seated in the front row on the platform, from left to right, are: Former Governor Nathan L. Miller; 
Justice Benjamin N. Cardozo of the United States Supreme Court, and former Chief Justice of the Court of 
Appeals of Neiv York; Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt; and Guernsey Cross, Secretary to Governor Roosevelt. 



80 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



light that was its own, and causing men to follow trustfully 
and humbly along its shining way. 

They made him President of the Convention. The records 
show that he voted, but rarely joined in the debates. We 
know that on one occasion he apologized for speaking, ex- 
pressing doubt whether his position as presiding officer imposed 
a duty of silence. What was needed of him was something 
deeper and richer, and more fruitful than words. In the 
uncertain days that followed, when no one knew whether 
the states would ratify or not, contemporary opinion is 
undivided that one of the decisive forces swaying the doubt- 
ful balance was the character of the man who had led his 
countrymen to victory and the faith inspired by that char- 
acter in the charter of government, confirmed by his approv- 
ing hand. Seldom has the spiritual influence of a great 
example, a generous and lofty nature, been shown forth to 
the world with more impressive and convincing power. 
"Believe me," said Charles W. Eliot, on an occasion when 
a vulgar placeman had told a group of students that it was 
a finer achievement to have built the Brooklyn Bridge than 
to have been the greatest poet of all time. "Believe me," 
said Eliot, standing up in wrath and majesty, "the supreme 
powers of this universe are not mechanical or material; they 
are hope and fear and love." No one has ever achieved 
greatly and beneficently in the long perspective of world 
history to whom that faith has been denied. 

On this anniversary day the centuries crumple up like a 
scroll, and imagination seems to bring us into the visible 
presence of the man who did these mighty things, who set 
this great example, a century and a half ago. The benedic- 
tion of that deathless heritage descends upon his countrymen 
assembled in this hall. Let us make high resolve to be worthy 



of our heirship. What is deathless in our heritage is not the 
structure of government builded by the fathers, durable and 
beneficent though it has proved itself to be. Only pride 
and arrogance would dare to say that imperfections will not 
develop with the centuries — have not developed even now. 
Only stubborness and folly would close the eye and mind 
against them. What is deathless in our heritage is the faith 
and purpose that inspired it, a faith and purpose symbolized 
and made incarnate in the person of a man. Nothing can 
quench that. Not all the vagaries of the market nor the 
crash of economic values nor the discontent of the hapless 
nor all the hates and loves and rivalries of sects and groups 
and factions can rob us of that priceless boon. Here is an 
imperishable gift, this great effulgent figure standing far 
away at the daybreak of our history. Within the memory 
of men yet living it was said to a great statesman, "You 
have so lived and wrought as to keep alive the soul in 
England." Two hundred years ago today there was born in 
an English colony a man who did more than keep a soul 
alive. He so lived and wrought as to breathe into his country 
the soul that was his own. 

May we keep it undefiled through all the years to come! 

The next speaker was Honorable Joseph A. Mc- 
Ginnies, Speaker of the Assembly, who paid elo- 
quent tribute to the memory of George Washing- 
ton. He was followed by Honorable Nathan L. 
Miller, former Governor of the State of New 
York, who spoke on "The Constitution and Our 
National Development." 




. ... - .. .. > 




t* 



PiL'«i Mlt . 



Twenty-one gun salute firi 



Governor's Island, New York, February 22, 193 2, which ushered in the 
great Celebration in the Metropolis. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



si 




Reviewing stand at the Celebration in New York City, February 22, 1932, when more than 10,000 men 

marched up flfth avenue. 

The parade was the high spot in a Jay given over to cere monies of a patriotic and religious significance. Left 

to right in the reviewing stand are: Colonel Win. Costigan, Honorable Groier Whalen, Chairman of the New 

York City Bicentennial Committee, Mayor James }. Walker, and Brigadier General Lucius P. Holbrooke. 




One of the notable parade features of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration in New York 

City, February 22, 1932. 
These flags were unveiled at Washington Scjuare, and it was from this point that the colorful procession of 

10,000 men marched up Fifth Avenue 



82 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



New York City Opens the Celebration 
The City of New York gave official recognition 
to the opening of the Bicentennial Celebration in 
ceremonies preceded by a military parade of 10,000 
men up Fifth Avenue. The exercises were inaugu- 
rated by a salute of 21 guns from Fort Jay, and 
during the day there were scores of meetings, 
pageants, dinners and religious exercises in honor 
of the nation's first President. Banks, schools and 
business houses generally were closed. The parade 
was headed by Brigadier General Lucius R. Hol- 
brooke, grand marshal, and started promptly at 
2:30 o'clock from Washington Square. At the 



Worth Monument, Fifth Avenue and Twenty- 
fifth Street, it was reviewed by Mayor James J. 
Walker, Honorable Grover Whalen, Chairman of 
the City Bicentennial Commission, ranking army 
and navy officials, and distinguished citizens. 
Regular army regiments, marine and naval detach- 
ments, accompanied by their bands, National 
Guard Regiments, reserves and representatives of 
a dozen veteran and patriotic associations were in 
line. 

In Brooklyn a similar parade was held by the 
King's County Volunteer Firemen's Association. 
It was reviewed at Borough Hall by Brooklyn 
officials. 





Reverse of the Official Medal issued at the Celebra- 
tion in New York, April 30, 1889, of the Centennial 
of the first Inauguration of President Washington. 



Obverse of the Official Medal issued at the Celebra- 
tion in New York, April 30, 1889, of the Centennial 
of the first Inauguration of President Washington. 



Previous George Washington 
Celebrations 




CELEBRATIONS of various kinds, and 
commemorating various events in the 
life of George Washington, have been 
held in all parts of the Union since the 
first Inauguration of the First President. To the 
city and people of Alexandria, Virginia, belong 
the honor of paying tribute to George Washington 
within a few hours after his notification of election 
as the First President. When Charles Thomson, 
who had been Secretary of the Continental Con- 
gress throughout its existence of fourteen years, 
reached Mount Vernon with the notification of the 
election of George Washington to the Presidency 
on April 14, 1789, the future President lost no 
time in preparing to assume his great duties. On 
April 16, Washington started for New York. He 
had scarcely left his home before he was met by 
his neighbors and friends of Alexandria, who 
escorted him into town and gave him an early 
dinner. It was upon this occasion that George 
Washington received his first greetings as the Presi- 
dent of the United States. As George Washington 
left the City of Alexandria, he found it difficult to 
conceal his emotions. "Unutterable sensations," 
said he, "must then be left for more expressive 
silence, while from an aching heart I bid you all, my 
affectionate friends and kind neighbors, farewell." 

Celebration in 1832 

It was natural that many cities and communi- 
ties should be especially interested in the com- 
memoration of historical events of more or less 
local importance. On February 22, 1832, there 
were a number of celebrations held in some of the 
principal cities in honor of the One Hundredth 
Anniversary of George Washington's birth. In 
the National Capital a subscription banquet was 
held at Barnard's Mansion House, at Northwest 
corner of Pennsylvania Avenue and 14th Street, at 
which Daniel Webster presided and delivered a 
notable oration ending in these stirring words: 

But let us hope for better things. Let us trust in that 
gracious Being who has hitherto held our country as in the 
hollow of His hand. Let us trust to the virtue and intelli- 
gence of the people, and to the efficacy of religious obliga- 
tion. Let us trust to the influence of Washington's example. 
Let us hope that that fear of Heaven which expels all other 



fear, and that regard to duty which transcends all other 
regard, may influence public men and private citizens, and 
lead our country still onward in her happy career. Full of 
these gratifying anticipations and hopes, let us look forward 
to the end of that century which is now commenced. A 
hundred years hence, other disciples of Washington will cele- 
brate his birth, with no less of sincere admiration that we 
now commemorate it. When they shall meet, as we now 
meet, to do themselves and him that honor, so surely as they 
shall see the blue summits of his native mountains rise in 
the horizon, so surely as they shall behold the river on whose 
banks he lived, and on whose banks he rests, still flowing on 
toward the sea, so surely may they see, as we now see, the 
flag of the Union floating on the top of the Capitol; and 
then, as now, may the sun in his course visit no land more 
free, more happy, more lovely, than this our own country! 

Fiftieth Anniversary of Inauguration 

The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Inauguration of 
George Washington as President of the United 
States was celebrated in New York on April 30, 
1839. The arrangements for the Celebration were 
made under the direction of the New York His- 
torical Society. The Committee on Arrangements 
invited John Quincy Adams to deliver the oration 
and the exercises were held in the Little Dutch 
Church in Cedar Street, New York. Many per- 
sons of distinction were in attendance. Mr. Adams 
occupied about two hours in the delivery of the 
oration, in the course of which he said: 

And on that day of which you now commemorate the 
Fiftieth Anniversary, on the 30th day of April, 1789, was 
this mighty revolution, not only in the affairs of our country, 
but in the principles of government over civilized man, 
accomplished. The Revolution itself was the work of thir- 
teen years — and had never been completed until that day. 
The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of 
the United States are parts of one consistent whole, founded 
upon one and the same theory of government. 

The evening program, according to a news- 
paper account of the time, ended as follows: 

In the course of the evening, a fine transparency, repre- 
senting old Federal Hall, formerly standing on the corner of 
Wall and Nassau Streets, the scene of Washington's Inaugu- 
ration, was disclosed by the withdrawal of a curtain at the 
upper end of the hall, and produced a brilliant effect. The 
figures of Washington and Chancellor Livingston were seen 
in the balcony, the one laying his hand upon the book, while 
the other administered the oath of office in the presence of 
a vast concourse of people. The painting was extremely well 
executed, and, taking the company by surprise, drew forth 
long and loud applause. The hall was also decorated with 
copies of Stuart's portraits of the first five Presidents of the 
United States — copies painted by Stuart himself. The festivi- 
ties were continued to a late hour, and brought to a brilliant 
close the commemoration of a day long to be remembered 
in the annals of our country's happiness and prosperity. 



84 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



In April of 1875 occurred the Centennial of the 
Battle of Lexington. Afterward came the Bunker 
Hill Celebration of June 17, 1875, and the great 
Centennial Celebration, and recently the York- 
town Sesqui-Centennial Celebration, the Evacua- 
tion Day Celebration, the Celebration of the 
formation of the Constitution of the United States, 
and other similar centennial celebrations. 

The New York Centennial Celebration 

The greatest celebration in honor of George 
Washington ever held prior to the Celebration 
commemorating the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of his Birth, was held in New York in honor of the 
One Hundredth Anniversary of his first Inaugura- 
tion. The New York Historical Society was the 
prime mover in this celebration. 

Formal invitations to the general Celebration 
were extended to the President of the United 
States, the members of his Cabinet, the Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of the United States and 
the two Houses of Congress. A meeting was held 
in Philadelphia in the Hall of the Carpenters Com- 
pany, April 28, 1888 to arouse more interest in the 
New York Celebration. 

Presidential Proclamation 

As the day for the opening of the great Celebra- 
tion approached Benjamin Harrison, who had suc- 
ceeded Grover Cleveland as President of the United 
States, issued the following proclamation: 

By the President of the United States of America 
A Proclamation 

A hundred years have passed since the Government which 
our forefathers founded was formally organized. At noon 
on the thirtieth day of April, seventeen hundred and eighty- 
nine, in the city of New York, and in the presence of an 
assemblage of the heroic men whose patriotic devotion had 
led the Colonies to victory and independence, George Wash- 
ington took the oath of office as Chief Magistrate of the 
new-born Republic. This impressive act was preceded, at 
nine o'clock in the morning, in all the churches of the city, 
by prayer for God's blessing on the Government and its first 
President. 

The centennial of this illustrious event in our history has 
been declared a general holiday by Act of Congress, to the 
end that the people of the whole country may join in com- 
memorative exercises appropriate to the day. 

In order that the joy of the occasion may be associated 
with a deep thankfulness in the minds of the people for all 
our blessings in the past, and a devout supplication to God 
for their gracious continuance in the future, the representa- 
tives of the religious creeds, both Christian and Hebrew, 
have memorialized the Government to designate an hour for 
prayer and thanksgiving on that day. 

Now, therefore, I, Benjamin Harrison, President of the 
United States of America, in response to this pious and 
reasonable request, do recommend that on Tuesday, April 
30th, at the hour of nine o'clock in the morning, the people 



of the entire country repair to their respective places of 
Divine worship, to implore the favor of God that the bless- 
ings of Liberty, prosperity and peace, may abide with us as 
a people, and that His hand may lead us in the paths of 
righteousness and good deeds. 

In Witness Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and 

caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed. 

Done in the City of Washington this fourth day 

of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand 

(Seal) eight hundred and eighty-nine, and of the 

Independence of the United States the one 

hundred and thirteenth. 

Benj. Harrison. 
By the President: 

James G. Blaine, 

Secretary of State. 

Official Program 
The official program which completed the Cele- 
bration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the 
First Inauguration of George Washington as Presi- 
dent of the United States was as follows: 

Wednesday, April 17, 1889 
Formal opening of the Loan Exhibition of His- 
torical portraits and relics in the Assembly Rooms 
of the Metropolitan Opera House, New York City. 

Monday, April 29, 1889 
The Naval Parade in New York Harbor. Ar- 
rangements having been made for the reception of 
the President of the United States who arrived in 
New York City over practically the same route as 
that taken by George Washington in 1789, the Re- 
ception Committee arranged to meet his steamer 
off Elizabethport, New Jersey. This part of the 
program was quite spectacular and was witnessed 
by hundreds of thousands of people congregated on 
both sides of the harbor. The President's steamer, 
with Reception Committee, landed at the foot of 
Wall Street and the President and his guests were 
escorted to the Equitable Building where a Recep- 
tion was tended by the Committee on States. 

In the evening the Centennial Ball was given at 
the Metropolitan Opera House. The Mayor of the 
City of New York received the President of the 
United States and other distinguished guests. The 
President was escorted to the ball by the Chairman 
of the Committee on Entertainment, accompanied 
by the Governor of New York, and Mrs. Harrison, 
the Vice President and Mrs. Morton and the Lieut. - 
Governor and Mrs. Jones. 

Tuesday, April 30 
Divine Services Everywhere 
Pursuant to the Proclamation of the President, 
services of thanksgiving were held in the churches 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



85 



of New York and throughout the country. A 
special service of thanksgiving was held in St. Paul's 
Chapel at 9:00 o'clock which the President and 
other distinguished guests attended. At the close of 
the religious service at 9:40 A. M., the President 
and party proceeded to the Sub-Treasury Building 
at the corner of Wall and Nassau Streets, the scene 
of the Inauguration ceremony on April 30, 1789, 
where the Literary Exercises took place. These exer- 
cises began at 10:00 A. M. and consisted of an invo- 
cation by the Rev. Richard S. Storrs, D.D.,LL.D.;a 
Poem by John Greenleaf Whittier; an Oration by 



Chauncey Mitchell Depew, LL.D.; an Address by 
the President of the United States and the Benedic- 
tion by the Most Rev. Michael Augustine Corrigan, 
Archbishop of New York. At the conclusion of 
the Literary Exercises the President and members 
of the Cabinet, the Chief Justice and Associate Jus- 
tices, were driven to the Reviewing Stand at Madi- 
son Square. The parade, under Major-General 
John M. Schofield, U. S. A., as Chief Marshall was 
one of the largest and most colorful processions that 
ever moved through the streets of the metropolis. 



i / 










4&A 



/■<?//.}/> /'tr 



/£>: 




Facsimile of the ticket to the Centennial Ball in New York City, April 29, 1889, which was a prominent 
feature of the celebration in honor of the one hundredth anniversary of the flrst inauguration 

of President Washington. 



Manufacturers and Merchants 
Cooperation 




jN BUSINESS as well as in every other 
field, the year 1932 was a "George 
Washington Year." 

As early as the Spring of 1931 manu- 
facturers and merchants began to display interest in 
the plans for the George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration. The Commission at that time received 
requests from several manufacturers for assistance 
in designing articles to meet the expected nation- 
wide demand for Bicentennial merchandise in 1932. 
Many retail stores — especially large department 
stores — looked forward not only to meeting this 
demand but also to participating in local celebra- 
tions throughout the country. 

As the time for the opening of the Celebration 
approached, this interest increased and the Com- 
mission was flooded with requests for information 
and advice from merchants and manufacturers. By 
December, 1931, hundreds of letters were being 



received daily from retail merchants and more than 
five hundred manufacturers had sought the aid of 
the Commission by letter and by personal calls at 
the headquarters in Washington. The experts of 
the Commission gave all the aid possible in response 
to these requests. 

The policy of the Commission in this respect was 
embodied in the following official statement: 

The United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission is not commercial and has nothing to sell. It is an 
agency of the United States Government. 

The Commission treats all manufacturers and retail agencies 
alike, giving advice and cooperation free of charge to all 
persons and business concerns manufacturing, producing, and 
selling articles pertaining to the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington. Negotiations should be 
carried on directly with the Commission. 

The Commission has no financial interest, direct or indi- 
rect, in the sale of articles of merchandise. No concessions 
or exclusive rights are granted for the manufacture or sale 
of any articles, and no such representations are authorized. 

Trade and business organizations and journals, 




A typical George Washington Window Display. 
Colonial costumes, and other Bicentennial decorations exhibited by a department store. 



86 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



87 



A Selection From the Many Bicentennial Medals Made in 1932 




Reverse of Wakefield Medal 
Made by Bailey, Banks and Biddle 




Bicentennial Medal for the 

Eighty-Second Anniversary of 

the Ohio State Fair 

Made by F. H. Nobel Co. 





Obverse of the Gustavus 

Adolphus-George Washington 

Bicentennial Medal 




Distinguished Service Medal Awarded 

by the Chicago George Washington 

Bicentennial Committee 

Made by Green Duck Co. 



m 

!a|Nl*K*|ii:feUliUi 

SHNHHHI. 



w 



,TA It 
IUDE ISLAND^ 




Reverse of Above Medal 
Made by Whitehead & Hoag 



Reverse of George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Medal of the State of 
Rhode Island 
Made by rhe Robbins Co. 




Washington Bicentennial 
Medal 

Made by the Bastian Bros. Co. 




Bicentennial Medal for the 
67th Annual Session of Penn- 
sylvania State Camp, P.O. S. of A. 
Made by Whitehead & Hoag 




Obverse, George Washington 

Masonic Memorial Dedication 

Medal, Alexandria, Va. 

Made by Bailey, Banks & Biddle 




Reverse, George Washington 

Masonic Memorial Dedication 

Medal, Alexandria, Va. 

Made by the Robbins Co. 



88 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



advertising firms, newspapers and magazines were 
seeking ways to stimulate buying during the world- 
wide business depression. Taking note of the in- 
creasing public interest in the approaching series of 
Bicentennial celebrations throughout the United 
States and in foreign lands, many editors and trade 
experts expressed the hope and belief that the Bi- 
centennial Celebration would help to put new life 
into business. 

Gilbert T. Hodges, president of the Advertising 
Federation of America, reflected this attitude when 
he said in a public statement on March 23, 1932: 

"There is a very definite feeling on the part of 
advertising men that this celebration in honor of 
George Washington has real and substantial possi- 
bilities from the standpoint of improving business 
conditions." 

The National Retail Dry Goods Association, 
through Frank W. Spaeth, manager of its Sales 
Promotion Division, early became interested in this 
phase of the celebration and cooperated with the 
Commission in assisting retail merchants, particu- 
larly department stores, with information about the 
Bicentennial plans, and suggestions for meeting the 
expected demand for Bicentennial merchandise and 
organizing their employees to take part in the pub- 
lic celebrations during the Bicentennial Year. 

Booklet of Suggestions Issued 

In response to the growing demands for assist- 
ance from the business world, the Commission pub- 
lished in the early autumn of 1931 a pamphlet en- 
titled "Suggestions for Merchants and Department 
Store Cooperation." The pamphlet contained a 
practical plan for participation by department 
stores and merchants generally in the Bicentennial 
Celebration. Manufacturers, by referring to the 
partial list of Bicentennial merchandise expected to 
be in demand during 1932, found suggestions of 
value in supplying the retail trade. A quotation 
from a letter written by George Washington was 
printed on the inside cover: "7/ is not a custom with 
me to keep money to look at" This was seized 
upon at once as a slogan by merchants everywhere. 

The Department of Commerce, through its Bu- 
reau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, became 
interested in the business possibilities of the celebra- 
tion. Dr. Julius Klein, Assistant Secretary of 
Commerce, commenting on this "George Washing- 
ton slogan" in a nation-wide radio address, said: 



Washington's attitude in that respect has a tremendous 
lesson for all of us at this moment. Entirely too many of 
us today seem to have fallen into the ill-advised and short- 
sighted habit of "keeping money to look at" — the practice 
which the Great Founder so vigorously rejected. . . . When 
money is willing to go to work it can put men and women 
to work — men and women who may now be suffering and 
in despair. 

Thirty-five thousand copies of the pamphlet, 
"Suggestions for Merchants and Department Store 
Cooperation," were distributed to manufacturers 
and retail merchants during the latter part of the 
year 1931 and the first part of 1932. These were 
sent by the Commission direct to stores and manu- 
facturers in varying quantities, according to their 
needs. Many were also distributed through the 
District Managers of the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, Department of Commerce. 
Other agencies which cooperated with the Com- 
mission in the distribution of the pamphlet were 
the National Retail Dry Goods Association, State 
and regional newspaper associations, city and State 
chambers of commerce and trade associations, ad- 
vertising agencies and syndicates and similar organ- 
izations. It was also re-printed, either in full or in 
part, by many trade and business journals and by 
daily and weekly newspapers. 

Celebration a Stimulus to Trade 

The Bicentennial Celebration was utilized by 
manufacturers and retail merchants everywhere in 
an effort to stimulate sales and it is certain that the 
general effect upon business and employment was 
beneficial. That this effect would have been much 
greater, if there had been no general business de- 
pression at the time, is equally certain. Referring 
to the psychological effect of the Bicentennial Cele- 
bration in the business world, Norman S. Hinman, 
of the Commonwealth Edison Company, of Chi- 
cago, said in an article published in the "Chicago 
National Market" in March, 1932: 

This Washington Bicentennial Celebration, if done right, 
can prove the greatest influence in this Nation against the 
spread of communism. This Washington Bicentennial, if 
taken hold of vigorously, can materially aid in the restoration 
of public confidence and in the breaking of the mental 
despondence of our people. This Washington Bicentennial 
is a providential opportunity offered American business for 
lifting itself out of its present depressed condition. Ameri- 
can business can serve itself best and honor Washington most 
by seizing the providential timeliness of this celebration to 
rouse itself and follow him again. 

Manufacturers Prepare for Bicentennial 

The variety of articles manufactured especially 
for the Bicentennial Celebration was practically 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



without limit. They ranged from pen knives and 
pencils to dress goods and chinaware, from furni- 
ture and statuary to new roadways and bridges, 
from souvenirs and toys to "The George Washing- 
ton," the modern air-conditioned train of the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Company. The 
George Washington and the Colonial motifs were 
utilized in an amazing number of ways, covering 
practically the entire field of retail merchandise. 
There is no record of any other celebration of this 
kind having had so pronounced and wide-spread an 
effect in the mercantile world. 

The Commission assisted hundreds of manufac- 
turers in the preparation of designs for Bicentennial 
merchandise but numerous other manufacturers 
also produced articles in this category. The Com- 
mission was pleased to help manufacturers when re- 
quested to do so, but neither the approval nor the 
assistance of the Commission was necessary in the 
preparation of Bicentennial merchandise. 

The assistance rendered by the Commission's ex- 
perts at the request of manufacturers was varied in 
nature, but it consisted mainly of furnishing in- 
formation concerning the historical accuracy of 
Colonial designs for dress goods, furniture, silver- 
ware, jewelry, costumes and uniforms for plays and 
pageants and numerous other articles, and advice 
as to the general appropriateness of new designs for 
Bicentennial merchandise of every description. 
While the Commission consistently refused to sug- 
gest specific designs, leaving all such matters to the 
individual initiative of manufacturers, approval 
was readily given, impartially and without discrimi- 
nation, to all designs or samples submitted which 
were unquestionably authentic historically or 
deemed appropriate for the occasion. In every re- 
spect the Commission adhered to the policy of serv- 
ing all alike and acting only within the proper scope 
of an agency of the United States Government. 

Wide Variety of Bicentennial Merchandise 

The following partial list will give some idea of 
the variety of articles manufactured especially for 
the Bicentennial Celebration and placed on sale in 
stores throughout the country: 

Art Goods: 

Engravings 

Etchings 

Paintings 

Lithographs 
Books: 

Histories 



Biographies 
Children's Books 
Commemorative Volumes 
Historical Charts 
Cloth: 

Women's Dress Goods 
—of Silk 



— of Cotton 
—of Wool 

Linens and Other Ma- 
terial 

Drapery Material 
— of Chintzes 
— of Cretonnes 
— of Tapestries 

Ribbons 
Clothing: 

Women's and Children's 
Dresses 

Men's Shirts 

Boys' Blouses 

Scarfs 

Handkerchiefs 

Neckties 

Sweaters 

Belts 

Hats 

Children's Suits 
Cosmetics: 

Compacts 

Toilet Sets 
Costumes: 

Colonial Costumes 

Costume Patterns 
Decorations: 

Banners 

Bunting 

Flags 

Pennants 

Pictures 

Silhouettes 

Paper Streamers, etc. 
Displays: 

Posters 

Fireworks 

Floats 

Dioramas 

Marionettes 

Display Material 
Emblems: 

Badges 

Medallions 

Souvenir Buttons 

Souvenir Pins 
Entertainment: 

Motion Pictures 

Lantern Slides 

Games 

Toys 

Puzzles 

Bridge Sets 

Pageants and Plays 
Furniture and House Fur- 
nishings: 

Colonial Reproductions 
Bedroom Suites 
Living Room Suites 
Dining Room Suites 
Odd Pieces 

Sewing Cabinets 

Stoves 

Rugs 

Carpets 

Table Linens 
Cloths 



Covers 

Napkins 

Scarfs 

Paper Plates and Cups 

Chests 

Lamps and Shades 

Pillows 

Pillow Covers 

Pictures and Frames 

Wall Paper 

Calendars 

Brushes 

Fans 

Hangers 

Soap 

Shopping Bags 

Book Ends 

Book Covers 

Quilts 

Boudoir Accessories 

Smoking Stands 

Ash Trays 
Jewelry: 

Pins 

Brooches 

Clocks 

Medals 

Rings 

Pendants 
Metal Products: 

Memorial Tablets 

Highway Signs 

Historical Markers 

Tree Markers 

Automobile Accessories 
Novelties and Souvenirs: 

Souvenir Coins 

Fobs 

Key Rings 

Pen Knives 

Match Boxes 

Book Marks 

Card Cases 

Billfolds 

Bridge Prizes 

Advertising Specialties 
Stationery: 

Letter Heads and Note 
Paper 

Envelopes 

Greeting Cards 

Seals 

Pencils 

Pens 

Tablets 

Note Books 

Albums 

Blotters 

Desk Pads 
Statuary: 

Statues and Statuettes 

Busts 

Placques 
Tableware: 

Chinaware 

Silverware 

Glassware 



Trays 

As early as November 1931 the "Merchants' 
Record and Show Window" referred to the "new 



90 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



designs in fabrics, Colonial styles in women's and 
misses wear, house furnishings and almost every 
other kind of merchandise." . . . 

It is not the thought in this great celebration, continues 
the article, to commercialize the fond memories we hold for 
the beloved Washington, Father of His Country, but rather 
it offers an opportunity for all people to pay homage to him 
in their own way — to show their love and respect for him 
and to manifest a desire to emulate his useful life. 

Women's Wear Leads 

Even — or perhaps it should be said, especially — 
did "women's wear" feel the influence of the Bicen- 
tennial. There was a revival of Colonial patterns 
and designs in dress goods and an accentuation of 
the patriotic motif in new colors and patterns. 
"The tri-color — red, white and blue — leads the van 
of high hues this month," announced the "Chicago 
National Market" in its March number of 1932. 
Virtually every large manufacturer of silk, wool 
and cotton dress goods in the United States put spe- 
cial Bicentennial designs on the market early in the 
year. These had been inspired by the dresses worn 
in the early days of our country and now carefully 



preserved in museums. The result was both au- 
thentic copies of early American prints, and — in- 
spired by goods of such designs — fashions adapted 
from those early dresses. 

Months before the celebration opened, silk, cot- 
ton and textile manufacturers sent representatives 
to the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission to confer on designs for the 
1932 lines. As a result women again wore fabrics 
with the same designs as those worn by Martha 
Washington, Abigil Adams, Elizabeth Monroe and 
other celebrated women of the Colonial period. For 
instance, the Elizabeth Monroe pattern made up 
by one silk company was in a variety of color com- 
binations and is the exact reproduction of an origi- 
nal dress worn by Elizabeth Monroe now in the his- 
torical costume exhibit at the United States 
National Museum. Other designs sent out by this 
silk firm also bore the names of Colonial women as 
well as such subtly suggestive names as "candle- 
light." 

Even the brocades worn by Colonial ladies of 




Unveiling of George Washington Mural Panorama. 
A department store Bicentennial program in which Boy Scouts, Sons of the American Revolution, Daughters 
of the American Revolution, American Legion, Spanish War Veterans, and Grand Army of the Republic 
participated. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



91 



wealth were reincarnated in prints that simulated 
them. There were other designs that took their 
inspiration from Colonial gardens and still others 
that cleverly adapted the cherry tree and hatchet, 
the stage-coach, the stars and stripes, the Liberty 
Bell. One clever print showed the tiny figure of a 
Colonial dame in silhouette; another even had an 
outline profile of Washington. 

Colors, too, took their cue from the anniversary. 
The three-color combination of red, white and blue 
was striking and popular in the plain colors, and 
the prints showed the charm of delicate rosebuds, 
sprays and bowknots of olden days. 

In the woolens, a shawl in the Metropolitan 
Museum served as a popular pattern for a Spring 
wool cloth. The Colonial wool-poplins found a 
modern counterpart in super repweaves. Cashmere 
yarns, but smoother and lighter than the Colonial 
era knew, added a new-old note to the fashion 
parade. Cottons, muslins, batistes and lawns such 
as our forefathers wore had a revival of interest. 

One silk manufacturer put out 17 different de- 
signs in the colonial feeling, and was so interested 
in the anniversary that he secured the cooperation 
of manufacturers of hats, bags, jewelry, blouses, 
belts, bedspreads, and novelties, even to waste paper 
baskets, lamp shades and pillows, to feature 
Colonial styles. 

The Spring Style Show in New York, held 
shortly after the opening of the Bicentennial, 
offered, as a prelude to the exhibits of one designer, 
a pageant of authentic reproductions of eighteenth 
century gowns. These were named after Martha 
Washington, Elizabeth Monroe, and Dolly Madi- 
son, and were followed by a presentation of modern 
evening gowns designed to reflect the Colonial 
influence. 

Coat fashions copied in modified form the mili- 
tary capes and coats worn by Colonial ladies. Eve- 
ning jackets of taffeta were advanced in almost 
exact reproduction of the little fitted jackets of 
old. 

One fashion writer wrote on February 18, 1932: 
"Maybe it's the Washington Bicentennial this year 
that does it. . . . Anyway, they're flying the red, 
white and blue everywhere for spring . . . and 
'spirited' is certainly the word to describe those 
tri-color fashions. ... So thank Washington . . . 
and fall in step with one of the most exciting 
fashions in an exciting season — the outfit of red, 
white and blue." 



Another writer in one of the trade magazines 
said of the Bicentennial style trends: 

Flag colors are marching again to the front of the mode, 
both in costumes and accessories. Wherever spring fashions 
parade, there is a stirring array of blue coats with scarfs of 
red and white stripes or polka dots; of blue frocks dotted in 
white, having belts or sashes of red; or white sport frocks 
with red capes and a touch of blue for further contrast. 
The Bicentennial Anniversary of Washington's birthday has 
re-awakened a deep devotion to that most dynamic of all 
color combinations, — red, white, and blue. 

Needless to say, the smart woman will not drape herself 
like an American flag; there are infinitely clever ways of 
bringing the gaiety of the tri-color into the wardrobe without 
being spectacular. The best way is to use two of the colors 
lavishly, adding just a bit of the third tone. For instance, 
the tailored blue suit occupying the dominant place it does 
this spring, its chic is augmented by a white pique waistcoat, 
and a red flower on the jacket, and a red handbag. 

The military and naval themes naturally fall into step 
where patriotic colors lead. With square-shouldered, high- 
necked, and narrow-waisted lines; epaulettes, waistcoats, and 
metal button and braided trims, — all of the popular military 
operations have been confined to the spring styles. 

In place of white, buff or beige is gaining considerable 
prestige in conjunction with red and blue, — an alliance much 
fancied in Colonial days. The revival of its softened tone 
proves very acceptable to many who find flag shades too 
striking. 

Among the accessories, scarfs and jewelry have been first 
to claim the tri-color, the latter brave with novelty clip 
emblems and bright bead necklaces. Tailored white collar 
and cuff sets take trimming bands of red and French blue, — 
an even more springlike union than with flag blue. Mil- 
linery also enters the field with blue and white combinations, 
with red cherry trims, and ribbon cockades of blue and red. 

The Textile Color Card Association of New 
York contributed to the Bicentennial trend in 
colors by issuing a special booklet of "Colonial 
Colors for the Bicentennial Year." This was in- 
tended as a guide to manufacturers and merchants 
that they might pay tribute, through the presenta- 
tion of significant colors, to the Father of Our 
Country. 

The colors selected by the Association for em- 
phasis during 1932 were reproduced from original 
costumes of the First President and his wife and 
other famous personages in early American history, 
taken from the costume collection of the United 
States National Museum. The names of the colors 
shown in the booklet bore such expressive and 
descriptive names as "George Washington Buff," 
"Martha Washington Coral," "Lafayette Green," 
"Thomas Jefferson Brown." 

Each color sample carried a brief historical note, 
and especially fine was the legend about the colors, 
"Star Spangled Banner Red," and "Star Spangled 
Banner Blue." These colors, neither very bright, 
were taken from the original flag which inspired 
Francis Scott Key to write our national song. 



92 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



"Those stripes and bright stars," in the words of 
the Association, "are today faded and tattered, the 
red no longer scarlet-toned, the blue no longer 
deep as night. But the finger of time in touching 
them has so changed and tempered their gleaming 
hues, that now, after one hundred and eighteen 
years, the red and the blue of the Star Spangled 
Banner glow anew in mellow beauty." 

Bicentennial Mode Doubly Patriotic 

The mode for American patriotic colors and 

early-American designs reacted patriotically and 

economically to the buying of American cloth, as 

shown in a statement issued by the National Wool 

Committee, from which is taken the following: 

After all, the Patriotism demonstrated by our forefathers 
was practical in character. Of course, at that period, most 
of the wool textiles were made by the women folks and the 
hum of the old spinning wheel was frequently heard in many- 
hearths and homes. 



The American people have today an additional oppor- 
tunity to emulate the patriotism of the forefathers by wearing 
American materials made from American produced wool. It 
is interesting to observe that many makers of women's wear 
are now featuring in the New York and other style centers 
of the country, dresses and coats which include our National 
tri-colors. In addition scarfs, neckties and other articles for 
personal wear embodying the Red, White and Blue are promi- 
nently appearing. 

Color combinations of this sort when combined with the 
fancy light-weight woolens, so desirable for early Spring and 
Summer wear, contribute immensely to the spirit of the 
George Washington Bicentennial and are entirely in keeping 
with the patriotic trend of today. 

Hats, accessories, hair coiffures and even shoes 
felt the Bicentennial influence. 

Many hairdressers studied Colonial hair dress, 
and adapted it to modern ideas. The ringlets of 
old were suggested in their modern version by 
bangs and side curls. Hats took on a tricorne 
suggestion. 

Accessories adroitly paid homage to the Wash- 




George Washington Bicentennial Exhibit 

Department store window display with background of Colonial wood, wall paper, flint lock musket, spinning 

wheel, Revolutionary sword, and Colonial period chair. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



93 



ington Bicentennial by reflecting a Colonial inspi- 
ration. Steel buckles were revived as one of the 
smartest trimmings for pumps and leather belts. 
A simple Colonial steel buckle graced bags and 
matching belts, while a tongue pump with a dis- 
tinct Colonial flavor, added to its period design by- 
using a square cut steel buckle for decoration. 

Printed handkerchiefs carried in patriotic colors 
a cherry, a hatchet, the Liberty Bell, etc. Boys' 
ties were imprinted with the head of Washington. 
Boutonnieres of manufactured red cherries were 
in high favor. 

That the fashion trend was not only the result 
of an opportunity offered by a patriotic celebra- 
tion, but was also and primarily a conscious tribute 
of the garment manufacturers and retailers of the 
country as their commemoration of the Bicenten- 
nial, is shown in the following excerpt from the 
program of the 1932 Spring Style Show, under the 
title, "George Washington and Our Industry": 

The Garment Retailers Association of America is happy 
to note the interest and effort manifested by the industry in 
the modern version movement of Martha Washington period 
styles. 

Many of the exhibitions that you will see tonight will show 
style trends back to the days of George Washington in an 
attempt to help commemorate the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the birth of that great American. 

Early in 1931 this association suggested that our industry 
cooperate with the United States Commission of the George 
Washington Bicentennial in aiding the public to celebrate the 
occasion by reviving in modern form women's styles of the 
days of Martha Washington. This celebration will be carried 
on throughout the country and it is inspiring to reflect that 
the garment trades are truly playing their part. 

This "graceful contribution to the nation's cele- 
bration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of 
George Washington's Birth," was acknowledged in 
the program of the Spring Style Show by the 
Director of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission in the following state- 



I wish to congratulate the members of your progressive 
and influential business organization, the Garment Retailers 
of America, on the emphasis you are placing in your annual 
Fashion Show on the styles of the period of Martha Wash- 
ington. You could not make a more appropriate and graceful 
contribution to the nation's celebration of the two hundredth 
anniversary of George Washington's birth. 

In giving your attention to the clothes of Washington's 
times, you are performing a high social service. George 
Washington and the men and women about him set us 
examples in every direction. As we turn back to them in 
this Bicentennial year, we would do well to learn, even in 
this matter of dress, from those first Americans who loved 
color and elegance, and yet used them in the purest taste. 

You who stand guardians over our present standards of 
style most wisely call us back to those olden days, that we 
may even clothe ourselves more nearly like the patriots who 
stood guardians over our national destiny. 



For more than two years I have watched and helped the 
growth of the urge of a great people to honor their greatest 
citizen on the Two Hundredth Anniversary of his birth. 
Now we stand on the eve of this more than nine months 
long tribute we are to pay to the man to whom we owe 
most of what we have and what we are. Every American 
seems to be acutely aware of this fact. The country rings 
with gratitude and reverence to George Washington. All 
classes of our people are filled with this feeling to which we 
are to give expression, beginning on February 22 and ending 
on Thanksgiving Day. We should be forever grateful for 
the gift of Divine Providence in sending us such a man as 
George Washington. 

1 predict that during this year of tribute to him the people 
of the United States will be astonished at the power of this 
new patriotism within themselves. Your organization has 
given me convincing and inspiring proof that my prediction 
will come true. Business itself has turned reverential and 
patriotic, and I look to see your example followed all over 
the land. 

Once more, my heartiest congratulations and thanks for 
your cooperation in our effort to bring back this year the 
spirit of George Washington. Let us harken back to the 
days of the Father of His Country in the matter of dress. 

Colonial Costumes in Demand 

With the thousands of plays and pageants, balls 
and costume dances planned during the nine month 
celebration of the Bicentennial, there was a great 
demand for costumes of the Colonial period. 

Costume manufacturers prepared for this de- 
mand, even doing extensive research work to secure 
authentic versions of the early mode. The collec- 
tion of authentic costumes in the National Museum 
in Washington was the source for much of this 
study. 

As a further aid to the many persons, men, 
women and children throughout the country who 
would need Colonial costumes for their partici- 
pation in Bicentennial celebrations, the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion issued a Costume Book of suggested designs. 
No patterns were issued by the Commission, but 
some of the larger pattern manufacturers put out 
special colonial patterns. 

That this need for Colonial costumes was a dis- 
tinct aid to the costume makers trade, is shown 
in the Associated Press dispatch quoted below: 

The satin breeches business is booming, thanks to George 
Washington. The nation's zeal in commemorating the Gen- 
eral's bicentennial has brought a rush of orders to factories 
which make uniforms and costumes. Watteau frocks, bro- 
caded cutaway coats and satin knee breeches are in demand. 
One firm received more than 5,000 orders from groups and 
individuals. 

Bicentennial Influences Furniture Styles 

Furniture of colonial design was emphasized 
during the Bicentennial year. Quoting from one 
article on "Home Decoration": "This patriotic 



94 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



celebration . . . has renewed the vogue for Fed- 
eral American decorations." 

The beautifully styled chairs of Washington's 
time, "Queen Anne," "Chippendale," "Sheraton," 
"Windsor," "Duncan Phyfe," "Adam," all associ- 
ated with the best that was known in American 
colonial days, had a revival of interest during the 
Bicentennial. The New York Times of April 6, 
1932, reported "manufacturers of occasional and 
novelty furniture are enjoying an active call for 
merchandise. . . . Colonial designs in mahogany, 
oak and walnut finishes are preferred by buyers. 

Other furniture utilized coverings of prints that 
depicted Mount Vernon, the cherry tree, Valley 
Forge, scenes from the life of Washington, old 
colonial patterns, etc. 

Furniture companies identified with the Grand 
Rapids Furniture Exposition took a leading role 
in encouraging a revival of the furniture of Wash- 
ington's time. Emphasis on eighteenth century 
furniture was never more widespread than during 
1932. One Grand Rapids firm which specializes 
in eighteenth century American designs, put out 
a special bed for 1932. This was adapted from 
General Washington's bed at Mount Vernon and 
followed the tradition of the times exactly. Only 



200 of the beds were made — in keeping with the 
two hundredth anniversary. 

The trade magazines of the furniture industry 
expressed the Colonial style trend, THE FURNI- 
TURE BLUE BOOK featuring articles on Colonial 
furniture and authentic reproductions of early 
American furniture. THE UPHOLSTERER 
AND INTERIOR DECORATOR, in a Bicenten- 
nial article in its March 15, 1932, issue, reproduced 
museum pieces of Washington furniture, as well 
as modern arrangements of early American 
furniture. 

Wallpaper shared in the Bicentennial revival of 
the times of George Washington. Almost every 
manufacturer of wallpaper and fabrics for wall 
coverings brought out early American patterns. 
Many of them were in the original colorings, "deep 
wine-red and cream, mustard-yellow and ivory, 
flag-blue and gray." 

The Interior Decoration Editor of McCalPs 
Magazine wrote: 

The national celebration has encouraged our antique dis- 
coverers to be even more persevering. They have discovered, 
for instance, old hand-blocked wall-paper panels showing 
Washington on his white horse, looking over old Boston. 
Other panels reveal West Point, Virginia's Natural Bridge 
and like scenes of interest. 

For 1932 patriots, the new wall-paper has been made from 
the actual old blocks. Under six layers of paint and paper 

/ 



o<!<\?\( 







• «, »• 






\ 



A GROUP Ol 1 \1 I'l OYI I S <>I 



United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission and a group of 
children displaying colonial costumes. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



9^ 



in old houses have been found old papers which have been 
revived in stirring new designs. An old Wedgewood tea set 
displaying a classic interpretation of the Washington profile 
has been the inspiration for another new wall-paper. 

"There is no decorative product more closely 
associated with the Colonial and Federal periods 
in American homefurnishing than wall paper," said 
THE UPHOLSTERER AND INTERIOR DEC- 
ORATOR in an early issue of the Bicentennial 
year. Continuing, the article read: 

During the one hundred years previous to the Revolution 
and during the early years of the Republic, wallpaper was 
used profusely in the decoration of fine homes. Evidence of 
this is found everywhere — in old documents, old illustrations, 
and in many genuine Colonial and Federal interiors preserved 
for us by museums, patriotic societies and the like. There 
is a legend that Washington assisted by none other than the 
celebrated Lafayette at one time turned paper hanger to the 
extent of covering the walls in one of the rooms at Mount 
Vernon with paper selected by his wife. 

It is not unreasonable, therefore, to prophesy that during 
the present year, in which we are celebrating the George 
Washington Bicentennial, wallpaper in its various Colonial 
and Federal patterns will enjoy great popularity due to the 
public interest in all things pertaining to the country's earliest 
days. 

In department stores and decorative establishments all over 
the country there will be innumerable displays of Washing- 
tonian and near Washingtonian patterns and designs in fabrics, 
furniture, floor-coverings, etc. But none of these will be 
complete or truly representative of the period unless included 
in them is a generous assortment of the many exquisite and 
historically correct wallpapers which the market affords. 

Scenic papers, with both large and small patterns will 
predominate, because this type of paper is closely associated 
with the period. However, in all of the displays to which 
we have referred those responsible for them should not over- 
look the fact that there are other types of wallpaper which 
were widely used in Colonial times. These are represented 
by small leaf and floral patterns; by miniature shields and 
stars, engraved against single tone backgrounds; and also by 
a number of medallion papers and papers with a diagonal 
lattice pattern against a plain or mottled background. 

All of these patterns, and similar patterns which we have 
not mentioned, are to be found in the lines of the various 
American manufacturers and jobbers, and their display, in 
association with other decorative units of Washingtonian 
items, is particularly desirable and appropriate now, 200 years 
after the birth of our most celebrated Revolutionary General, 
and the first President of the Republic. 

Linens, draperies and other household furnish- 
ings took on a Bicentennial trend "in the spirit 
of Colonial living." 

One table linen design featured in 1932 showed 
the American Eagle and stars. Small novelties, 
such as finger towels, guest towels, bridge sets, 
cocktail napkins embroidered in Colonial motifs 
were widely shown. 

Cretonne and chintz for drapes and chair cover- 
ings pictured Colonial scenes, one chintz showing 
scenes in old New York, another, various historic 
scenes cleverly woven into a floral background. 
One print even showed the Liberty Bell, Inde- 



pendence Hall and the ride of Paul Revere. There 
was much interest in reproducing Colonial styles 
in the arrangement of draperies, but there is little 
data concerning Colonial types of window cur- 
tains. Mount Vernon has elaborate woodwork, 
and there is no evidence that overdrapes were used, 
the woodwork probably being deemed sufficient 
decoration. 

The Colonial mirror had a distinct and very 
popular revival, the plain, wide wooden frame that 
is its distinguishing mark proving of wide appeal. 
The old-fashioned lamps of glass, with hanging 
crystals, also found favor, and suggestive of the 
era were novelty lamps whose bases were minia- 
ture spinning wheels. With shades decorated with 
Colonial silhouettes, these lamps found a place in 
thousands of homes. Other Bicentennial novelty 
lamps had a carved base depicting an incident in 
the life of Washington, and "shadow lamps" show- 
ing a silhouette of the First President. 

Bedspreads, too, became Colonial. There was a 
revival of quilts and tufted spreads with such 
names as "Colonial Basket," "Mount Vernon," etc. 

Hand-hooked rugs and wall hangings were 
especially popular during the Bicentennial. One 
rug depicted the birthplace of Washington, 
"Wakefield," set amid old-fashioned flowers. 
Other rugs had silhouettes of ladies and gentlemen 
of Colonial days. One hand-hooked wall hanging 
had Mount Vernon worked out, sampler fashion. 

Early American hob-nail glassware had a revival, 
among other glass novelties, this proving so popular 
that it is likely to become permanently in demand. 
Dishes designed for original fragments of a dinner 
service used at the birthplace of Washington were 
put on the market and were called "Wakefield 
Dishes." Special memorial plates appeared, of 
deep-etched glass, depicting the head of Washing- 
ton surrounded by thirteen stars and the dates, 
1732-1932. 

"Colonial candles" were Bicentennial novelties 
in house furnishings. These were elongated 
statuettes in candle form, in pairs to represent 
George and Martha Washington. 

Miniature busts of Washington formed chil- 
dren's savings banks. Youngsters were able to 
secure a "George Washington knife" — the tradi- 
tional pocket knife that Washington's mother gave 
him in return for his pledge of obedience. All sorts 
of paper weights, ash receivers and cigarette lighters 



96 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



were ingeniously designed to commemorate the 
Bicentennial. 

Paper novelties included paper napkins and 
doilies cut and printed in old-fashioned designs, as 
well as paper plates decorated to simulate Colonial 
china. Playing cards, and card-table covers de- 
picted George and Martha Washington, in silhou- 
ette, as well as historical scenes and reproductions 
of famous portraits of the First President. 

Party favors, especially for February 22 and 
July 4, showed great originality and new inspira- 
tion from the Bicentennial. Paper hats were tri- 
cornered in the mode of Washington's time. 

Practically every calendar manufacturer fea- 
tured the anniversary, as did stationery manufac- 
turers. Business stationery often incorporated a 
Bicentennial design; desk blotters, letter openers, 
book ends, book marks, signature blotters, desk sets, 
quill pens — all were reminiscent of the historic 
celebration. 

One stationery manufacturer gave a complimen- 
tary Bicentennial calendar with each box of a cer- 
tain quality of stationery. Some of the calendars 
issued, besides having pictures of Washington and 
related subjects, bore historical data of much in- 
terest and usefulness. One calendar depicting 
Wakefield in beautiful colors was much in demand. 

The Bicentennial found expression in the cul- 
tural as well as the artistic and practical sides of 
human needs. 

Book publishers took the opportunity to repub- 
lish and feature books about Washington, editions 
of his diaries, children's books on Washington, and 
so forth. Many picture series relating to Wash- 
ington and the early days of our country were 
issued. 

Among children's school supplies, every oppor- 
tunity was taken to stress the year's anniversary. 
School tablet manufacturers decorated the covers 
of their tablets with pictures of the First President 
and Lady Washington and scenes from their lives. 
There were loose-leaf notebooks bearing the like- 
ness of Washington, the fly-leaf often containing 
a condensed outline of his life. 

One pencil manufacturer, besides putting out 
"Bicentennial pencils" in buff and blue and in red, 
white and blue, issued a complimentary "Pictorial 
Biography of the Father of our Country," a booklet 
containing historic pictures and portraits. 

Placques for school awards during 1932 usually 
commemorated also the two hundredth anniver- 



sary of the birth of the First President, with plaque 
makers putting out artistic and faithful reproduc- 
tions of likenesses of George Washington. One 
producer of bronze statues of Washington issued 
an instructive and beautiful commemorative book 
telling the story of the making of Houdon's life- 
size statue of Washington, the original of which 
is in the Capitol at Richmond, Virginia. 

Impetus was given to other commemorative 
markers. One marker showed a miniature figure 
of George Washington on horseback, with a legend 
beneath to indicate that he had once traveled that 
road. The thousands of commemorative tree 
plantings brought a demand for tree-markers, to 
which the manufacturers responded with numerous 
significant designs. 

All sorts of souvenir coins, buttons and badges 
were issued to commemorate the Bicentennial. 
One pocket piece carried the head of Washington 
on one side and a reproduction of Wakefield on 
the other. Celluloid and metal buttons of all 
descriptions were put out, usually bearing the head 
of Washington and the dates 1732-1932 or some 
wording to suggest the anniversary. Convention 
badges throughout the year were made doubly 
commemorative with red, white and blue ribbons 
and a Bicentennial pendant or button. 

Display material of almost every kind and pur- 
pose played an important part in bringing the 
Bicentennial to people in all walks of life. 

Makers of display material early began prepara- 
tion of beautiful and stirring objects for display 
purposes. Flexible, heavy, gold-finished banners 
bearing a likeness of Washington, finished in dig- 
nified manner with spear-head hangers and ap- 
propriate lettering, similar banners depicting 
Mount Vernon, banners of felt painted with por- 
traits of Washington, life-size models of the First 
President and equestrian statues of him made of 
papier-mache but life-like and artistically done, 
were available. 

Decorations, banners, bunting, and drapes for 
buildings, store windows and speakers stands were 
put out in red, white and blue, and in the Colonial 
buff and blue. Similar decorations were available 
in paper with special Bicentennial designs. 

Reproductions of famous and contemporary 
busts and statues of Washington were widely 
available in a range of price to suit every need. 

One electric display included a large portrait of 
Washington with electric candles on either side. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



97 



Display manufacturers put out every conceivable 
requirement along this line, from miniature to life- 
size settings and figures for use in store windows, 
as well as in interior decoration. One interesting 
mechanical display portrayed the origin of the 
American flag as it is popularly thought to have 
occurred, with a mechanical Betsy Ross sewing, 
while Washington, Robert Morris and Col. Ross 
look on. 

Even the fireworks manufacturers joined the 
plans for the Bicentennial and featured many 
Washington subjects. Some companies put out a 
"complete Bicentennial fireworks program," with 
Presidential salutes and red, white and blue effects. 

Retail Merchants Participate 

The pamphlet, Suggestions for Merchants and 
Department Store Cooperation, was of great as- 
sistance in linking the desire of the manufacturer 
to participate in the George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Celebration with that of the merchant and 
department store owner. The ideas which it sup- 
plied to stores for tying up their activities with 
the Celebration were at the same time suggestions 
to the manufacturer for producing merchandise of 
Bicentennial appeal. In turn, the Bicentennial 
articles offered by the manufacturers furnished 
ideas to the department stores. 

The slogan of the booklet, "It is not a custom 
tuith me to keep money to look at," uttered by 
George Washington more than a century and a 
half ago, proved a welcome one to the merchant 
and gave a practical angle to a patriotic celebration. 

The pamphlet was prepared with the assistance 
of several experienced managers of large depart- 
ment stores. It included suggestions for organizing 
the managerial staffs and employees of stores for 
participation in local Bicentennial celebrations, and 
for the setting up of special departments for the 
display of Bicentennial merchandise; a list of 
articles of special Bicentennial appeal; suggestions 
for window and interior displays and exhibitions 
of Washingtoniana; proposals for newspaper, direct 
mail, radio and telephone tie-ups; a calendar giving 
dates during the Bicentennial year appropriate for 
department store participation; and suggestions for 



children's activities in connection with community 
Bicentennial celebrations. 

The pamphlet met with instant approval from 
the retail trade and from manufacturers. On 
September 11, 1931, Frank W. Spaeth, manager 
of the Sales Promotion Division of the National 
Retail Dry Goods Association, New York City, 
wrote to the Commission: "I want to congratu- 
late you upon obtaining such an unusually splen- 
did promotional outline for retail stores for the 
George Washington Bicentennial. I believe that 
this plan can be adopted or adapted by every retail 
store throughout the country." 

Booklet of Suggestions Widely Distributed 

More than 5,300 retail stores in the United States 
received one or more copies of this pamphlet di- 
rectly from the offices of the Commission. In 
addition, distribution of thousands of copies was 
effected through branch offices of the Department 
of Commerce, local chambers of commerce, and 
other semi-official business organizations. 

Distribution of the pamphlet to stores by states, 
direct from the Commission, was as follows: 

Alabama 62 



Arizona 


27 


Arkansas 


60 


California 


295 


Colorado . 


57 


Connecticut . 


61 


Delaware 


20 


District of Columbia 


47 


Florida 


64 


Georgia 


90 


Idaho 


34 


Illinois 


33 5 


Indiana 


180 


Iowa 


91 


Kansas 


90 


Kentucky . 


74 


Louisiana 


71 


Maine 


44 


Maryland 


65 


Massachusetts 


189 


Michigan 


188 




81 


Mississippi 


72 


Missouri 


110 




46 


Total, department 


stoi 





59 




14 


New Hampshire 
New Jersey 


. . . . 37 

141 

24 


New York. 
North Carolina. 
North Dakota. 
Ohio . 


510 

105 

25 

. . . . 318 




. 99 


Oregon 


55 

. . . . 520 


Rhode Island. 

South Carolina 
South Dakota 


44 

... 48 
... 31 
... 85 




. . . . 284 


Utah 


. . . . 34 


Vermont 


97 




82 


West Virginia. 


89 

. 135 


Wyoming 


26 




. . 5.349 



The pamphlet, Suggestions for Merchants and 
Department Store Cooperation, is herewith re- 
printed in full as follows: 



98 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Suggestions 

For Merchants and 

Department Store Cooperation 

In the 

Nation -Wide Celebration of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 

George Washington 

Prepared Under the Direction of Donald A. Craig, in Charge 
of the Division of Special Activities 

"It is not a custom with me to keep 
money to look at" 

— George Washington. 




Foreword 

Through their close and daily contact with the 
people, the department stores and merchants of 
the country are in a position to take a very impor- 
tant part in the nation-wide celebration of the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington. 

Millions of men, women and children in every 
city and town in the country will have an active 
part in the celebration beginning February 22 and 
continuing until Thanksgiving Day, 1932. 

Every store will find in its own city a committee 
planning the local series of celebrations in coopera- 
tion with the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission. Plays, pageants, parades, 
marionette shows, costume balls, bridge parties, 
teas, historical movies, art exhibits, Colonial ex- 
hibits and special contests are among the activities 
planned by various committees. 

Every store, as a part of the community, will 
find innumerable ways to assist in these local patri- 
otic celebrations. There will be considerable de- 
mand for the special merchandise and novelties 
necessary in a celebration of this type, and every 
store should be in a position to satisfy these 
demands. 



In order that the retail stores may fully appreci- 
ate the possibilities in this celebration for patriotic 
and good-will-building cooperation, the Commis- 
sion is offering in this pamphlet suggestions which 
have been compiled after consulting the managers 
and advisors of some of the largest stores of the 
United States, whose organizations are already well 
advanced in plans for taking part in this gigantic 
celebration. 

Each store may adapt this plan to its own needs 
and those of its particular community. Many of 
the items of merchandise which will be in demand 
are listed, although there has been no attempt at 
a complete list. Suggestions are offered for stimu- 
lating the interest of customers and store em- 
ployees, as well as for planning both interior and 
exterior decorations to harmonize with the spirit 
of the occasion. 

The Commission has no interest in advancing 
the commercial needs of any one group. Its only 
desire is to see that manufacturers and retail stores 
are in a position to serve their customers by sup- 
plying the merchandise they will require for their 
participation in the celebration. The Commission 
cannot give names of firms or groups selling mer- 
chandise and novelties. We suggest that the man- 
agers of each store consult their own buying office 
for this information. 

The United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission will be glad to supply literature 
and give every possible assistance to the stores and 
manufacturers of the country in planning their 
participation in the celebration. The Commission 
will be glad also to receive additional suggestions 
for merchants' and manufacturers' cooperation, 
and to learn of any plans that may be formulated. 
Sol Bloom, Director, 
United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission. 

special notice 

The United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission is not commercial and has nothing 
to sell. It is an agency of the United States 
Government. 

The Commission treats all manufacturers and 
retail agencies alike, giving advice and cooperation 
free of charge to all persons and business concerns 
manufacturing, producing and selling articles per- 
taining to the Two Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Birth of George Washington. Negotiations 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



99 



should be carried on direct with the Commission. 

The Commission has no financial interest, direct 
or indirect, in the sale of articles of merchandise. 
No concessions or exclusive rights are granted for 
the manufacture or sale of any article, and no 
such representations are authorized. 

For information or advice please address or call 
at the offices of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission, Washington 
Building, Washington, D. C. 

A PLAN FOR DEPARTMENT STORE COOPERATION 

While the plan, as outlined in this pamphlet, is intended 
primarily to assist department stores in arranging for their 
participation in the celebration of the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Washington in 1932, it con- 
tains suggestions which will be helpful to all merchants dur- 
ing the Bicentennial Year. It can readily be adapted to the 
needs of every community and every store. 

Manufacturers, by studying the partial list of articles which 
will be in demand for the celebrations all over the United 
States and in foreign countries, will also find suggestions of 
value to them. 

Organization 

A committee to be known as the George Washington Bi- 
centennial Committee should be appointed in every depart- 
ment store. It is suggested that the membership of this com- 
mittee consist of: 

General Merchandise Manager, Chairman. 

Advertising Manager. 

Sales Promotion Manager. 

Display Manager. 

Apparel Merchandise Manager. 

Furniture Merchandise Manager. 

Novelty Merchandise Manager. 

Children's Department Manager. 

Store Superintendent. 

Personnel Director. 

This committee should be an active group from now until 
the end of the celebration on Thanksgiving Day, 193 2. 

George Washington Bicentennial 
Department 

Some stores are planning to set up a special George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Department where all articles relating to 
the celebration will be placed on display. This department 
should be in charge of a competent person who is thoroughly 
familiar with: (1) The plans of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission; (2) the plans for par- 
ticipation by the store; and (3) the plans for participation 
by the local community in general. 

It is suggested that contacts be made by a representative 
of the store with patriotic, civic, religious, educational, social, 
fraternal and all other local organizations, and advice offered 
on costumes for pageants, plays, and parades and other articles 
which may be useful in local celebrations. 

George Washington Days may be planned, when the public 
will be especially invited to view the articles in the George 
Washington Bicentennial Department. Employees may be 
encouraged to invite their families. 

In many stores this George Washington Bicentennial De- 
partment is being set up principally to call attention to the 
various articles which will be found in the regular merchan- 
dise departments. 



Merchandise Departments 

The following is a partial list of the many articles which 
will be in demand for the celebrations all over the country: 
Art Department: 

Colonial Pillow Tops to be embroidered. 
Colonial Bed Spreads. 
Tablecloths with Colonial Designs. 
Scarfs and Centerpieces. 

Beauty Parlor: 

Colonial hairdressing for balls or parties. 
Wigs. 

Book Department: 

Washington Biographies. 

Colonial and Revolutionary War Fiction. 

Illustrated Pamphlets. 

Children's Stories. 

Crayon Coloring Books. 

Magazines. 

Colonial and Bicentennial Music. 

Book-plates. 

Book-ends. 

Charts on Life of George Washington. 

Boys' Department: 

Washington Emblems on Sweaters. 

Historically Designed Ties. 

Washington Penknives. 

Washington Medals. 

Washington Notebooks, Pencils and Caps. 

Costumes. 

Candy Department: 

Candy Novelties for Washington parties. 
Novelty Boxes. 

Chinaware Department: 

Dishes of Colonial and Historical Pattern. 
Colonial Tea Sets. 
Paper Plates and Cups. 

Electrical Department: 

Shades. Lamps, Special Lights for party decorations. 
Fabrics & Draperies: 

There will be a decided Colonial influence on curtains, 
drapes, wall paper and covers. 

Furniture Department: 

There will be a demand for Colonial Suites and Colonial 
Pieces. Many homes will be furnished in Colonial style. 

Colonial Fireplaces and Andiron Sets. 

Girls' Department: 
Sweater Emblems. 
Notebooks. 
Scarfs. 
Costumes. 

Grocery Department: 

Special Cakes, Sweets and old fashioned Preserves for 
Colonial parties. 
Handkerchief Department: 

Handkerchiefs with historical prints. 
Jewelry Department: 

Colonial Rings. 

Colonial Necklaces. 

Colonial Bracelets. 

Colonial Brooches. 

Medallions. 



100 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Kiddies' Department: 

Sweater Emblems on Dresses or Suits. 

Colonial Shoes. 

Costumes. 

Linen Department: 
Colonial Bridge Sets. 
Colonial Tablecloths. 
Colonial Towels and Bath Mats. 

Men's Department: 
Costumes. 

Historical Motifs for Ties and Handkerchiefs. 
Washington Belt Buckles. 
Washington Cigarette Holders and Lighters. 
Special Wallets. 

Music Shop: 

Patriotic Songs. 

Colonial and Bicentennial Songs and instrumental composi- 
tions. 

Marches. 

Records — for pageants, schools and plays. 

Novelty Shop: 

Cigarette Holders. 

Bridge Prizes. 

Ash Trays. 

Match Boxes. 

Playing Cards. 

Washington Penknives. 

Washington Buttons. 

Washington Medals. 

Washington Pennants. 

American Flags. 

Colonial Coach Doorstops. 

Crepe Paper Decorations. 

Paper Napkins, Cups, Plates, etc. 

Book-ends. 

Pencils. 

Picture Department: 

Pictures of George Washington, and of the Revolutionary 
War period will be popular. 

Washington Busts and Pedestals will be in demand. 

Piece Goods Department: 

Colonial and Historical Prints. 
Costume Advisor in this Department. 

Rvig Department: 

Colonial Designed Rugs. 
Hooked Rugs. 

Scarf Department: 

Colonial Prints on Scarfs for Men and Women. 
Stamp Department: 

United States Government issue of a series of 12 stamps 
to commemorate Washington's 200th Birthday will be sought 
by collectors. 

United States Government issue of 5 stamped envelopes. 

Special Washington Albums. 

Picture Post Cards. 

Stationery Department: 
Special Letterheads. 
Colonial Ball Invitations. 
Washington Birthday Invitations. 
Novelty Pencils. 
Washington Calendars. 
Washington Notebooks. 
Colonial and Bicentennial Music. 
Charts on Life of Washington. 
Letter Openers. 



Paper novelties, such as caps, napkins, tablecloths and 
favors for parties; silhouettes, seals and costumes. 

Toy Department: 
Colonial Dolls. 
Washington Dolls. 
Cherry Trees and Hatchets. 
Washington Marionettes. 
Revolutionary War Soldiers. 
Paint Sets. 
Colonial Coaches. 
Bicycles and Tricycles, decorated in buff and blue. 

Tree Department: 

George Washington Trees (to be planted on Arbor Day 
and other appropriate occasions during 1932). 

Women's Department: 

It is quite possible that the nation-wide and world-wide 
celebration of the 200th anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington will influence fashions just as the French 
Colonial and Overseas Exposition in Paris (1931) definitely 
affected fashions, both in Europe and in this country. 

In any event many costumes will be in demand for pageants, 
balls, parties, parades and plays. There are costumes on the 
market which are historically correct, the designs having been 
adopted after consultation Avith experts of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

Window and Interior Displays and 

Exhibitions of Washingtoniana 

and Store Decorations 

In almost every community there is some relic of historical 
importance in the life of George Washington or of America's 
early days. Store windows are a most desirable place for 
showing these relics to the public. In many cities the local 
and state committees are getting the cooperation of stores and 
the use of their windows for these exhibitions. It is sug- 
gested that stores get in touch with the local chapters of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution and the Sons of the 
American Revolution for ideas and advice regarding Wash- 
ington relics. Historical and educational societies will be 
helpful also. 

The following are suggested along this line: 

Special displays and backgrounds depicting the life of 
George Washington. 

Window exhibitions of famous paintings of Washington 
and Revolutonary War incidents. 

Art exhibits from local art schools on Washington and 
related subjects. 

Exhibitions of historical papers. 

Displays of new books on Washington's life. 

Window exhibitions of genuine (if possible) Colonial cos- 
tumes in contrast to modern costumes. 

Special Colonial merchandise displays of items on sale in 
the store. 

Special toy and stamp displays. 

Exhibits by fraternal, church, historical or civic groups, in 
window space loaned by the store for that purpose. 

The playing of flood lights outside, on either a tableau or 
figure of Washington or a special message. 

Flags and pennant decorations. 

Special decorations for departments selling Bicentennial 
merchandise. 

Decoration of the wall spaces over elevator entrances. 

Newspaper, Direct Mail, Radio and Telephone Tie-ups 

Participation of the advertising division is very important. 
It will depend on the extent to which a store's merchandise 
and service divisions will be used in this celebration. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



101 



For attention value, the use of pictures of George Wash- 
ington, or preferably an emblem consisting of a picture of the 
Houdon bust of Washington (the official picture) in a circle 
or oval with the dates, 1732-1932, and the words, GEORGE 
WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL, is suggested on the fol- 
lowing: Store's outgoing mad, envelopes, packages, package 
inserts, store signs, store literature. 

In the regular newspaper advertisements there should be 
constant reminders of the Bicentennial Celebration, such as 
publishing an historical fact a day relating to George Wash- 
ington, and advertising a George Washington Bicentennial 
Novelty a day. 

Manv stores will distribute advertising art calendars with 
reproductions in color of approved paintings of George Wash- 
ington, Wakefield, Mount Vernon, and of notable events in 
the life of the Father of our country. Prize Essay Contests 
of school children will be conducted in connection with 
calendar distribution. 

Mailing cards, folders, blotters, posters and fans presenting 
chapters from the life of Washington will have an important 
part in the 1932 advertising programs of mercantile houses. 

Some stores are sending a special letter to all residents of 
streets bearing Washington's name and to Washington Clubs 
or Societies. 

Many stores are preparing to have novelty give-aways as 
souvenirs for customers who visit the store during certain 
periods. One store is planning a street pageant of its own. 

Special radio programs arc being arranged with material 
from plays prepared by the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission. 

One store plans to have its telephone operators greet cus- 
tomers with a reminder of the celebration during its first 
week, February 22-29; or with a reminder to customers to 
attend some civic celebration of Washington's Birthday. 

A Calendar for Department Store 
Participation 

Every store should make a special effort to open the period 
of the celebration February 22, 193 2, with impressive interior 
and exterior decorations and displays of special merchandise. 

It is urged also that advance publicity be given to the plans 
for the celebration in the store and the community, beginning 
as early as possible in the Fall of 1931. Advance advertising 
and interior and exterior displays are suggested. Every effort 
should be made to acquaint the people of each community as 
early as possible with the plans for the celebration. 

The dates proposed below for special store activity, during 
the celebration period in 193 2, are of national significance 
and will be useful to stores in all parts of the country. In 
addition each community will have dates of local significance, 
especially those communities which have local anniversaries 
associated with George Washington or the Colonial and Revo- 
lutionary periods. 

Some of the dates of national significance are as follows: 

February 1 5 : 

First window displays of Washingtonia. Display and 
advertise novelties and merchandise for Washington Birthday 
parties. 

February 20: 

Impressive displays in windows and store both interior and 
exterior. 

February 22-27: 

Special George Washington Birthday Sale, including an 
inside attraction for adults and children, such as marionette 
shows on life of Washington or special moving pictures. 
February 23: 

Mass meeting of employes with speakers and patriotic 
songs or plays. 



March 27: 

Easter week. Other attractions for adults and children. 
Souvenir give-aways. 

April 19: 

Patriots' Day. (Anniversary of the Battle of Lexington 
and Concord). New exhibits from local patriotic societies. 
April 2 5 -May 2: 

Boys' Week. Originally sponsored by the Rotary Club of 
New York, now a national event. 

April 30: 

Washington's First Inauguration Day. A window pre- 
sentation. A display of all the Presidents in pictures. 

May 1: 

National Music Week. Feature Colonial and Bicentennial 
Music. 

May 5: 

Arbor Day. Tree planting in memory of George Wash- 
ington. 

May 8: 

Mothers' Day. Advertise novelty gifts of Colonial in- 
fluence. Window displays of gift merchandise. Displays of 
pictures of Washington's mother, Mary Ball Washington. 
Advertisement on Washington's devotion to his mother. 
May 30: 

Memorial Day. A memorial window. Employes' services 
day before. 

June 14: 

Flag Day. A window display of Colonial flags and the 
flags of the Thirteen Original States. Encourage parades bv 
local organizations in Colonial costumes. 

July 4: 

Independence Day. A window for facsimile of Declaration 
of Independence. A picture of Liberty Bell. Tableau, "Sign- 
ing of the Declaration of Independence." Encourage local 
celebrations. 

August (entire month): 

Show Colonial furniture and house furnishings. 
September 5 : 

Labor Day. A window of special tribute to Washington 
and his relationship to labor. An advertisement on the same 
idea. 

September: 

Public School Day. (Select the day on which local public 
schools open.) Window depicting Washington's interest in 
promoting popular education. Advertisement depicting this 
interest. Celebration in juvenile departments and school 
advertisements. Give-away novelties relating to Washington. 

September 17: 

Constitution Day. Pictures of Constitutional Convention. 
A tribute from local lawvers' groups. 

September 17: 

Washington's Farewell Address to the people of the United 
States. Window displays. 

October 19: 

Yorktown Day. Tableau showing surrender of Cornwallis. 
A Colonial party or bridge in the Tearoom. 

October 27: 

Navy Day. Window displays. 
October 31: 

Halloween. Display Colonial costumes for Halloween 
parties and Colonial Balls. A party for children in the 



102 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Juvenile Shop. Story-telling, games and souvenirs for chil- 
dren. A party for employes (Colonial costumes). 

November 1 1 : 

Armistice Day. A tribute in windows and advertisements 
to war veterans and to the military genius of George Wash- 
ington. 

November 24: 

Thanksgiving Day. Expression of thanks for life and 
services of George Washington. Advertisement and window 
displays. 

Special store participation is also suggested, depending on 
local conditions, along the following lines: 

Fraternal Day. All fraternal organizations in the country 
expect to organize their tribute to George Washington, prob- 
ably about May 1 5. 

Boy Scout and Girl Scout Days. Windows illustrating 
Washington's inspiration to the Youth of the country. 

Stamp Day. Window displays of new stamp issues and 
stamped envelopes of the United States Government com- 
memorating the George Washington Bicentennial. 

Foreign Aid Appreciation Days. Windows depicting aid 
given by Lafayette, Pulaski, von Steuben, Koskiuszko, de 
Kalb, and other foreign patriots, on appropriate dates. 

Child Health Day (in May). Baby Week Promotions. 

Children's Day (in June). Window and interior displays. 

Local Anniversaries. Special attention should be paid to 
all anniversaries of events in the local history of each com- 
munity, especially if they also have Colonial, Revolutionary 
or National significance. 

Participation in Children's Activities 

Most stores consider their juvenile following important to 
the future of the store; consequently, many of them are 
finding that the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 
will afford them an excellent opportunity to make their young 
customers better acquainted with the store by featuring novel 
activities such as the following: 

A history of George Washington played by marionettes. 
(One store is booking a company for return engagements 
several times during the course of the celebration.) 

A Washington Club sponsored by the store. (Special 
moving-picture shows and marionette shows may be held for 
this group, and novelty give-aways vised.) 

A slogan contest or epigram contest, summarizing in a few 
words the inspiration George Washington has been to his 
country. 

A prize for the best essay on George Washington sub- 
mitted by a school child. The prize may be a trip to either 
Mount Vernon, Philadelphia or Washington, with a visit 
to historical places in the life of George Washington. 

Birthday parties for all children whose birthdays fall on 
Washington's Birthday, February 22. 

A "Children's Hour" during which stories of George Wash- 
ington's life may be told, and plays enacted. 

Most stores will find it advisable to keep in touch with 
school and playground activities during this celebration. 

Employe Cooperation 

Many stores consider it good practice to obtain co-worker 
cooperation in giving the store the proper spirit and appear- 
ance necessary in celebrations of this kind. 

Here are some suggestions gathered from many stores' 
plans: 

Group meetings on various floors and in departments to 
acquaint employes with the extent of the store's cooperation 
from a merchandise standpoint, so that customers may be 
correctly advised; 



Special speakers assigned to discuss the spirit and meaning 
of the celebration; 

A Colonial bridge party with appropriate favors or a 
Colonial dance for co-workers as a means of furthering the 
friendship and good will of employes; 

Distribution of special pamphlets furnished by the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission or local 
historical groups; 
Store "Sings" of appropriate patriotic and Colonial songs; 

Talks that will inspire employes with a real interest in 
helping their store participate in local celebrations of this 
great anniversary. 

Bicentennial An Incentive 

That the merchants and department stores of 
the nation found inspiration in the Bicentennial 
Celebration for a renewed attack on the nation's 
business depression, is shown in the following ex- 
tracts from the January 1932 issue of Linens and 
Domestics: 

Department of Commerce's Dr. Julius Klein says George 
Washington never told a lie because he was never asked to 
state when a depression would end . . . George Washington's 
birthday this year will be the signal for probably the biggest 
campaign in retail dry goods history to end a depression such 
as George never dreamed of . . . 

It's probably needless to emphasize the importance and 
value of correct and interesting displays . . . special booths, 
tables and window displays will follow in the natural course 
of events, but special sections will be absolutely invaluable for 
dramatic interest. In planning special settings, there is plenty 
of inspiration to be had at Mount Vernon. The major rooms 
of Washington's home were mid-Georgian, French and Early 
American. And as a last word to the weary but wise buyers 
. . . make sure that every sales person on your force knows 
what it is all about. 

Anniversary Observed Throughout Stores 

In many stores, the Washington Bicentennial 
was employed as a "tie-up" throughout the store. 
In the furniture departments, eighteenth century 
furniture was featured, with Colonial bedroom 
suites, "butterfly" tables, Queen Anne secretaries, 
etc. Accessories such as blouses exploiting the tri- 
color, novel scarfs, handkerchiefs, neckties, jewelry, 
sweaters, handbags and lamps, pictures and all sorts 
of gifts and novelties stressed the patriotic theme. 
Costume departments, with ready-made and made- 
to-order costumes, were truly Bicentennial centers 
throughout the celebration period. 

Educational programs and social functions for 
employes and customers were features of the Bi- 
centennial in many department stores. Others 
provided marionette shows, motion pictures, and 
souvenirs for children, while some conducted essay 
contests, independently or in cooperation with 
local schools, societies and Bicentennial committees. 

Stores in all parts of the country vied with each 
other in their Bicentennial window displays. Not 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



103 



only did they display Bicentennial merchandise, but 
they reproduced scenes from the life of Washing- 
ton and his contemporaries and from the Revolu- 
tionary and Colonial periods of American history. 
Many stores gave window and interior space to his- 
torical and patriotic societies, Boy Scout Troops, 
and similar organizations for special Bicentennial 
exhibits. Others arranged for loan exhibits of 
Washingtoniana and heir-looms of the Colonial 
period. 

Practically every store linked its advertising with 
the Bicentennial, some in the form of dignified 
tributes to the Father of our Country, some in 
stressing Bicentennial merchandise. One large store 
distributed leaflets especially prepared, to guide the 
customer to Bicentennial articles throughout the 
store, another stocked its public writing desks with 
postcards and stationery bearing a likeness of Wash- 
ington or a Bicentennial slogan. 

National Window Display Contest 

The interest of the retail stores of the nation in 
paying honor to George Washington through per- 
haps their most important contact with the people, 
their display windows, and the interest of those who 
make these window displays, took definite form as 
early as June, 1931, when the International Asso- 
ciation of Display Men, in formal meeting, re- 
solved to have a "Bicentennial Window Display 
Contest." 

The contest was conducted under the auspices of 
the Association with the approval and cooperation 
of the United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission which, in addition to prizes offered 
by the Association, awarded certificates to the 
winners to commemorate officially their participa- 
tion in the George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration. 

There are members of the International Associa- 
tion of Display Men in more than 900 cities in the 
United States and it was estimated that between 
1,800 and 2,000 windows were decorated in the Bi- 
centennial theme for the purposes of this contest 
alone. 

The rules of the contest as promulgated by the 
Association provided that "all displays must be 
strictly patriotic or institutional and the displays 
eligible to the contest must be void of merchandise 
hookup." 

The contest was divided into divisions according 
to the size of the cities from which contestants par- 



ticipated, beginning with cities of over 500,000, 
and graduating to towns of less than 10,000 popu- 
lation. There was a first and second prize in each 
class. The contest opened on Washington's birth- 
day and continued through the month. Awards 
were made from photographs submitted to the con- 
test committee of the Association and were as fol- 
lows: 

Class A. First Prize: R. M. Martin, Consoli- 
dated Gas Co., New York City. Second Prize: 
Clement Kieffer, Jr., Kleinhans, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Class B. First Prize: J. H. Dubuisson, Cain- 
Slaon Co., Nashville, Tenn. Second Prize: Hugh 
Carter, Gerber's, Memphis, Tenn. 

Class C. First Prize: L. L. Wilkins, Kerr Dry 
Goods Co., Oklahoma City, Okla. Second Prize: 
C. W. Morton, Weinstock Lubin Co., Sacramento, 
Cal. 

Class D. First Prize: W. K. McGee, L. H. Field 
Co., Jackson, Mich. Second Prize: M. H. Luber, 
Killian Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Stores Report Bicentennial Activities 

For the purpose of this report, questionnaires 
were sent to the retail stores of the nation, request- 
ing a summary of their participation in the George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration for the per- 
manent records of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission. 

As submission of this information was entirely 
voluntary, the records of the Commission in this 
respect are inevitably incomplete. However, from 
the data available, a number of reports of store ac- 
tivities during the Bicentennial are given herein as 
typical of the splendid interest and cooperation of 
the merchants of the nation in the observance of 
this historic anniversary. 

Montgomery Ward & Co. took part in the Washington 
Celebration by means of appropriate window and interior 
displays in every one of its stores throughout the country. 

One Ward window showed a painting of a well known 
Mount Vernon scene. The picture was painted by a noted 
artist in Chicago, in oils on black velour, eight by twelve feet 
in size. This huge painting was a traveling exhibit; at some 
time during the Celebration, each of Ward's large stores had 
this picture displayed. In many cases these portraits were 
also lent by store managers for patriotic programs in connec- 
tion with the Celebration. Later many store managers donated 
these pictures to patriotic organizations and to schools. 

Another Ward window showed Washington's portrait, ac- 
companied by a scale reproduction of the Washington 
Monument. 

On Washington's birthday every one of Ward's hundreds 
of stores had a window display. No merchandise was allowed 
to be placed in these windows. 

One important New York store, Arnold Constable & 
Co., opened a Bicentennial exhibit in February, 1932, the 



104 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



extent of which may be indicated by the fact that the insur- 
ance premiums covering the exhibition ran into thousands 
of dollars. 

The exhibitions included a collection of relics probably 
second only to those in the National Museum in Washington. 
They were all loan exhibitions, made through the courtesy of 
famous collectors as well as direct family heirs. As a back- 
ground, on one wall for a distance of 6 5 feet, was a set 
of scenic wallpapers portraying the inauguration of Wash- 
ington in New York City. 

In the South, the D. H. Holmes Co., Ltd., of New Orleans, 
ran full page advertisements the week of February 22 with 
streamer headlines, "1732 — George Washington Bicentennial 
— 193 2," featuring Bicentennial merchandise and an advertise- 
ment of a "George Washington Birthday Dinner" in the 
store restaurant, and a brief editorial beneath a picture of the 
First President. Throughout the store there were patriotic 
displays and portraits of Washington, while the main street 
window displayed a Stuart painting. This store advertises by- 
radio, and their broadcast on February 22 was made a Bicen- 
tennial program of patriotic airs. 

In Buffalo, N. Y., The Wm. Hengerer Co., assembled a 
very complete collection of medals, coins and currency con- 
nected with the life of Washington and displayed them the 
week of Washington's birthday. 

On February 22, the store also presented a pageant and 
parade commemorating the day. This was given twice during 
the day, with more than 200 persons participating. The 
parade traversed all nine floors of the store, concluding on 
the mezzanine with a tableau and patriotic music. 

This store took the opportvinity to tie up all their adver- 
tising with the Bicentennial, and also had a "Bicentennial 
Booth," window displays, and special exhibits and displays 
throughout the store. 

Ben Simon & Sons, of Lincoln, Nebraska, "elected as a 
matter of preference to honor George Washington other than 
in a mercenary way," according to a letter received from 
them at the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. Accordingly, they decorated their store with 
a 2 50-foot scenic panorama depicting the life of Washington. 
This panorama was not made up of fine art portraits, but 
was, rather, a humorous characterization of the life of the 
"first American." It extended around the entire first floor 
and was unveiled at special services which were participated in 
by local Boy Scouts, the D. A. R. and S. A. R., American 
Legion and various other patriotic societies. The event was 
made a civic Bicentennial celebration and the speeches made 
by the representatives of the societies, as well as by the Mayor, 
were broadcast. The showing of the panorama continued 
throughout the Bicentennial year. 

A description of the panels, as taken from the Merchants 
Record, reads: 

Pop-eyed customers bend heads skyward to view twenty- 
eight mural paintings depicting the life of George Washing- 
ton that hang about the mezzanine balcony of Ben Simon & 
Sons' clothing store in Lincoln, Neb. The humorous carica- 
tures take smiling readers in continuity about and around 
the store. Leaning on the women's frilled collars counter, 
they blink at George II as he upbraids Mr. Stork for blessing 
the belligerent colonists with babies. Stumbling over boxes 
of shoes, they watch George grow to manhood. 

Surrounded by china statues, wares of the gift department, 
they chuckle at Washington's first missions for his country. 
They smile at crazy creatures, dressed in Indian costumes, 
dumping tea overboard, as they knock men's shirts from dis- 
play tables. Elbows crush neckties but customers snicker at 
Washington a-courtin'. A papier mache manikin peacocking 
a spring hat peers at them as they watch Molly Pitcher bore a 
smoking cannon, and they hesitate at the front door to admire 
six-foot portraits of Washington and his wife, Martha. 

Action and humor accelerate interest as the life events are 



dramatized on murals. Washington, the boy general; Mary 
Washington, his mother and teacher; Washington, the horse- 
man, the would-be-sailor, the boy surveyor, the "social lion." 
Mr. Pickering bettered Emanuel Letutze's "Washington Cross- 
ing the Delaware" one step by showing the general and his 
army touching shore after the perilous crossing, instead of in 
midstream. 

George III is pictured thinking up embarrassing taxes for 
the colonists. Murals show Paul Revere, the Boston Tea 
Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, Independence Scene, Cap- 
ture of Trenton, Betsy Ross, Vallev Forge, "Molly Pitcher," 
victory with Cornwallis' surrender and the inaugural of 
Washington as President of his country. 

Appropriately enough, a tea-party ushered in the Bicenten- 
nial celebration at one store in Boston, Filene's. With "cut- 
out" souvenir programs the shape of a boy bugler in Colonial 
costume, there was a truly Washington luncheon served, with 
eggs poached by an authentic Washington recipe, ice-cream 
in the form of a log and cherries, and "hatchet cookies." A 
George Washington play, tableaux and patriotic music com- 
pleted the program. 

The huge Marshall Field and Company in Chi- 
cago, reported their participation in the Bicenten- 
nial Celebration as follows: 

At the beginning of the Bicentennial Celebration we dis- 
played a window, which created wide-spread comment and 
praise. The original wax model of the Wedgwood portrait 
of George Washington, created about 1873, was included in 
an exhibit in our China Section, Second Floor. The famous 
author, Rupert Hughes, spoke on "The True George Wash- 
ington" on February 22nd in our Walnut Grill, in recognition 
of the official opening of the Washington Bicentennial. A 
tremendous crowd heard his lecture. 

Copies of Daniel Webster's "Eulogy on Washington" were 
distributed at the Rupert Hughes lecture. The first few 
hundred were numbered copies and should be of value as 
mementos to the people who received them. 

The Jack and Jill players gave a play about George Wash- 
ington's childhood in our Young People's Theatre. Girls 
dressed in Colonial costumes gave away candy favors in our 
Candy Section, Third Floor. An entire room in our Picture 
Galleries was devoted to pictures of Washington and to pic- 
tures representing various incidents in his life. Colonial cos- 
tumes, favors, cards, flags, and other things suitable for the 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration were presented in a 
special section on the fourth floor. 

In recognition of the Bicentennial, a special George Wash- 
ington luncheon featuring foods favored in Colonial days, 
was served in our Tea Rooms. 

An historical exhibit was the major contribution 
of the Boston Store, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to the 
Bicentennial. Included in the exhibit were a wide 
range of articles, from maps to furniture. Accord- 
ing to the report of the Boston Store: 

The exhibit was an outstanding success. There were ap- 
proximately 475 items; the owners' evaluation was about 
$80,000; there were about 75 contributors. The display 
consisted of 16 locked cases in the form of a square, four 
cases to a side. Inside the square were placed the larger items 
like furniture, spinning wheels, hooked rugs, blankets and 
quilts. Among the interesting items on display were an orig- 
inal letter written by George Washington, a map drawn by 
George Washington when he worked as a surveyor, china- 
ware from which George Washington ate on a number of 
occasions, flint locks, pistols, swords, bullet molds, shoulder 
straps, and bullet and cannon balls from the Revolutionary 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



105 



war, Colonial clothing, Colonial earthenware and chinaware, 
old medical cases, tooth extractors, old clocks, chairs, beds, 
chests, spinning wheels ... a regular museum! 

The attendance was most gratifying; we gave the school 
children any information they requested about the various 
items in the cases. 

"The Golden Rule's most important contribu- 
tion to the George Washington Bicentennial," reads 
the report from that store in St. Paul, Minnesota, 
"was a George Washington Essay Contest con- 
ducted in St. Paul grade and high schools." 

The contest, and news of it, was made an in- 
tegral part of the advertising program of the store. 
The report concluded: 

Hundreds of school children participated in the contest. 
For the two best essays submitted (one for grade schools and 
one for high schools) The Golden Rule awarded the winners 
with the velvet hangings described below: 

(1) To the winning essay from Saint Paul Grade Schools 
... a black velvet hanging, size 7x4 Yz feet, picturing the 
famous scene of "Washington Crossing the Delaware." The 
award to be hung in the class room of the winner until the 
end of the school year and then to become his permanent 
individual property. 

(2) To the winning essay from Saint Paul High and Junior 
High Schools ... a black velvet hanging, size 7x4 ' 2 feet, 
depicting in rich colors the "Mount Vernon" House of George 
Washington. The hanging is to be placed in the class room 
of the winner until the end of the school year and is then 
to be his permanent personal property. 

In Houston, Texas, Levy Bros. Dry Goods Com- 
pany featured the Bicentennial Celebration by- 
means of an historical window display. The win- 
dow was unveiled the afternoon of February 20 
and the curtain was not drawn until the evening 
of Tuesday, February 23. Panels of buff and blue 
made up the background and across the top of 
them were 13 stars of silver with the dates "1732" 
and "1932." 

One of the interesting exhibits in the window 
was a group of 13 canes representing the original 
1 3 states, each one of which had an authentic his- 
tory connected with George Washington's time. A 
gun, pistol and sword in the display were also relics 
of Revolutionary days. 

In Baltimore, Maryland, Hochchild, Kohn Com- 
pany featured a series of window displays every 
one of which contained genuine relics from the 
days of Washington. One of the most interesting 
of these showed a kitchen of that period. Another 
window represented a drawing room in which 
every article was contributed by some descendant 
of the Washington family. One chair is reputed 
to have been used by Mary Ball Washington when 
she rocked the young George in her arms. The 



figure of a woman standing in the room wore an 
original dress that had belonged to Martha Wash- 
ington. One of the most beautiful of the windows 
showed another drawing room with the figures of 
two ladies, one wearing a black velvet dress that 
had been worn by Mrs. Monroe. All of the furni- 
ture used in this window was at one time used in 
the White House during the Monroe administra- 
tion. A case in the window contained a number 
of handsome pieces of jewelry worn by Mrs. Mon- 
roe during her life in the White House. 

John Wanamaker, Philadelphia, Inc., made their 
beautiful store a veritable dedication to the mem- 
ory of George Washington. American flags and 
pictures and statues of the First President adorned 
the whole first floor and in the center aisle was a 
miniature reproduction of Mount Vernon com- 
plete in every detail, even to trees and shrubbery. 

In Minneapolis, the L. S. Donaldson Co. began 
their Bicentennial participation as early as Decem- 
ber, 1931, with a well-defined program for the en- 
tire period of the celebration. An outline of their 
activities through the week of Washington's Birth- 
day, as taken from their report to the Commission, 
reads in part as follows: 

The first of December, 1931, Donaldsons opened on their 
ready-to-wear floor a George and Martha Washington Cos- 
tume Shop. The stock consisted of costumes for men, women, 
and children. This shop, the first of its kind in Minneapolis, 
was opened with a tea to which heads of all women's organiza- 
tions in the city were invited and at which presidents of 
patriotic organizations alternated at the tea tables. Over 
three hundred persons attended. . . . 

The largest of Donaldson's twenty-six windows was de- 
voted, the first week in December, 1931, to Colonial costumes. 
It was the first display of its kind in Minneapolis, and the 
major showing of 1931. . . . 

The official Minneapolis city ceremony, in observance of 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington was held in front of the Donaldson building at 
noon, Monday, February 22nd. The famous Donaldson flag 
was displayed in honor of the occasion: 

(This flag was made in Minneapolis and measures 90x172 
feet. The stripes are 7 feet high. The stars are 5 feet high. 
The flag weighs 2,000 pounds (1 ton). It required 40 miles 
of thread; 3,000 feet of rope are used to hand the flag. Over 
100 men were required to get the flag in place.) 

The ceremony was broadcast from the canopy over the 
central entrance. Members of the local George Washington 
Bicentennial Committee were present together with Mayor 
William A. Anderson, and Governor Floyd Olson. . . . 

Donaldson's set aside the week of February 22nd as "George 
Washington Bicentennial Week." The first of a series of 
events was the Bicentennial Sorority Tea at which representa- 
tives from twenty-one University of Minnesota sororities 
entertained in the George and Martha Washington Costume 
Shop. The affair was open to the public, and over five hun- 
dred attended. . . . 



106 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



A survey of the entire store was made for merchandise 
related to the Washington era; special displays were arranged 
in these departments: 

Furniture, (Eariy American). Rugs, (Hooked-rag). 
Draperies, (Chintzes, linens). Curtains. Quilts and cover- 
lets. Pewter and copper decorative items. Glassware. China. 
Pictures (of the period). Lamps. Fireplace fixtures. Sta- 
tionery sets (quills and ink pots). Favors. Table decorations. 
Costumes. Books. Novelties. Toys. Shoes, (Colonial 
pumps). Jewelry. Ready-to-wear. . . . 

Every sales person on the main floor of the store wore a 
small American flag every day during the week of February 
22. Flags were crossed on the street floor posts, and all interior 
case displays were carried out in red, white and blue. . . . 

Donaldson's had a program for children every Saturday 
morning, in a specially constructed "Little Treatre" on the 
Children's Floor. On Saturday, February 27th, the "Teeny 
Weeny Band" from the Minneapolis College of Music pre- 
sented a George Washington program. This band is made 
up of 90 children from four to twelve years of age. Ushers 
for the occasion were dressed as George and Martha Washing- 
ton. On the same afternoon a Donaldson staff artist was 
stationed on the children's floor to make sketches of young- 
sters accompanied by their mothers. The sketches were 
mounted on red, white and blue card board mats, in keeping 
with the George Washington theme. . . . 

The Donaldson Tea Room was completely redecorated in 
February, 193 2, following an early American color scheme. 
Flags were draped on the orchestra platform, small flags were 
used at every table, red glasses were used on white table 
cloths, the room was festooned in red, white and blue, wait- 



resses were dressed in Martha Washington costumes and menus 
adopted a colonial color and design theme. Starting the first 
of February a colonial dish was served every day. The story 
of this dish and its connection with the Bicentennial celebra- 
tion was told on a small slip of paper attached to every 
menu. The week of February 22nd a group of young students 
from the Minneapolis College of Music and Dancing, danced 
the Minuet at noon, daily. . . . 

With the opening of its costume shop, Donaldson's an- 
nounced two contests for school children: 

1. A Colonial doll dressing contest for girls from eight to 
fifteen. 

2. Colonial essay contest for boys from eight to fifteen. 
The subject of the essay to be "Fashions for Men in the 
Time of Washington." 

The contest opened December 10th and essays were judged 
by members of the Minneapolis George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Committee on February 15 th. . . . 

Beginning the middle of February a Donaldson repre- 
sentative met with groups of Girl Reserves from every Junior 
Fligh School and Senior High School in Minneapolis to tell 
them about Colonial fashions and their influence on the Spring 
fashions of 193 2. This Donaldson representative journeyed 
weekly throughout the Spring season with a trunk full of 
merchandise to school buildings to talk to groups of girls 
ranging from twelve to twenty. 

Camp Fire Girls of Minneapolis were invited to refurnish 
the Colonial house on Donaldson's furniture floor, an authentic 
adaptation of a home of the Washington Era. 

From Seattle, Washington, the department store 




A Typical Bicentennial Prize Window Display 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



107 



of Frederick & Nelson reported their participation 
in the Bicentennial as follows: 

Frederick & Nelson has been particularly active in spon- 
soring a definite tie-up with the Bicentennial Celebration 
throughout the year. The major activity was during the 
week of February 22nd. Seattle is especially Washington con- 
scious because it is the largest city in the State named after 
the first President and is also the location of the University 
of Washington. Frederick & Nelson enlisted the aid of the 
History Department of the University of Washington and 
the Washington State Museum in obtaining data, pictures 
and objects of historical interest. 

A full battery of six windows was used to display this 
material. Interesting old pictures of important incidents in 
Washington's life were obtained from private sources. Photo- 
stat copies of authentic documents of Washington's time were 
obtained. A steel engraving of Washington's cabinet was 
borrowed. These and much more illustrative material was 
obtained. 

All this material was gathered into an exhibition of unusual 
interest and educational value, making use of six adjacent 
windows for the week of February 22nd. Information and 
illustrative material relating to the early history of the State 
of Washington and historical material relating to this district 
when it was a territory was grouped in one window. This 
was of particular interest to "Seattleites" because important 
dates in this State's history in many cases correspond to im- 
portant dates in George Washington history. 

Additional stress was placed on the celebration of the Bicen- 
tennial at Frederick & Nelson by recognizing it on the 
other patriotic holidays during the year. There was special 
activity in promoting the sale of books relative to Washington 
and Washington biographies, historical maps, Washington 
State and Northwest history and the sale of banners, flags, etc. 

Herbst Department Store of Fargo, North Dakota, had a 
Washington Bicentennial Quilt Fair as a part of the Herbst 
Bicentennial Program. "It seemed to be propitious, both, 
because of interest in the Colonial period and the popularity 
of quilt making," reads this store's report. A week before 
entries opened, letters were sent to the Presidents and Secre- 
taries of the Federated Women's Clubs in the surrounding 
towns. At the same time, mimeographed sheets explaining 
the Fair, were distributed to all the departments in the store, 
to be given to customers. 

Curiosity regarding it was aroused by large posters, placed 
on ledges on both sides of the main floor, stating that there 
was to be a Washington Bicentennial Quilt Fair, the date on 
which entries would be accepted, and the words, "Ask 
About It." 

"In an enthusiastic moment," the report concludes, "we 



hoped the entries might reach the 100 mark. We had 223 
quilts displayed on framework from the ceiling of the main 
floor." 

From California, Bullock's, a department store 
in Los Angeles, wrote: 

On February 22, Washington's birthday, we used an entire 
window for display of material in connection with the cele- 
bration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of his Birth. The 
background was a large oil painting of Washington Crossing 
the Delaware. This painting is a copy of the famous paint- 
ing which hangs in the Metropolitan Museum, New York 
City. 

On this same day at each entrance of our store we had large 
floral pieces with appropriate cards explaining the occasion. 
The oil painting "Washington Crossing the Delaware" when 
removed from the window was used on the Street Floor along 
with a display of Colonial relics. Later the painting was 
removed to the public lounge on the Fourth Floor, where it 
is still on exhibition. 

We had a series of lectures in our auditorium from Febru- 
ary 22 to March 3. There was also a film shown, "George 
Washington — His Life and Times." 

Historic Map 

In commemoration of the Bicentennial the 
Bishop, Dean and Chaplain of Washington Ca- 
thedral published a descriptive map of the region 
within one hundred miles of the National Capital, 
portraying events and places of major interest in 
the nation's political, cultural and religious history. 
In the design are represented the important battle- 
fields of the Revolutionary and Civil Wars within 
the area of the map from Yorktown in the South 
to Gettysburg in the North; small views and dates 
of the founding of about forty interesting early 
colonial churches, and historic places where events 
of importance took place. 

Especial emphasis is laid upon the principal 
events in the life of Washington and upon the 
careers of the characters associated with him in 
the founding of the nation. 



The Mount Vernon Memorial Highway 



Y^HE original conception of a highway 
f& between the City of Washington and 
' Mount Vernon, Virginia, the home of 
M^^M Q eor g e Washington, came from some 
of the citizens of Alexandria, Virginia, in 1886. In 
1888 the Mount Vernon Avenue Association was 
incorporated by the Virginia Legislature to further 
this idea. Out of the provisions of an Act of Con- 
gress, passed in 1889, Brigadier General Peter C. 
Haines, of the Corps of Engineers, United States 
Army, surveyed and reported on three principal 
routes between the City of Washington and Mount 
Vernon. 

Although the idea fostered by this Association 
had been from time to time recognized and en- 
dorsed by Presidents of the United States, by Sec- 
retaries of War, by Members of Congress, and by 
most of the great national and patriotic organiza- 
tions, no tangible progress was made toward its ful- 
fillment until vitality was given the idea by the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. Early in the year 1928, upon the 
suggestion of this Commission, Congress passed an 
Act authorizing and directing the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission to 



take such steps as might be necessary to construct 
a suitable memorial Highway to connect Mount 
Vernon with the south end of the Arlington Me- 
morial Bridge across the Potomac River, and pro- 
viding funds for this purpose. 

The need for improved highway facilities to 
Mount Vernon had greatly increased from year to 
year. Entirely aside from the memorial aspect, 
there had been pressing need for a suitable and ade- 
quate thoroughfare to the home of the founder of 
the Republic. In 188 5 there were only 3 5,000 
visitors to Mount Vernon. In 1928 there were over 
400,000, coming from every state in the Union. In 
August, 1925, an actual count of the traffic on the 
existing road leading to Mount Vernon, made by 
the Bureau of Public Roads, showed that the road 
was used during one week by 9,157 automobiles 
and 208 busses, or an average daily traffic of 1,306 
automobiles and 30 busses. 

Two general routes were considered for the lo- 
cation of the Highway: one, following closely 
along the shore of the Potomac River and passing 
through the City of Alexandria; the other follow- 
ing a direct inland route and skirting the City of 
Alexandria. After weighing the merits of the two 




The Mount Vernon Terminus oi the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, showing the provision for traffic 

circulation and parking 



108 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebratioi 



109 



routes, the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission unanimously adopted the 
River route as having greater scenic and historic 
advantages than the inland route and offering su- 
perior possibilities for the development of park 
areas between the Highway and the River. 

The route adopted for the Highway traverses a 
territory full of historical associations and reminis- 
cent of the days of Washington. About half way 
between Washington and Alexandria, the Highway 
passes close to the site of Abingdon, the home of 
John Parke Custis, Mrs. Washington's son. Here 
Nellie Custis, who was reared by George Washing- 
ton, was born. A beautiful view of the river and a 
panorama of Washington and the north shore may 
be seen from this point. 

Passing on to Alexandria the route enters the city 
by Washington Street and passes directly by Christ 
Church, where the Washington pew may be seen. 
This church is visited annually by hundreds of 
thousands of people, in addition to those attending 
services. 

Alexandria was Washington's home town. It 
was his market place, his post office and his voting 
place. It was the meeting place of the Lodge of 
Masons to which he belonged, and the lodge hall is 
now the depository of a great many articles and 
paintings associated with him which will be re- 
moved soon to the George Washington National 
Masonic Memorial. The trowel, the square and the 
plumb used in laying the cornerstone of the Capi- 
tol may be seen here and also the Bible that was 
used in the days of Washington. Here, also is an 
original painting of Washington by William Will- 
iams and many other paintings and interesting 
relics. 

There is scarcely a foot of ground in Alexandria 
that Washington did not tread. The old quarters 
of the volunteer Fire Company of which Wash- 
ington was a member still stands. In Gadsby's 
Inn, now the City Hotel, he recruited his first com- 
pany of Provincial Troops authorized by Governor 
Dinwiddie, with which he fought the Battle of 
Great Meadows. In the ballroom of Gadsby's 
Tavern in 1798 was held a celebration of Washing- 
ton's birthday. From the steps of the same building 
he gave military commands to Fairfax County In- 
dependent Company, one of various such county 
companies organized in anticipation of the out- 
break of the Revolution, and whose uniform of 
blue and buff became that of Washington as Com- 



mander-in-Chief. Here also he voted as late as 
1799. 

This route also is a convenient approach to the 
George Washington National Masonic Memorial, 
on the outskirts of Alexandria. Continuing 
through the City of Alexandria and proceeding 
southward the traveler soon reaches the southern 
limits of the town and passes within a stone's throw 
of the first cornerstone of the District of Colum- 
bia still standing on Jones Point, with the inscrip- 
tion yet legible. Leaving Alexandria, the route 
crosses Hunting Creek and rises on high ground 
from which the broad panorama of the river and 
distant Washington are spread before the eye and 
then, overlooking the river, it follows the ridge to 
Old Fort Hunt, and thence to the entrance gates 
of Mount Vernon. 

This highway is not only replete with historic 
interest, but for scenic beauty it is perhaps unex- 
celled by any highway of similar length in America. 
It is approximately 15 miles in length and though 
varying somewhat in width, it is at all places wide 
enough for several automobiles to pass abreast in 
each direction. One of the interesting features of 
the Highway is the provision made for temporary 
parking at many points along the route by which 
tourists may stop and enjoy numerous lovely vistas 
of the river and of the distant Maryland Hills. 
The route of this great Highway is elaborately 
planned to facilitate the handling of traffic to the 
South bank of the Potomac, from which point the 
various connections are made with the principal 
bridges, although the main Highway connects 
with the Arlington Memorial Bridge. The engi- 
neering plan at the gates of Mount Vernon is upon 
a generous scale, providing for a large park circle, 
surrounded by arms of the boulevard, and ade- 
quate parking space. The boulevard is marked by 
suitable tablets and every appointment is carefully 
provided for safety, utility and beauty. 

The Mount Vernon Memorial Highway was au- 
thorized by Congress May 23, 1928, as an activity 
of the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission for the Celebration of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington. The Highway was designed and con- 
structed under the direction of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Public 
Roads. Its construction was begun September 17, 
1929, and the Highway opened for traffic January 
16, 1932. Formal dedication of the great Highway 



110 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



for public service took place November 15, 1932, 
at which time the President of the United States 
and Mrs. Hoover and other high officials of the 
government, members of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, officers and 
engineers of the Bureau of Public Roads traversed 
the Highway to Mount Vernon, where an informal 
reception was held at the gates of the estate. A 
suitable tablet of bronze upon the Highway com- 
memorates these events. 

Arlington Memorial Bridge 

Although the building of the great bridge across 
the Potomac River, connecting the Mall of the 
National Capital with beautiful Arlington Ceme- 
tery, was not distinctly a George Washington me- 
morial project, its completion in 1932 and its inti- 
mate relation to the Mount Vernon Memorial 
Highway, make reference to it at this time appro- 
priate. This bridge is a realization of the dream of 
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States, 
who insisted there be such a bridge of enduring 
granite spanning the broad bosom of the Potomac 
as a symbol of the Union of the North and South. 



The Arlington Memorial Bridge Commission 
was created by Act of Congress and directed to 
take the necessary steps to select a suitable design. 
The project was to fit into the elaborate plans for 
the development of the National Capital as out- 
lined by the McMillan Commission of 1901, pro- 
viding for a return to the spirit of the original 
L'Enfant plan. The cost of the bridge was not to 
exceed $14,75 0,000. This sum proved sufficient 
for the construction of the bridge, together with 
an elaborate system of approaches both from the 
Washington and the Virginia ends. From the 
latter side one boulevard continues to the entrance 
of the Arlington National Cemetery and another 
joins the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway on 
the island, while the eastern approach articulates 
with the landscaping about the Lincoln Memorial. 

The bridge is monumental in character and size, 
being of granite handsomely carved in historical 
designs. It was formally opened by President and 
Mrs. Hoover, high government officials and mem- 
bers of the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission at the same time as the dedi- 
cation of the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, 
Nov. 15, 1932. 







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The Arlington Memorial Bridge. Looking across the Potomac River towards the hills of Virginia. 



Wakefield, Virginia, Where Washington 

Was Born 



^N THE Celebration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
1 PliJ George Washington it is of the greatest 
'^^ "-^ historical importance to refer not only 
to the event itself, but also to his birthplace which 
is one of the most revered patriotic shrines in 
America. George Washington was born at Pope's 
Creek on the Potomac River, Westmoreland 
County, Virginia, in a brick house on land acquired 
by his father, Augustine Washington, Sr., in 1717. 
It is not known whether the father built the house. 

The original homestead in which George Wash- 
ington was born was burned Christmas Day, 1780, 
and for a century and a half this historic spot was 
almost forgotten. It passed through successive 
ownership and even most of the foundations of the 
original mansion were taken away and used to re- 
build other houses in the neighborhood. As the 
years passed, practically all of the historic relics of 
the time of the early Washington family were 
obliterated. The family burying ground in which 
were a number of flat grave stones, became a pas- 
ture, and old landmarks were destroyed by suc- 
ceeding generations of owners and tenants. 

For nearly 150 years the ancestral acres of the 
Washington family in America remained neglected 
and forlorn, and practically forgotten. The site 
was difficult of access and few Americans had the 
interest or the curiosity, to stand upon that soil 
made immortal by its historic associations. 

However, one man did visit this spot with rever- 
ence and with a deep sense of patriotic obligation. 
George Washington Parke Custis, step grandson of 
President Washington, in 1815 marked the site of 
the original mansion. He placed there a stone 
marker at the actual site of the edge of the birth- 
room. His own public statement emphasized that 
spot. The marker bore this inscription: 

Here, the 11th of February 
173 2 (Old Style) George 
Washington was born. :: " 

Thus, with simple dignity, this man familiar 
with the story of Wakefield settled the question as 
to the exact spot where stood the house and this 



For Article on Date of George Washington's Birth see Vol. Ill p. 689. 



was later confirmed by excavations made prepara- 
tory to erecting the replica. 

In 1858 a deed was executed by George Corbin 
Washington, son of Louis William Washington, 
then sole owner of that site, conveying to the State 
of Virginia the sixty foot square as being the exact 
ground on which had stood the house in which 
George Washington was born, for the purpose of 
erecting a monument thereon. 

In 1882 the State of Virginia conveyed to the 
United States Government the same site as the 
exact ground on which the birth house stood speci- 
fied as sixty feet square; also, the same dimension 
is cited in the deed issued to the United States Gov- 
ernment by the heirs of Louis William Washington 
in 1882 as being the ground beneath the house in 
which George Washington was born. Upon this 
site the Government of the United States erected 
a monument in 1896. This monument was simple 
in design and consisted of a shaft of Vermont 
granite 5 1 feet high, mounted upon a suitable base 
and pedestal. When it was decided to build a 
replica of the Washington homestead upon the site 
of the original mansion, it was necessary, of course, 
to remove the monument, and therefore it was re- 
located about a quarter of a mile away at the in- 
tersection of the main highway with the short road 
leading to the mansion itself. The present monu- 
ment indicates the road to be taken by tourists in 
reaching Wakefield. 

With the exception of constructing the road be- 
tween the birthsite and the wharf, the fencing of 
government lands and general maintenance work, 
nothing further of note was done at Washington's 
birthplace until after the organization of the 
Wakefield National Memorial Association which 
was incorporated under the laws of Virginia, Jan- 
uary 18, 1924, for the purpose of recovering the 
long neglected birthplace of George Washington, 
restoring it and making it a place of pilgrimage for 
all the people. 

The story of the George Washington Birthplace 
Memorial Monument, as it now exists, according to 
Horace M. Albright, late director of the National 
Park Service, is largely the story of the Wakefield 
National Memorial Association, under the able 



112 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 




Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



113 



presidency of Mrs. Josephine W. Rust. It was 
Mrs. Rust who conceived the idea of creating 
an association to perform in behalf of Wakefield a 
service similar to that done by the Mount Vernon 
Ladies' Association of the Union. Mrs. Rust was 
born in the neighborhood of Wakefield. From her 
own knowledge and the knowledge of her family 
and friends, she was as familiar with the locality as 
any other person. She realized, and regretted, the 
neglect that had permitted this sacred place to be 
given into the hands of strangers and the traces of 
its chief historic interest obliterated. 

Mrs. Rust made this project her life work and 
lived only to see its certainty of fulfillment. Be- 
sides Mrs. Rust, the other officers of the Wakefield 
National Memorial Association included: 

Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook, First Vice President. 

Mrs. John D. Sherman, Vice President. 

Mrs. Charles Moore, Vice President. 

Mr. Charles Arthur Hoppin, Examiner of Ancient Records 

of Persons and Property. 
Dr. Thomas Walker Page, Secretary. 
Miss Ella Loraine Dorsey, Recording Secretary. 
Mr. Benjamin S. Minor, Counsel. 
Mr. A. M. Nevius, Treasurer (Riggs Nat. Bank). 
Mr. Edward W. Donn, Jr., F. A. I. A., Architect. 

Board or Trustees 

The officers as above, and 

Hon. Harry Flood Byrd. 

Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman, D.D. 

Mrs. James P. Andrews. 

Mrs. Lowell Fletcher Hobart. 

Mrs. S. Z. Shope. 

Hon. John Barton Payne. 

Lyon G. Tyler, LL.D. 

Hon. Schuyler Otis Bland. 

Flon. R. Walton Moore. 

Mrs. Charles C. Worthington. 

Marcus Benjamin, Ph.D. 

Mrs. James W. Wadsworth, Jr. 

Hon. Wm. Tyler Page. 

Mrs. Peter Goelet Gerry. 

Lieut. Col. U. S. Grant, 3rd. 

Mrs. Henry A. Strong. 

Dr. Richard Washington. 

Mr. Wat. Tyler Mayo. 

Building Committee 

Hon. Harry Flood Byrd, Chairman. 

Lieut. Col. U. S. Grant, 3rd, Vice Chairman. 

Hon. R. Walton Moore. 

Hon. S. O. Bland. 

Mr. Charles A. Hoppin. 

Mrs. James W. Wadsworth, Jr. 

Mrs. Charles C. Worthington. 

The President, Vice Presidents and Treasurer, ex officio. 

Regents 
Alabama 

Mrs. Atwood Hill Mathes, Mooresville. 
Arkansas 

Mrs. Vivien Lewis Sigmon, Monticello. 



Colorado 

Mrs. Eleanor Pope Lyne, Denver. 

Mrs. J. Warden Pope, Denver, Vice Regent. 
Connecticut 

Mrs. Clarence F. R. Jenne, Hartford. 

Mrs. John Laidlaw Buel, Litchfield, Vice Regent. 
Illinois 

Mrs. Samuel W. Earle, Chicago. 
Iowa 

Mrs. Frederick E. Frisbee, Sheldon. 
Kansas 

Mrs. Effie H. van Tuyl, Leavenworth. 
Kentucky 

Mrs. Ben Johnson, Bardstown. 
Louisiana 

Mrs. Henry Dickson Bruns, New Orleans. 
Mississippi 

Mrs. Percy Edwards Quinn, Macomb City 
Nevada 

Mrs. J. E. Geldcr, Reno. 
New Jersey 

Mrs. Wm. Dusenberry Sherrerd, Haddonfield. 
New Mexico 

Mrs. Frank Elery Andrews, Santa Fe. 
New York 

Mrs. Henry Fairfield Osborn, New York City, Associate 
Regent. 
North Carolina 

Mrs. Robert A. Dunn, Charlotte. 
Ohio 

Hon. James R. Garfield, Cleveland. 
Oklahoma 

Mrs. Howard Searcy, Wagoner. 
Pennsylvania 

Mrs. Joseph Henry Zerbey, Jr., Pottsville. 

Mrs. H. D. Sheppard, Hanover, Associate Regent. 

Mrs. Jos. M. Caley, Philadelphia, Vice Regent. 

Mrs. George N. Reed, Oil City, Associate Regent. 
South Carolina 

Mrs. W. B. Burney, Columbia. 
South Dakota 

Miss Lcona Dias Viling, Yankton. 

Mrs. J. B. Vaughan, Castlewood, Associate Regent. 
Tennessee 

Mrs. Joseph W. Byrns, Nashville. 
Texas 

Mrs. Harry Hyman, Hyman. 

Mrs. Avery Turner, Amarillo, Vice Regent. 
Utah 

Mrs. E. A. Collins, Ogden. 
Vermont 

Mrs. Chester Mayo, Huntington. 
Virginia 

Mrs. James Allison Hodges, Richmond. 
Washington 

Mrs. William B. GafTney, Seattle. 

Mrs. John Ewing Price, Seattle, Vice Regent. 
West Virginia 

Hon. Howard Sutherland, Elkins. 
District of Columbia 

Mrs. Howard L. Hodgkins. 



14 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Mrs. James Griswold Wentz, New York City, Regent at 

Large. 
Mr. Samuel Herrick, Washington, D. C, Regent at Large. 
Maj. Gen. Amos A. Fries, Washington, D. C. Regent at 

Large. 
Mrs. Ada Fairfax Chandler, Montross, Chairman for the 

Northern Neck of Virginia. 
Mrs. Reinoehl Knipe, Norristown, Pa., Vice Chairman, 

Wakefield Committee Daughters of 1812. 

By an Act of Congress approved June 7, 1926, 
the Association was given authority to build a 
replica, as nearly as practicable, of the Augustine 
Washington house on government-owned land, 
with the provision that plans should be approved 
by the National Fine Arts Commission and the Sec- 
retary of War and that when the work was com- 
pleted it should be turned over to the Government. 
In 1926 the Association also, under the supervision 
of the War Department, made excavations at the 
birthsite to recover all possible information in re- 
gard to the foundations of the house. These exca- 
vations, together with the information obtained 
at the time of excavating for the monument foun- 
dation, gave much data for determining the size 
and the type of the house. 

In 1927 the Association was instrumental in get- 
ting a Government appropriation for improving 
the road between the birthsite and the Potomac 
River, past the family graveyard. When it was 
determined that the plan of rebuilding the house 
was as authentic as it could possibly be made, the 
National Park Service supervised the production of 
240,000 hand-made bricks at the expense of the 
Association. These bricks were made in a field ad- 
joining the birthsite, from clay obtained in the 
same field. The size of the bricks was 2 5 /& by 8% 
inches and they were made by the same method as 
was used in colonial times. The results obtained 
were most satisfactory as regards the quality of tex- 
ture, hardness and glazed ends, about which the 
architect was much concerned. Special shapes 
were made for water tables and wall tops. 

At the initiation of the Association, in 1929, 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., purchased 273.56 acres of 
the original Washington tract, running along the 
government road between the birthsite area and the 
Potomac River and Bridges Creek at the cost of 
$115,000. This land was transferred to the Gov- 
ernment December 12, 1930, and by the proclama- 
tion of the President became a part of the George 
Washington Birthplace National Monument, 
March 30, 1931. 

In 1929 the Association also purchased thirty 



additional acres of land at a cost of $8,000 to con- 
solidate the lands purchased by Mr. Rockefeller. 

On June 22, 1931, the Association deeded its land 
at Wakefield, about 100 acres, to the Government. 
The present area of George Washington Birthplace 
National Monument is 394.37 acres. 

In the Spring of 1930 the Association excavated 
and rebuilt the old family vault at the burying 
ground and collected the remains of all the bodies 
that were buried outside the vault and placed them 
in the reconstructed vault and sealed it. The top 
of this vault is about one foot below the ground 
surface. Five table stones have been erected and 
the burial ground, an area of 70,000 feet square, is 
enclosed by a wall of hand-made brick with iron 
gates. 

Within this enclosure are the remains of Col. 
John Washington, his wife Ann Pope; his brother 
Lawrence; his sons Major Lawrence Washington 
and Captain John Washington and his family; 
Augustine Washington (father of George Wash- 
ington) and his first wife Jane Butler; Augustine 
Washington 2d (half-brother of George) and his 
family. Effective means were taken to protect the 
remains from vandals and to preserve fragments of 
original stones. 

The services at the reinterment on May 20, 1930, 
were conducted by the Right Reverend James E. 
Freeman, Bishop of Washington, and the Reverend 
Mr. Cartwright, Rector of St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church at King George County Court House. 
Present on that occasion were many people of the 
neighborhood and interested visitors from nearby 
cities. Among the official witnesses of the inter- 
ment were Mrs. Josephine W. Rust, President of 
the Wakefield National Memorial Association; Mrs. 
John Dickinson Sherman, member of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion; Edgar P. Allen, of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission; Colonel 
H. S. Kimberly, in charge of the photographic 
service of the above Commission; and Mr. Edward 
W. Donn, Jr., architect for the Wakefield National 
Memorial Association. 

The plans for improving the graveyard called for 
a monument of Aquia Creek sandstone (quarries 
from which stone for the Capitol and White House 
was taken) inscribed to John Washington, the 
immigrant, and of similar design to monuments of 
its period. The table stones are inscribed to the 
descendants of John Washington known to have 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



115 



been buried there. An inscription on the central 
table stone is as follows: 

The ancient brick Vault beneath this stone was 
rebuilt and the remains therein of possibly twelve 
burials and twenty adjoining graves were re-interred 
here April 28, 193 0, by the Wakefield National 
Memorial Association. 

The brick wall about the burial ground has a 
coping similar to that used at Bruton Church at 
Williamsburg, Va. About the enclosure cedars and 
other appropriate trees and shrubs add to the quiet 
beauty of the shrine and border the pathway which 
extends from the road to the graveyard. 

Other important features of the extensive re- 
habilitation work are: a brick walk between the 
Mansion and the ancient kitchen, from the Man- 
sion to the Colonial Garden and from the Mansion 
to the newly constructed well and pump house; a 
gravel walk from the ends of the brick walk in a 
random course through the birthsite area; a road- 
way through the grounds to the rear of the Man- 
sion; parking areas at the Mansion and burial 
ground; reconstruction and oil treating of road be- 
tween the monument and birthsite; relocation, 
construction and oil treating of road around monu- 
ment and between monument and burial ground: 
building a gravel walk from road to burial ground 
and around the table stones inside the brick wall; 
the construction of about 2,000 feet of "Snake" 
rail fence, transplanting of cedars on each side of 
birthsite approach road and around Monument 
circle; planting of trees and shrubs on the approach 
path to burial ground; obliterating of abandoned 
old road and the removal of certain fencing. The 
Association is also furnishing the Mansion with 
copies of furniture of the period. 

One of the most impressive of the improvements 
is that of rehabilitating the ancient flower garden 
by the planting of box and other old-fashioned 
shrubs, which have added greatly to the beauty of 
the grounds. The Colonial garden is enclosed by a 
hand-split picket fence, white-washed in the style 
of Washington's day. On the sundial in the garden 
is the following verse: 

"A place of rose and thyme and scenting earth, 

A place of the world forgot, 
But here a matchless flower came to birth — 

Time passed and blessed the spot." 

The birthplace of George Washington at Wake- 
field, and the home which is his last resting place at 
Mount Vernon, are both upon the right bank of 
the Potomac River and about 70 miles apart. Both, 
however, are within a few hours by motor from 




-: 




Oil IC.IAL WITNESSES OF THE REINTERMENT OF THE REMAINS 

OF APPROXIMATELY THIRTY MEMBERS OF THE WASHINGTON 

FAMILY, WHO WERE BURIED IN THE OLD BURYING GROUND AT 

THE ORIGINAL FAMILY ESTATE, WAKEFIELD, VIRGINIA. 

Left to right: Edgar P.Allen; Mrs. Josephine Wbcelright Rust, 
President of the Wakefield National Memorial Association; 
Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman, one of the Commissioners of 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion; Mrs. Howard L. Hodgkins; Edward W. Donn, Jr., 
Architect of the reconstructed Wakefield mansion; and at 

the hack. Colonel H. S. Kimberly. 

(Upon this site later was constructed the beautiful cemetery 

garden and marble entablatures shown on page 116) 

the City of Washington and are connected with it 
and with each other by scenic highways traversing 
a section that is steeped in romance and in historic 
lore. 

Wakefield is situated in Washington parish of 
Westmoreland County, Virginia. John Washing- 
ton, George Washington's great grandfather, who 
came from England about 1657, settled on a plan- 
tation on the southeast side of Bridge's Creek. 
There, on a large plantation overlooking the lower 
Potomac, three generations of the Washington fam- 



116 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



ily had made their homes prior to the birth of the 
boy whose name has become so famous as to attach 
interest to all things connected with his actions, 
life and career. 

It should be remembered, however, that the 
birthplace of George Washington on Pope's Creek, 
about a mile from Bridge's Creek, was not a part of 
the original plantation. His father purchased it 
in 1717 from Joseph Abbington. The studies by 
Horace M. Albright and Charles O. Paullin show 
not only this fact, but also that before he purchased 
the Pope's Creek land Augustine Washington prob- 
ably lived on the Liston tract northwest of Bridge's 
Creek, which he had inherited from his father, 
Lawrence. The original Bridge's Creek plantation 
was willed by the immigrant John Washington to 
his second son, John, and did not come again into 
the hands of a direct ancestor of George Washing- 
ton until his father acquired it from his cousin 
John in 1742. Only then, a year before Augus- 
tine Washington died, did the land between Bridge's 
and Pope's Creeks, now the Wakefield National 
Monument, and including both the birthplace of 
George Washington and the ancestral burying 



ground, come into the possession of a single Wash- 
ington. This property Augustine willed to his son 
Augustine, from whom it descended to the latter's 
son William Augustine, who probably bestowed 
upon it the name Wakefield, and who possessed it 
when the house was burned. In his will, written 
in 1810, he calls this part of his estate the Burnt 
House Plantation. 

In selecting his family home, John Wash- 
ington exhibited the same wisdom and foresight 
which he later displayed (in 1674) when, in com- 
pany with Nicholas Spencer, he secured a land 
grant of 5,000 acres between Dogue's Run and 
Little Hunting Creek on the west bank of the 
upper Potomac, which later became known as 
Mount Vernon. The later acquisition on the upper 
Potomac was known as Epsewasson or Hunting 
Creek or as Washington Plantation until, in 1743, 
it was named Mount Vernon by Lawrence Wash- 
ington, half brother of George, and a descendant of 
the original owner. It was so named in honor of 
Admiral Vernon of the British Navy, under whom 
Lawrence Washington served. 

As was the case in the building of most of the 




Tin Washington i amily burying ground at Wakefield, Virginia, as reconstructed by landscape architects. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



117 



great Colonial homes of Virginia, the chief reason 
for the selection of these two sites by John Wash- 
ington was their frontage on navigable water. 
This was a necessary consideration as the early 
settlers depended almost entirely upon the old 
world for their supplies. Also, the rivers formed 
the easiest method of transportation between plan- 
tations and from plantations to markets. We can 
hardly disregard the fact also that the Virginians 
of the early days had an eye for beauty. As one 
travels through this romantic section of Virginia 
he is struck by the fact that these mansions, almost 
without exception, were built upon sites that com- 
mand unusually beautiful views. The strip of land 
along the Virginia Tidewater sections of the Chesa- 
peake Bay and the Potomac River is unusually rich 
in the ancestral homes of those whose names are 
now indelibly inscribed upon our history. Among 
those ancestral homes, the two homes of George 
Washington head the list of early settlers given by 
Joseph Dillaway Sawyer, and among the names of 
the other proprietors are the Lees, Jeffersons, Madi- 
sons, Monroes, Carys, Staffords, Masons, Fairfaxes 
and scores of others, all of whom had much to do 
with the making of the early history of Virginia. 

The present Wakefield estate lies upon the south 
bank of the Potomac River, between Bridge's Creek 



on the west and Pope's Creek on the east. These 
streams are about a mile apart. The original house 
of John Washington was doubtless at Bridge's 
Creek, where the first Washington lived after 
1664, and from that fact has arisen a notion in the 
minds of some, that George Washington was born 
sixty-eight years later in a small cottage facing that 
Creek at its mouth. The imaginary picture of this 
cottage has also been called George Washington's 
home on the Rappahannock. The recent investi- 
gations, however, show the fallacy of this idea con- 
cerning the site and character of George Washing- 
ton's birthplace. In erecting the house at Wake- 
field the National Park Service has accepted the his- 
toric findings of the Wakefield National Memorial 
Association, that George Washington Parke Custis, 
step-grandson of President Washington, in 1815 
marked the site correctly. 

There has been much discussion, says Sawyer, concerning 
the old colonial homestead on the 1,000-acre farm upon the 
Potomac River, near Bridge's Creek, famous the world over 
as the birthplace of George Washington. It has been asserted 
that the house was but a cottage, of meager dimensions and 
a story and a half in height. But this assertion is not sub- 
stantiated by known facts. The foundation area of the house, 
before it was filled in and leveled, clearly indicated a building 
of some forty by sixty feet over all, with foundation walls of 
usual thickness, manifestly designed to support a substantial 
and commodious dwelling. 




Making bricks by hand after the original method by which bricks were made upon the Washington estate, 
Wakefield, Virginia, for the building of the mansion house. 



118 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



After 150 years the historic house was rebuilt 
by the Wakefield National Memorial Asso- 
ciation, aided by the Federal Government and spon- 
sored by the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission. This beautiful home stands 
amid sacred surroundings like its prototype of long 
ago, built of hand-made bricks of clay taken from 
the field from which the original material came. 
The rebuilding of the home in which George Wash- 
ington was born is an interesting story of patient 
research and unselfish devotion. Mrs. Rust, as 
President of the Wakefield National Memorial 
Association, assumed a heavy responsibility. With 
the exception of $50,000, every dollar that went 
into the project was raised by subscriptions. The 
rebuilding of the mansion was from plans prepared 
by Edward W. Donn, Jr., an architect of Wash- 
ington, D. C, who has specialized in the study of 
Colonial architecture, particularly of old Virginia 
homes. Authentic data for restoration was se- 



cured by the prolonged and painstaking work of 
Charles A. Hoppin, Examiner of Ancient Records 
of Persons and Property. Mr. Donn's design has 
been accepted by the best qualified authorities as 
reproducing a typical colonial house of the size and 
character of the original Wakefield. 

The mansion stands on a knoll overlooking the 
extensive lake-like mouth of Pope's Creek on one 
side and facing the broad expanse of the Potomac. 
In its quiet dignity, and the solemn hush which 
pervades the entire surroundings, Wakefield re- 
minds one of the atmosphere of Mount Vernon. 

A spirit of peace, of sacred memories, encom- 
passes the serious visitor as though time itself had 
stood still over this revered spot in a perpetual 
benediction, not for the great soldier, statesman 
and patriot, born here, but for the wonderful boy 
who played among its ancient trees and dreamed 
his dreams beneath their spreading leaves. 




\ ASHINGTON IS THE MIGHTIEST NAME OE 



EARTH LONG SINCE MIGHTIEST IN THE CAUSE OF 

CIVIL LIBERTY, STILL MIGHTIEST IN MORAL REFOR- 
MATION. On that name no eulogy is ex- 
pected. It can not be. To add brightness to 
the sun, or glory to the name of Washing- 
ton IS ALIKE IMPOSSIBLE. LET NONE ATTEMPT 

it. In solemn awe we pronounce the name, 

and in its naked deathless splendor leave it 

shining on. 

Abraham Lincoln 



Historic Exhibitions of Portraits 




pHE United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission took special 
pride in the Historical Loan Exhibition 
of portraits of George Washington and 
his associates, which was held in The Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C, from March 5 
to November 24, 1932. In all of its manifold ac- 
tivities, which were without precedent and which 
carried the inspiration and knowledge of George 
Washington's life and character to every part of 
our country, nothing has been of greater value or 
of more unique interest than this remarkable ex- 
hibition. 

No previous attempt at anything like so com- 
plete a collection of great portraits of George 
Washington and his contemporaries ever was 
made. True, in 1889, at the great Centennial of 
the Inauguration of George Washington in New 
York City, a notable group of Washington por- 
traits and portraits of his contemporaries was 
placed on exhibition at the Metropolitan Opera 
House for three weeks and aroused much interest. 



But for the Bicentennial of George Washington's 
birth, greater preparation had been made and a 
wider field of research revealed more of the really 
historic portraits that were assembled in Washing- 
ton. 

This exhibition was one of the earliest projects 
approved by the Director. The opportunity came 
as a logical development of the study of George 
Washington and the Revolutionary period and was 
one of the several activities of the Commission, 
that from the very nature of things, could not be 
taken to the people in their own homes and com- 
munities. 

In selecting a manager of the Loan Exhibition, 
the choice fell naturally upon Mrs. Rose Gou- 
verneur Hoes, whose life-long identity with 
the finest culture of the National Capital, and 
whose distinguished intellectual qualifications were 
acknowledged in artistic and literary circles over 
a period of many years, made her ideally fitted for 
the responsibility. Mrs. Hoes, who was the great- 
grand daughter of President Monroe, had lived 



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Facsimile of Invitation to the Preview of the Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition, Held at 
the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C, on March 5, 1932. 



119 




His Excellency, The British Ambassador, Sir Ronald Lindsay, and Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the 

United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, viewing the "Lansdowne" portrait of 

George Washington by Gilbert Stuart, owned by Lord Rosebery and lent for the 

Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition, Washington, D. C. 



120 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



121 



practically all her life in Washington. Her ac- 
quaintance was wide and her personal influence in 
securing loans of valuable portraits was manifest in 
many instances. Although frail of body, her mind 
was singularly active and her enthusiasm for the 
success of the enterprise was unflagging. The 
Commission acknowledges its deep debt of grati- 
tude to Mrs. Hoes for her unselfish and competent 
organization and management of the Loan Exhibi- 
tion. 

The Portrait Committee of the George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Loan Exhibition was com- 
posed of: 

Mrs. McCook Knox, Chairman 

F. Lammot Belin 

Mrs. William Corcoran Eustis 

Mantle Fielding 

Mrs. Rose Gouverneur Hoes 

George C. McClellan 

John Hill Morgan 

Duncan Phillips 

Alexander Wilbourne Weddell 



The George Washington Bicentennial Historical 
Loan Exhibition Committee: 

The Vice President of the United States 

Mrs. William H. Taft 

Mrs. Calvin Coolidge 

The Ambassador of Mexico 

The Royal Italian Ambassador 

The Ambassador of the French Republic 

The Ambassador of Germany 

The Ambassador of Poland 

The Ambassador of Great Britain 

The Speaker of the House of Representatives 

The Secretary of State 

The Secretary of the Treasury 

The Secretary of War 

The Attorney General 

The Postmaster General 

The Secretary of the Navy 

The Secretary of the Interior 

The Secretary of Agriculture 

The Secretary of Commerce 




General John J. Pershing and Honorable Sol Bloom, Director, viewing the famous painting of the Wash- 
ington FAMILY BY EDWARD SAVAGE, LENT BY THE ESTATE OF THOMAS B. CLARKE FOR THE BICENTENNIAL HISTORICAL 

Loan Exhibition, Washington, D. C. 



122 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



The Secretary of Labor 

The Minister of Venezuela 

The Governor of Maryland 

The Governor of Virginia 

Admiral William V. Pratt, Chief of Naval 
Operations 

General Douglas MacArthur, Chief of Staff, 
United States Army 

Major General B. H. Fuller, Commandant, 
United States Marine Corps 

Leo S. Rowe, Director General, Pan American 
Union 

C. Bascom Slemp 

Charles G. Abbot, Secretary, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution 

Alexander Wetmore, Assistant Secretary, Smith- 
sonian Institution 

F. Lammot Belin 

Miss Mabel T. Boardman 

Henry Ford 

Frederic A. Delano, Chairman, National Capital 
Park and Planning Commission 



Mantle Fielding 

Miss Helen C. Frick, Frick Art Reference 
Library 

Mrs. Lowell Fletcher Hobart, President General, 
D. A. R. 

Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston 

Henry W. Kent, Secretary of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art 

Mrs. McCook Knox 

John F. Lewis, President, Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts 

George B. McClellan 

John Hill Morgan 

Charles Moore, Chairman, National Fine Arts 
Commission 

Duncan Phillips, Phillips Memorial Gallery 

Potter Palmer, President, Chicago Museum of 
Art 

George A. Pope, President, San Francisco Art 
Museum 

Walter G. Peter, Direct Descendant of Martha 
Washington 




General view of Gallery No. 1 of the Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition at The Corcoran Gallery 

of Art, Washington, D. C. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



123 



Robert Wirt Washington, Direct Descendant of 
Augustine Washington 

Alexander Wilbourne Weddell, Virginia House, 
Richmond, Va. 

Mrs. Rose Gouverneur Hoes, Manager, National 
Historical Loan Exhibition. 

General supervision of the entire exhibition was, 
of course, under the direction of Mrs. McCook 
Knox, Chairman of the Portrait Committee of the 
George Washington Bicentennial Loan Exhibition. 
Mrs. Knox devoted much time and energy to the 
successful organization and arrangement of the 
exhibits and her special knowledge of art and wide 
acquaintance with the artists of this and other 
countries equipped her for distinguished service 
and for discharging with great credit the responsi- 
bilities placed upon her. 

Through the courtesy of The Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, four spacious exhibition rooms were made 
available to the Commission and every possible help 
and courtesy was extended by the officers and em- 



ployes of the Corcoran Gallery. The Board of 
Trustees of this great institution consisted of: 
Charles C. Glover, C. Powell Minnigerode, George 
E. Hamilton, Robert V. Fleming, Corcoran Thorn, 
Lewis R. Morris, Charles C. Glover, Jr., R. M. 
Kauffmann and Gari Melchers. 

The Commission is under special obligation to 
Mr. C. Powell Minnigerode, Director and Secretary 
of the Gallery, who assisted with enthusiasm in 
the display of the loan collection. 

The paintings were collected from Museums and 
private and public ownership in this and other 
countries. The generosity of these owners made 
the Exhibition possible, and the Commission pub- 
licly acknowledges its obligation to those who 
loaned these great works of art to this government; 
to the authorities of the Frick Art Reference Li- 
brary in New York for their generous cooperation, 
and also to those who assisted in the collection of 
rare and interesting exhibits of Washingtonia. So 
that the Exhibition itself was in every way worthy 




General view of Gallery No. 2 of the Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition at The Corcoran Gallery 

of Art, Washington, D. C. 



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Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



of its sponsorship by the government of the United 
States and the participation of those public spirited 
men and women, at home and abroad, who con- 
tributed so generously to its success. 

Preview Reception 

Before the formal opening of the Exhibition a 
Preview Reception was held at the Corcoran 
Gallery, the evening of March 5, 1932. This was 
one of the most notable artistic events ever held 
in America. It brought together not only the cul- 
tural leadership of the National Capital, but many 
distinguished visitors from other places. The event 
was formal and the musical features were fur- 
nished by the United States Marine Band, Captain 
Taylor Branson, Director. Beautiful souvenirs 
were given the guests, each souvenir containing an 
artistic picture of the famous Lansdowne Portrait. 
The list of guests included the Presidential family. 
Vice President Curtis and Mrs. Gann, the Chief 
Justice and Justices of the Supreme Court of the 
United States; Members of Congress; Members of 



the Cabinet, Diplomatic Corps, and other distin- 
guished men and women of Washington and other 
cities. 

How the Portraits Were Assembled 

Many and interesting are the accounts of how 
the 120 rare portraits in the Historical Loan 
Exhibition were traced and secured. When it was 
decided to add portraits of Washington's brothers 
and sisters to the collection, difficulties were met 
with not encountered in securing the better known 
and more easily traced portraits of George and 
Martha Washington and the members of Wash- 
ington's Cabinet. Additional portraits often were 
found in the old homes of the Washington 
family in Westmoreland County and King George 
County, Virginia, as well as in other homes of Vir- 
ginia and adjacent states. 

Most famous in the collection was the renowned 
Lansdowne portrait of Washington loaned by the 
owner, the present Lord Rosebery of London. 




General vi 



>i Gallery No. 3 oi the Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition at The Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, Washington, D. C. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



125 



This was accomplished by the kind offices of the 
British Ambassador, Sir Ronald Lindsay, who co- 
operated with Representative Bloom, Director of 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, in bringing it to this country for the 
occasion. Acting in behalf of Lord Rosebery, in 
a brief ceremony at The Corcoran Art Gallery, 
March 4, 1932, Sir Ronald Lindsay unveiled the 
famous Lansdowne portrait of George Washington 
in the presence of Director Bloom of the Commis- 
sion, Mr. C. Powell Minnigerode, Director of The 
Corcoran Art Gallery, and the members of the 
Portrait Committee of the National Historical 
Loan Exhibition, including Mrs. McCook Knox, 
Chairman, F. Lammot Belin, Mrs. William Cor- 
coran Eustis, Mantle Fielding, Mrs. Rose Gouver- 
neur Hoes, Col. George B. McClellan, John Hill 
Morgan, Duncan Phillips and Alexander W. 
Weddell. 

The Lansdowne portrait is one of three painted 
from life by Gilbert Stuart. It was ordered by 



William Bingham and painted in 1796. A more 
detailed account of the portrait is given in the Cata- 
logue references. 

Another picture of great historical value is the 
first painting ever made of George Washington by 
Charles Willson Peale. This is the famous portrait, 
"The Virginia Colonel," which was loaned by the 
Washington and Lee University and shows the 
Father of His Country as a young man in the uni- 
form of a Colonel of the Virginia Militia. Harvard 
University sent its Edward Savage portrait of 
Washington which has always remained in the 
University. 

Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, of Boston, sent his 
collection of the portraits of the first five Presi- 
dents by Gilbert Stuart. Other important paint- 
ings in the collection were loaned by Mrs. Rose 
Gouverneur Hoes, being James Monroe, by Rem- 
brandt Peale; Mrs. James Monroe, by Benjamin 
West; James Madison, by John Vanderlyn, and a 
miniature of James Monroe, painted by Sene in 




General view of Gallery No. 4 of the Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibition at The Corcoran Gallery 

of Art, Washington, D. C. 



126 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



1794 when he was Second Minister to France under 
Washington. 

There was in the collection a Thomas Sully of 
Thomas Jefferson, loaned by the University of 
Virginia; Martha Jefferson Randolph, also by Sully, 
and loaned by Burton H. R. Randall; a portrait 
of Baron Von Steuben by Ralph Earle, owned by 
Mr. William Randolph Hearst; the James Sharpies 
portrait of George Washington and Martha Wash- 
ington which is owned jointly by Mrs. Robert E. 
Lee, Mrs. Hanson E. Ely, Jr., Mrs. Hunter DeButts, 
and Dr. John Boiling Lee of New York. 

In this remarkable collection there were can- 
vasses representing fourteen of the nineteen artists 
to whom there is little doubt George Washington 
sat for portraits. There are, of course, differences 
of opinion, even among the highest art critics, as 
to the accuracy of the list of painters of portraits 
from life. But the following list is believed to be 
as accurate as can be compiled. The artists whose 
canvasses or miniatures were in the George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Loan Exhibition are indicated 
by a star: 



* Charles Willson Peale 
"'William Dunlop 
"'Joseph Wright 
"Robert Edge Pine 
* : "John Ramage 
""Madame de Brehari 
Christian Gulager , 
""Edward Savage 



"John Trumbull 
Archibald Robertson 
William Williams 

"Walter Robertson 

"Gilbert Stuart 

""Rembrandt Peale 

""James Sharpies 
F. Kemmelmeyer 



Pierre Eugene du Simitiere 

"Adolph Ulric^Wertmuller 

"Charles Balthazar Julian Fevret de Saint-Memin 

Every object in the Loan Exhibition was insured 
against all hazards for an agreed amount from the 
time it left the owner's possession, in transit, being 
packed and unpacked, while on exhibition at The 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, and until it was returned 
safely to the owner. All packing, unpacking, ship- 
ping and insurance in connection with the Bicen- 
tennial Loan Exhibition were handled for the Com- 
mission by the Security Storage Company* of 
Washington, D. C, through its President, Clarence 
A. Aspinwall, and its Vice President and Treasurer, 
Charles W. Pimper, to whom the Commission is 
greatly indebted for their cooperation and efficiency. 



Catalogue of Historic Exhibits 

The following list of portraits and Washingtonia 
is taken from the official Catalogue of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Historical Loan Exhibi- 
tion: 

1. MARTHA WASHINGTON (1731-1802) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This portrait was given to the Virginia Historical 
Society many years ago by Mrs. J. A. Chevallie of 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Martha Washington was the daughter of Colonel John 
Dandridge, a planter in New Kent County. She was 
eighteen years of age at the time of her first marriage, 
to Daniel Parke Custis. She was a widow when she was 
twenty-six; and two years later she married George 
Washington. She survived him by only a few years. 
25" x 30" 

Lent by The Virginia Historical Society 

2. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By John Ramage (c. 1747-1803) 

Crayon drawing signed "J. Ramage, May 2nd, 
1789." 

John Ramage was born in Dublin about 1748, and as 
early as 1775 he is mentioned as a goldsmith and minia- 
ture painter in Boston. He was an accomplished artist 
and became the foremost miniature painter of "the beaux 
and belles" of the period. His miniatures were daintily 
set in gold frames made largely by his own hand. 
16Y 4 " x 14%" 

Lent by Fridenberg Gallery, Nciu York, New York 




Martha Washington 

By Charles Willson Peale 

Lent by The Virginia Historical Society 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



127 



GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By James Sharples (c. 1751-1811) 

This portrait of George Washington probably hung 
for a number of years at Mount Vernon and at the death 
of Martha Washington, she left it to her grandson, 
George Washington Parke Custis. It hung on the walls 
of Arlington for many years. At his death, he left it to 
his daughter, who had married General Robert E. Lee. 
At Mrs. Lee's death, it became the property of her heirs. 
In Mrs. McCook Knox's "Life of Sharpies," she quotes 
from the inventory of Mount Vernon made after the 
death of George Washington: 

"1 Small ovolo Gilt frame containing the likeness of 
W— Custis. 
1 do. Geo. W. Lafayette 
1 do. Gen'l Washington 
1 do. Mrs. W— n." 
Mrs. Knox further says: "Although the inventory 
does not mention the artist we have good reason to 
believe that these four portraits were the work of James 
Sharpies, drawn by him from life." 
9%" x 8" 

Lent by Mrs. Robert E. Lee 

Dr. George Boiling Lee 
Mrs. Hanson E. Ely, Jr. 
Mrs. Hunter deButts 

MARTHA WASHINGTON (1731-1802) 

By James Sharples (c. 175 1-18 1 1 ) 

This crayon portrait is a companion piece of the 
portrait of George Washington by Sharpies; it probably 
hung at Mount Vernon and subsequently at Arlington, 
with the portrait of Washington. 
9 3 / 4 " x 8" 

Lent by Mrs. Robert E. Lee 

Dr. George Boiling Lee 
Mrs. Hanson E. Ely, Jr. 
Mrs. Hunter deButts 

GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

ByJamesSharpi.es (c. 175 1-181 1 ) 

The owners inherited this pastel from General Alfred 
A. Woodhull, U. S. A., late of Princeton, New Jersey. 
General Woodhull inherited it from his aunt, Miss 
Carolina Salomons, who was a granddaughter of Presi- 
dent Smith of Princeton, and a great-granddaughter of 
President Witherspoon. 

On the back of the frame is written in faded ink, 

"Taken from life Rocky Hill, New J y, 2nd." 

9//'x7'/ 4 " 

Lent by Mrs. Lillian E. A. Tompkins 
and Miss Mary Ellicott Arnold 

GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This portrait, owned originally by Edward Penning- 
ton of Philadelphia, one of the founders of the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts, was purchased by the 
Library Committee of Congress for the Capitol, Wash- 
ington, D. C, from Mrs. C. W. Harris. 

It hangs in the room of the Senate Committee on 
Post Offices and Post Roads. 
About 30" x 2 5" 

Lent by The United States Government 

GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This portrait was in the possession of the Philips 
family, near Manchester, England, for over a century. 



The first owner was either Nathaniel Philips (1726- 
1808) or his son, Samuel Philips of Heybridge. It 
passed to the former's nephew, Robert Philips (1794- 
1853) who left it to his son, John William Philips. 
1827-1914), who left it to his son, William Norton 
Philips of Heybridge. The portrait was purchased in 
New York in March, 1924, by the present owner. 
29" x 23%" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Richard deWolfe Brixey 

8. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This is generally considered the original Lansdowne 
portrait, although the one owned by the Pennsylvania 
Academy of Fine Arts may be the life portrait. This 
picture was ordered by William Bingham and presented 
by Mrs. Bingham to the Marquis of Lansdowne (1738- 
1805). After his death the collection of pictures at 
Lansdowne House, London, was sold on March 19-20, 
1806. This canvas was bought by General William 
Lyman, American Consul, and was later purchased by 
Samuel Williams. Mr. Williams becoming insolvent, his 
creditors disposed of the picture by lottery when it 
became the property of John Delaware Lewis, M. P. It 
was exhibited in the Centennial Exhibition in Phila- 
delphia in 1876, and subsequently passed into the hands 
of the late Earl of Rosebery and hung in his London 
home, 3 8 Berkeley Square. Present owner, the Earl of 
Rosebery. 
98" x 62" 

Lent by The Earl of Rosebery 

9. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This portrait was presented to the Gallery by Mrs. 
Benjamin Ogle Tayloe in 1902. 




George Washington 

By Edward Savage 

Lent by Harvard University 



128 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Mrs. Tayloe's former home was The Octagon House, 
in Washington, D. C, which was built for this well- 
known Virginia family. 
29" x 24" 

Lent by The Corcoran Gallery of Art 

10. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By William Dunlap (1766-1839) 

On May 10, 183 8, William Dunlap wrote: "The 
picture in crayons of General Washington belonging to 
Dr. Ellis, now in the National Academy Gallery at Clin- 
ton Hall, was painted by me from the life in the autumn 
of 1783 at Head Quarters, Rocky Hill, New Jersey; 
and presented by me to John Van Home of Rocky Hill. 
Congress was then in session at Princeton and the 
Commander in Chief had his Head Quarters at Mr. 
Berrian's house within a few miles." 

Dr. Ellis married Miss Van Home, and they were the 
grandparents of the present owner. 
26 y 2 " x20/ 2 " 

Lent by Mrs. A. V. H. Ellis 

11. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Edward Savage (1761-1817) 

Edward Savage was employed by Harvard College to 
paint this portrait of the President, and Washington 
recorded in his diary giving him three sittings on Decem- 
ber 21 and 28, 1789, and on January 6, 1790. 
21" x25" 

Lent by Harvard University 

12. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This canvas is usually referred to as the original por- 
trait from life of this type. It was painted in 179 5, 
probably in Stuart's studio on the southwest corner of 




George Washington 

By Gilbert Stuart 

Lent by The Thomas B. Clarke Estate 



Fifth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia. The portrait 
was one of two, ordered by John Vaughan of Philadel- 
phia, noted on Stuart's list of April 20, 179 5, and the 
family tradition is that it was taken by John Vaughan 
to his father, Samuel Vaughan (1720-1802), a London 
merchant then living in Fenchurch Street. It was 
engraved in London by Thomas Holloway, for Lavatier's 
"Essays on Physiognomy," published November 2, 1796. 
This type bears the name of the owner of the portrait, 
which was the first to be engraved. On the death of 
Samuel Vaughan the portrait passed to his son, William 
(1752-1850), and probably to his grandson, Petty 
Vaughan (1788-1854). It was acquired from the 
executors of William or Petty Vaughan by Joseph Har- 
rison, Jr., the Philadelphia financier and art collector, 
before 18 59. In 1912 it was purchased at the sale of 
pictures belonging to the Harrison Estate, after the death 
of Joseph Harrison's widow, by the late Thomas B. 
Clarke, of New York. 
29"x23%" 

Lent by The Estate of Thomas B. Clarke 

13. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This portrait was painted at Mount Vernon in May, 
1772, in the uniform of a Colonel of Virginia Militia. 
It hung at Mount Vernon until the death of Martha 
Washington, who bequeathed it to her grandson, George 
Washington Parke Custis. He left it to his daughter, 
Mrs. Robert E. Lee, who bequeathed it to her son, G. W. 
Custis Lee. It is now owned by Washington and Lee 
University, Lexington, Virginia. 
50" x40" 

Lent by Washington and Lee University 

14. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

While Washington was presiding over the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1787, Peale desired to paint his 
portrait for the purpose of having it engraved. On July 
3, 1787, Washington wrote in his diary, "Sat before the 
meeting of the Convention for Mr. Peale, who wanted 
my picture to make a print or mezzotinto by." On 
July 6, 1787, he wrote, "Sat for Mr. Peale in the morn- 
ing. Attended Convention. Dined at the City Tavern 
with some members of the Convention, and spent the 
evening at my lodgings." On July 9, "Sat in the 
morning for Mr. Peale." 

After 1787, Peale, in filling commissions for bust 
portraits, painted a few portraits of this type, or in head 
size facing left. In his diary for 1788-9 Peale records 
the painting of two replicas, one finished August 20, 
1788, and the other, head size, on December 7, 1788. 
An entry immediately preceding that of May 3, 1789, 
states that he had sold a picture of Washington to the 
Dutch Consul. This portrait was purchased in Holland 
in 1925. 
23" x 18i/ 2 " 

Lent by Mr. John Hill Morgan 

15. GEORGE WASHINGTON AT DORCHESTER 
HEIGHTS (1732-1799) 

By Jane Stuart (c. 1810-1888) 

Copy by Jane Stuart, daughter of Gilbert Stuart, from 
the original by her father which hangs in Faneuil Hall, 
Boston. This portrait was presented to the Maryland 
Historical Society by the Germania Club of Baltimore, 
to whom it had been presented many years before by 
the late Adolph Meyer. 
39" x 33" 

Lent by The Maryland Historical Society 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



129 



16. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Edward Savage (1761-1817) 

This portrait, with a companion one of Martha Wash- 
ington, was painted for John Adams during Washing- 
ton's first term as President, when John Adams was 
Vice-President. A receipt preserved by the Adams 
family reads as follows: 

"Received, New York, 17th April 1790, of the Vice- 
President of the United States, forty-six and -/$. For 
a portrait of the President of the United States and his 
Lady. Edward Savage." 
30" x 25" 

Lent by The Adams Memorial Society 

17. THE WASHINGTON FAMILY 

By Edward Savage (1761-1817) 

This canvas was painted between 1789 and 1796. On 
March 10, 1798, Savage published his celebrated print 
of "The Washington Family" from this canvas. 

Possibly this canvas was painted for the purpose of 
exhibition along with Savage's Panorama. Savage joined 
David Bowen in the New York Museum, later the 
Columbian Gallery, in which this canvas was exhibited. 
This collection was eventually taken to Boston, to the 
Columbian Museum, which became in 182 5 the New 
England Museum. In 1848 the collection was purchased 
by Moses Kimball and maintained by him until 1890. 
Kimball states that the painting came into his possession 
upon his purchase of the New England Museum. In 
1891 Kimball sold the canvas to Samuel P. Avery, Jr. 
Later it was sold by him to William F. Havemeyer of 
New York City, and was purchased from him by the 
late Mr. Thomas B. Clarke. 
84" x 111" 

Lent by The Estate of Thomas B. Clarke 

18. MARTHA WASHINGTON (173 1-1802) 

By Edward Savage (1761-1817) 

This is the companion to the portrait of George 
Washington. They have always hung in the dining- 
room of the Adams Mansion in Quincy, Massachusetts, 
the home of John Adams, in which he and his wife, 
Abigail, died. This house has been occupied by four 
generations of the family, and is now preserved as a 
family memorial by their descendants. 
30" x 25" 

Lent by The Adams Memorial Society 

19. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Robert Edge Pine (1730 or 1742-1788) 

This portrait was purchased in 1817 in Montreal by 
Henry Brevoort, and descended to his son, J. Carson 
Brevoort, and, at his death, to Mr. Grenville Kane. 

Engraved by H. B. Hall, for Washington Irving's 
Life of George Washington. 
36" x 28" 

Lent by Mr. Grenville Kane 

20. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This portrait shows Washington in his military coat 
with buff facings, with buttons and strap on collar, 
neck-cloth with linen frill. It belonged to the Charles 
J. Eaton collection of paintings presented to the Pea- 
body Institute by a former member of its Board. 
22" x 18»/ 2 " 

Lent by The Peabody Institute 




The "Virginia Colonel" portrait of George 

Washington 

By Charles Willson Peale 

Lent by Washington and Lee University 

21. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Joseph Wright (1756-1793) 
The Quaker artist, Joseph Wright, painted this por- 
trait while Washington was President, and it shows him 
with a map on his knee of the future City of Washing- 
ton. The portrait was exhibited in New York in 1889 
at the Centennial of Washington's inauguration and in 
Chicago, 1893, at the World's Fair. 
49" x 39" 

Lent by Mr. Clarence Winthrop Bowen 

22. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

Charles Henry Hart, who compiled the Historical, 

Descriptive and Critical Catalogue of the works of 

American Artists in the collection of Herbert L. Pratt, 

says of this portrait: 

"This is the last portrait of Washington painted from 
life by Charles Willson Peale, according to Rembrandt 
Peale, who claimed that his father painted fourteen 
different portraits of Washington from life, the last 
sitting being for this portrait." 

The portrait in the New York Historical Society is 
usually called the original of this type; but Mr. Hart 
considered that the greater fineness of this copy points 
to it being the original. 
30" x 25" 

Lent by Mr. Herbert Lee Pratt 



30 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 




Martha Washington 

By Edward Savage 

Lent by The Adams Memorial Society 

22a. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

The owner of this portrait, Mrs. Ordway, says this 
picture has been in the possession of her family since 
1805, and that it was presented to her great grandfather, 
Hon. John B. C. Lucas, a member of Congress from 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Lucas resigned his seat in Congress 
during the administration of President Jefferson to ac- 
cept the position of District Judge and as one of the 
Commissioners for the adjudication of land titles in the 
province of upper Louisiana. Mrs. Ordway also says the 
portrait was presented to her great grandfather by an 
old friend, and it is family tradition that Washington 
gave this portrait to the "old friend." Subsequently the 
picture was owned by James H. Lucas of St. Louis. He 
bequeathed it to her daughter, Mrs. John B. Johnson, 
and at her death it came into the possession of the 
present owner. 
19" x 16" 

Lent by Col. and Mrs. Godwin Ordway 

23. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Edward Savage (1761-1817) 

Edward Savage made this replica from the life portrait 
of Washington done in 1789-1790 and he retained it 
until his death, when it was passed on to members of 
his family, who in turn presented it to the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago. 
17 y 2 " x 14" 

Lent by The Art Institute of Chicago 

24. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860) 

Mr. J. V. L. Pruyn, of Albany, New York, the father 
of Mrs. Charles Hamlin, purchased this picture in 1868 



at Washington from Miss Eleanor Brooke. Miss Mary 
Callahan, a great great aunt of Eleanor Brooke, be- 
queathed the picture to Eleanor Brooke's grandfather, 
Dr. John Ridgely of Annapolis, who, by his will, be- 
queathed it to Eleanor Brooke. 

It was exhibited in the Philadelphia Exposition of 1923, 
with other paintings by Rembrandt Peale. 
28" x 23" 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Hamlin 

2 5. WASHINGTON AT DORCHESTER HEIGHTS 

(1732-1799) 

By Jane Stuart (c. 1810-1888) 

Copy of portrait of George Washington at Dorchester 
Heights by Gilbert Stuart, done by his daughter, Jane 
Stuart, about 1860, in Boston. Miss Stuart made the 
portrait while she was a guest at the home of John 
Amory Codman, father of the present owner. 
36" x 29" 

Lent by Mrs. Maxim Karolik Codman 

26. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This portrait was given in 1889 by R. B. Kennon, 
South Gaston, North Carolina, to the Virginia Historical 
Society. Mr. Kennon was a descendant of Robert Ken- 
non, an early member of the Cincinnati, whose certificate 
of membership, signed by Washington, is owned by the 
Historical Society. 
22/ 2 " x 19/2" 

Lent by The Virginia Historical Society 




George Washington 

By Robert Edge Pine 

Lent by Mr. Grcnville Kai 



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131 




George Washington 

By Charles Willson Peak 

Lent by The Peabody Institute 

27. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

On the stretcher of this portrait, painted about 1795, 
is pasted a paper with the following inscription: 

"Portrait of General Washington painted by an Irish 
artist named Stewart for a public building in New York, 
and sent by an American gentleman as a present to 
William Sinclair of Belfast." 

The portrait was purchased from Sir William May 
in Ireland. 
29" x 24" 

Lent by Honorable Andrew W. Mellon 

28. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

William Constable, great-great-grandfather of the 
present owner, had his portrait painted by Gilbert Stuart. 
At that time Mr. Constable saw Mr. Stuart painting 
the so-called Lansdowne portrait of Washington, and 
he was so impressed with it that he commissioned 
Stuart to paint for him a full length portrait of Wash- 
ington. Hezekiah Beers Pierrepont, great-grandfather of 
the present owner, married William Constable's daughter, 
and purchased from him this full-length portrait of 
Washington, which afterwards came down by inheri- 
tance to Mr. Pierrepont. 

This picture has always been known as the Constable 
portrait. 
90" x 61" 

Lent by Mr. Robert L. Pierrepont 

29. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

This portrait is one of a set of replicas painted by 
Gilbert Stuart for Colonel George Gibbs who lived for 
many years in Newport, Rhode Island. The set stayed 



in the Gibbs' family for several generations. It was 
bought by T. Jefferson Coolidge of Boston about 1874 
and has since remained in this same family. 

The other four pictures belonging to this set, of Presi- 
dent Adams, President Jefferson, President Madison and 
President Monroe, are hanging together elsewhere in the 
exhibit. 
28 Vz" x 22" 

Lent by Mr. T. Jefferson Coolidge 

30. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Adolph Ulric Wertmuller (1751-1811) 
Painted from life in 1794, signed "A. Wertmuller, 
S. Pt. Philadelphia, 1794." 

This portrait was painted in the Senate Chamber be- 
tween August and November, and retained by Wert- 
muller for himself. It was sold among his effects and 
purchased by John Wagner of Philadelphia. It passed 
down by inheritance through several generations, until 
it became the property of the late Mr. Samuel T. 
Wagner. 
2 5/ 2 " x 21" 

Lent by The Estate of Mr. Samuel T. Wagner 

31. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By James Frothingham (1781-1864) 
James Frothingham began life as a painter in his 
father's chaise manufactory. With meagre instruction 
in colors, he finally began a career as a portrait-painter, 
and obtained recognition as a truthful and painstaking 
artist. His works had sale chiefly in New York and 
Salem. His copy of Stuart's "Washington" was much 
admired, and his original portraits were praised for 
fidelity of coloring. 
28/2" x 21" 

Lent by Mrs. A. F. Watson 




George Washington 

By Joseph Wright 

Lent by Mr. Clarence Winthrop Bo wen 



132 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



32. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

In 1900 Merton Russell Coates, Esquire, F.R.G.S., 
Eastcliffe Hall, Bournemouth, England (subsequently Sir 
Merton Russell Coates, J.P., F.R.G.S.), presented this 
bust to President Theodore Roosevelt who later sent it 
to the Department of State where it has been ever since. 

According to a statement from Mr. John Cook, 
Curator of the Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) and Sons, 
Limited, Etruria Museum at Stoke-on-Trent, dated 
August 13, 1929, the bust was made by this firm in 
1890; a plaster cast is in the museum, but up to August 
13, 1929, it had not been possible to find any information 
as to the original from which the bust was made. 
Height 19" 

Lent by The Department of State 

3 3. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This portrait was presented in 1878 by Miss Richea 
G. Etting to the Maryland Historical Society. Miss 
Etting, who was a very old lady at the time she pre- 
sented the portrait, stated that it was painted for her 
father, Solomon Etting, the well-known Baltimore mer- 
chant, by Gilbert Stuart, and that she remembers that 
she accompanied her father as a child to the artist's studio 
and watched him painting the portrait. (See John Hill 
Morgan and Mantle Fielding, "Life Portraits of Wash- 
ington.") 
29" x 24" 

Lent by The Maryland Historical Society 

34. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By William Birch (175 5-1834) 

This miniature was given by George Washington to 
James McHenry, great-great-grandfather of the present 
owner. James McHenry was a close personal friend of 




George Washington 

By Rembrandt Peale 

Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Hamlin 



Washington, and his Secretary of War. This miniature 
is one of three portraits of Washington, from which 
Mr. McHenry was asked to take his choice; he chose 
this as being the best likeness of the three. 
3/ 2 "x2 3/ 4 " 

Lent by Miss Edith McHenry 
3 5. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Richard Champion (c. 1743-1791) 
This plaque was designed by Richard Champion, a 
porcelain fabricant, of Bristol, England, who came to 
this country and died in South Carolina. 
&Y 4 " x 7" 

Lent by Mr. Walter G. Peter 

From the Britannia W. Peter Kennon Collection 

of Washington Relics 

36. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This miniature was probably painted about 178 5. It 
was presented to Colonel Nathaniel Ramsey by George 
Washington. Colonel Ramsey gave it to Nicholas 
Cowenhoven who gave it to Robert Benson. Mr. Benson 
bequeathed it to the Long Island Historical Society at 
his death, December 15, 188 3. 
2"x l/ 2 " 

Lent by The Long Island Historical Society, 
Brooklyn, New York. 

37. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By James Peale (1779-1876) 
This miniature, painted by a brother of the famous 
Charles Willson Peale, is incased in a watch and was 
purchased from the artist's son in 1847 by the Artillery 
Corps Washington Grays. This information is engraved 
in the watch which contains the miniature. Back of the 
miniature is a lock of George Washington's hair which 
was obtained by one of the members of the Washington 
Grays on the occasion of their visit to Mount Vernon 
on February 22, 1832. 

iy 4 "xi3/ 8 " 

Lent by Artillery Corps Washington Grays, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

37a. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

Artist Unknown 

Small pin with profile portrait of George Washington. 
Presented to Commodore Morris by Gen. Lafayette. 

Lent by Mrs. Arthur D. Addison 

38. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Marquise de Brehan 
The Marquise de Brehan, accompanied her brother, 
the Comte de Moustier, who succeeded the Chevalier 
de la Luzerne as Minister of France, to the United States 
of America. She was a gifted woman and visited Mount 
Vernon in 1788. Washington's diary for October 3, 
1789, says, "Walked in the afternoon, and sat about 
two o'clock for Madame de Brehan to complete a minia- 
ture profile of me, which she had begun from memory, 
and which she had made exceedingly like the original." 
This ring miniature was painted in New York. Madame 
de Brehan made several of these paintings, which she 
executed in a style then exceedingly popular and known 
as en grisaille, which, when referring to mural decora- 
tions, would mean in monochrome in various tints of 
gray to imitate sculpture; when applied to miniature, 
it was called camaieu. These were painted in tones of 
gray and sometimes in yellow, and in general gave the 
effect of cameos cut on shell. 
13/16" x9/l6" 

Lent by Mrs. John Hill Morgan 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



133 



39. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Philip A. Peticolas (1760-1843) 

This miniature has been in the possession of Mr. Frank 
for over twenty-five years, and was purchased from the 
daughter of an intimate friend of the Peticolas family. 

From the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Journal of Janu- 
ary 9, 1802, is taken the following advertisement: 
"Miniature painting, music and French tuition. Peti- 
colas will take likenesses at his usual price of twenty- 
five to forty dollars. No likeness — no pay. P. A. 
Peticolas." 
2/ 2 " x 2" 

Lent by Mr. Charles Lee Frank 

40. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

It is said that Washington sat to Charles Willson Peale 
for this miniature for Anna White Constable (Mrs. 
William Kerin, to whom it was presented in 178 5) in 
Philadelphia, in 1785, and it has been in the possession 
of her descendants ever since. 

l 3 / 4 "xl3/ 8 " 

Lent by Miss Josephine B. Foster 

41. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

Artist Unknown 

A wax miniature. 
Diameter 4". 

From the collection of the late Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, 
lent by his granddaughters, Mrs. Vinton Freedley and 
Mrs. Dent W. Macdonough. 

42. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By William Thornton (1761-1827) 

This Water-Color Painting of Washington is by Dr. 
William Thornton, first Commissioner of Patents, Archi- 
tect of the United States Capitol, the Octagon House 
and Tudor Place. Dr. Thornton was an intimate friend 
of Washington and of Mrs. Thomas Peter of Tudor 
Place, granddaughter of Mrs. Washington. 

The drawing was given by Thornton to Mrs. Peter, 
and it is thought it was originally made for Josiah 
Wedgwood (1730-1795). 
4 I //'x4" 

Lent by Mr. Walter G. Peter 

From the Britannia W. Peter Kennon Collection 

of Washington Relics 

43. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Peale Polk (1767-1822) 
A miniature silhouette on ivory. 



1" x 1' 



Lent by Mrs. Miles White, Jr. 



44. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Walter Robertson ( — 1802) 

George Washington had this miniature painted as a 
present for his step-granddaughter, Eliza Custis, after- 
wards Mrs. Thomas Law. Mrs. Law left it to her 
grandson, Edmund Law Rogers, who was the father of 
the present owner. 
l 3 / 4 "xH/ 2 " 

Lent by Mrs. Charlotte Rogers Mustard 




George Washington 

By Gilbert Stuart 

Lent by Honorable Andrea W. Mellon 

45. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By James Sharples (c. 175 1-1811) 

Made in Philadelphia while Washington was President, 
this pastel portrait was bequeathed to the Wadsworth 
Atheneum by Daniel Wadsworth in 1848. It came to 
Daniel Wadsworth from his father, Colonel Jeremiah 
Wadsworth, an intimate and highly esteemed friend of 
Washington. 

Jeremiah Wadsworth was commissary-general of the 
Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and 
in 1786-88 he was a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress. 
9Vz" x7Y 2 " 

Lent by The Wadsworth Atheneum 
Hartford, Connecticut 

46. GENERAL WASHINGTON (1732-1799), COLONEL 

KNOX (1750-1806), AND GENERAL PUTNAM 
(1718-1790) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

This sketch on a drum head, said to have been made 
by Trumbull on the battlefield, is signed, and dated 
1776. 

In every one of Washington's movements from the 
siege of Boston to Yorktown, Henry Knox, colonel, 
brigadier-general, and major-general in command of the 
artillery, remained with his chief throughout the whole 
war. He was Secretary of War in Washington's Cabi- 
net and chosen by him as one of the majors-general 
when in 1798 war was threatened with France. 

Israel Putnam, veteran of the French and Indian War, 
was one of the first majors-general appointed by the 
Continental Congress to serve under Washington, he 
being already at the siege of Boston. Continued in close 



34 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



association with his chief in the New York and New 
Jersey campaigns, but later was generally on post 
command. 
Diameter 16" 

Lent by Collection of J. Hopkins Smith 

47. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

Artist Unknown 

Statement of facts in regard to this portrait, found 
in the American Consulate at Bordeaux, France, reports 
to the Secretary of State as follows: "Mr. Fenwick, the 
former consul, married here and left a family of which 
one son survived until 18 58. Just before his death he 
presented to the Consulate at Bordeaux a small oil paint- 
ing — a portrait of General Washington which he claimed 
his father had brought from the United States in 1790. 
It has been hanging on the walls of the Consulate since 
that time, without attracting any particular attention 
from my predecessors, who, I judge, regarded the claim 
that it was an 'original portrait from life' with 
incredulity." 

Translation of the comment of Imberti to whom the 
portrait was submitted for judgment: "Imberti, 34, 
Cours de l'Intendance, & Rue. de Grassi, I Bordeaux, 
May 14, 1900: "The portrait of Washington submitted 
to my examination calls to my mind from its delicate 
and vibrating touch, its vigorous and harmonious color- 
ing, its sober and correct designing, certain works of 
the painter Brown (Mather) born in America (1760- 
1831). He settled in London, was a pupil of West and 
painter to George III. The portrait was surely painted 
about the end of the last century (1796) and I ascribe 
it to this artist. . . ." "Signed IMBERTI." 
9 I / 4 "x7/ 2 " 

Lent by The Department of State 

48. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Edward Dalton Marchant (1806-1887) 

This is a copy made for the Adams family from an 
original Sharpies portrait, by Edward Dalton Marchant, 
who was born in Massachusetts in 1806. He first 



exhibited in 1829 at the National Academy of Design. 
In 1845 he settled in Philadelphia, and it was doubtless 
about this time that he made this copy of the Sharpies 
portrait. 

9 3 / 4 "x7/ 2 " 

Lent by Miss M. L. A. Clement 

49. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By James Sharples (c. 1751-1811) 

The present owner of this portrait is the great-great- 
grandson of the original owner, Judge Richard Peters, 
an intimate friend of George Washington. 

On Trumbull's list, among the originals which he 
recognized of Washington, is noted "Sharpies painted 
two small portraits in crayon, one in profile, the other 
more front view, in 1796; one of them is in the posses- 
sion of Judge Peters of Philadelphia." 
9 l / 2 "x7" 

Lent by Mr. Richard Peters, Jr. 

50. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860) 

Rembrandt Peale was the son of Charles Willson 
Peale. 

The Peabody Institute has no definite knowledge of 
the origin of this portrait, except that it was bequeathed 
with the Charles J. Eaton collection of paintings by a 
former member of the Board. 
24" x 20" 

Lent by The Peabody Institute 

5 1. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

In a recent history, the following account is given 
of this portrait: "This portrait was painted by Stuart 
in 1810 for the Honorable Josiah Quincy, later mayor 
of the City of Boston, who was himself twice painted 
by the artist. He visited Stuart's studio in Essex Street 
on several occasions and is said to have purchased this 
portrait during one of his calls. It hung for years in 
the family homestead at Quincy, Massachusetts. In 




Miniature of George Washington 

By Marquise de Brehan 

Lent by Mrs. John Hill Morgan 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



135 



1896 it was sold by Josiah Phillips Quincy of Boston, 
grandson of the original owner, to George Nixon Black 
of Boston, whose collection was bequeathed to the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts." 

This picture is known as the Nixon-Black portrait. 
27" x 22" 

Lent by The Boston Museum of Fine Arts 

52. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Joseph Wright (1756-1793) 

This bust portrait of Washington carries with it an 
interesting pedigree which goes back to about 1815 
when Thomas Shields, a tavern keeper of Alexandria, 
Virginia, and an ancestor of its late owner, bought the 
picture at an auction in Alexandria. Shields was a 
Mason and, being a member of the same Masonic lodge 
to which Washington belonged, was thoroughly familiar 
with it as an accurate likeness. His opinion was en- 
dorsed many years later by Washington's step-grandson, 
G. W. Parke Custis, who saw the picture shortly before 
his death in 18 57 and declared it a more correct and 
faithful expression of Washington's face than any of 
the numerous portraits he had seen. From a comparison 
of it with the Houdon bust the measurements are said 
to be identical. The picture passed to Mr. Shield's 
daughter and then to her son, the late G. L. McKean of 
Chicago, from whose widow the Museum bought it. 

When or where the picture was painted is not known, 
but 1790 is thought to be its approximate date. Wright 
drew and etched a profile portrait of Washington in 
that year and it is said painted a portrait of him at 
that time. 
21/ 2 " x W/z" 

Lent by The Cleveland Museum of Art 





George Washington 

By Joseph Wright 

Lent by the Cleveland Museum of Art 



George Washington 

By Rembrandt Peale 

Lent by the United States Government 

GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860) 

Peale painted this portrait in 1823 and it is considered 
better than his portrait of George Washington made in 
1795. It combined the life portrait made in his early 
youth with those of his father, Charles Willson Peale, 
as well as a study of the Houdon statue and other life 
portraits of Washington. 

It was purchased by Congress in 183 2 and hangs in the 
Vice-President's room at the Capitol, Washington, D. C. 
72" x 54" 

Lent by The United States Government 

GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This portrait of George Washington was owned by 
Judge Robert Goldsborough, who is said to have obtained 
it directly from the artist who, in December, 1799, was 
staying at the Judge's homestead, "Maple Grove," near 
Easton, Maryland, and painted portraits of members of 
the Goldsborough family. It hung at Maple Grove for 
148 years, until acquired by its present owner. 
23" x 19" 

Lent by The Honorable }. S. Frelinghuysen 

GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

The original owner of this portrait of George Wash- 
ington was Andrew Kennedy, Sr., a wealthy ship chandler 
and tanner of Philadelphia, who bought it from Charles 
Willson Peale. The present owner has the original will, 



136 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



.dated July 8, 1818, in which Andrew Kennedy's widow 
bequeathed the portrait to her son, Robert, who was 
Mr. Beck's maternal grandfather. The portrait has thus 
been in Mr. Beck's family for 140 years. 
29/ 2 "x 2 5" 

Lent by Mr. John S. Beck 

56. MRS. WILLIAM CUSHING (1754-1834) 

By James Sharples (c. 1751-1811) 

Mrs. Cushing was Miss Hannah Phillips, wife of Judge 
Cushing, who was appointed an Associate Justice of the 
United States Supreme Court in 1789. 
10" x 8" 

Lent by Mr. Robert Treat Paine, 2nd 

57. OLIVER ELLSWORTH (1754-1807) 

By James Sharples (c. 1751-1811) 

This portrait was bought in 1874 by Horace Gray 
when he was a member of the Supreme Judicial Court 
of Massachusetts, from Tench Tilghman, who brought 
a number of Sharpies portraits to Boston at that time. 
The portrait was bequeathed in 1902 to the present 
owner, a nephew of Horace Gray. 

Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut, appointed Chief 
Justice by George Washington; qualified for office March 
8, 1796; resigned September 30, 1800. Member of the 
Continental Congress 1778-1784, when he became a 
Judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court. Member of 
the Federal Convention; first United States Senator from 
Connecticut; author of the Judiciary Act of 1789; in 
1799 appointed delegate to negotiate treaty with France. 
93/ 4 "x73/ 4 " 

Lent by Mr. Roland Gray 




58. WILLIAM PATERSON (1745-1806) 

By James Sharples (c. 1751-1811) 

Mr. Boggs states: "The portrait has come down in 
the family through the son of Justice William Paterson, 
namely William Bell Paterson, and from the latter to 
my mother, Cornelia Bell Paterson, and from her to her 
son, William Paterson Boggs, who was my brother, and 
from him to me." 

William Paterson of New Jersey, appointed a Justice 
of the Supreme Court by George Washington; qualified 
for office March 30, 1793; died in office September 9, 
1806. Member of Continental Congress 1780-1781, and 
a member of the Federal Convention. Was Senator from 
New Jersey in 1789, but resigned in 1790; Governor 
of New Jersey 1791-1793. 
10" x 7/ 2 " 

Lent by Mr. J. Lawrence Boggs 

59. WILLIAM CUSHING (1732-1810) 

By James Sharples (c. 17 51-1811) 

William Cushing was born in Scituate, Massachusetts. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1751, studied law and 
became Attorney-General of Massachusetts, became 
Judge of the Massachusetts Superior Court in 1772, 
Chief Justice in 1777, and in 1780 was chosen the first 
Chief Justice of Massachusetts Supreme Court under the 
State Constitution. In 1789 Judge Cushing was ap- 
pointed as Associate Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court. President Washington nominated him Chief 
Justice in 1796, but he declined. 
10" x 8" 

Lent by Mr. Robert Treat Paine, 2nd 

60. :: JOHN BLAIR (1732-1800) 

By Leopold Seyffert (1887 ) 

The portrait was painted for the Virginia Bar Asso- 
ciation, and by it presented to the present owner. 

John Blair of Virginia was appointed by George Wash- 
ington a Justice of the Supreme Court; qualified for office 
February 2, 1790; resigned January 27, 1796. 
30"x25" 

Lent by The United States Circuit 
Court of Appeals for the Third 
Circuit, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

61. : BUSHROD WASHINGTON (1762-1829) 

By Leopold Seyffert (1887 ) 

This portrait was painted for the Philadelphia Bar 
and by it presented to the United States Circuit Court 
of Appeals for the Third Circuit. 

Bushrod Washington was born in Virginia, June 15, 
1762; a nephew of Washington and his literary executor; 
was bequeathed Mount Vernon by Washington; gradu- 
ated from William and Mary College in 1778; original 
member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society; served in the 
Revolutionary Army; studied law in Philadelphia under 
James Wilson; member of the House of Delegates of 
Virginia; member of the convention of Virginia that 
ratified the Federal Constitution, and appointed associate 
Justice of the United States Supreme Court by President 
Adams. 
3 5" x 27" 

Lent by The United States Circuit 
Court of Appeals for the Third 
Circuit, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



Oliver Ellsworth 

By James Sharpies 

Lent by Mr. Roland Gray 



'■'■' In an effort to complete the personnel of Washington's Supreme 
Court and Cabinet, the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission has taken a few portraits made by later artists where original 
portraits were not obtainable. 

Every member of the Supreme Court and Cabinet during Washington's 
two administrations is represented, with the exception of Charles Lee 
(1758-1815) who was appointed attorney-general on December 10, 1795. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



137 



62. * JAMES IREDELL (1750-1799) 

By Mrs. Marshall Williams 
This portrait of Judge Iredell was painted by Mrs. 
Marshall Williams about 1899, from a portrait owned 
by his descendant, the late Iredell Meares, at one time 
connected with the United States Department of Justice. 
James Iredell, of North Carolina, was appointed a 
Justice of the Supreme Court by George Washington; 
he qualified for office August 2, 1790, and died in office 
October 2, 1799. 

In 1777 James Iredell became a Judge of the North 
Carolina Supreme Court; commissioned in 1787 to codify 
the statutes of the State and, as a result, prepared Iredell's 
Revision of the Statutes of North Carolina, 1791. 
30" x 25" 

Lent by The Supreme Court of North Carolina 

63. OLIVER ELLSWORTH (1745-1807) 

By W. R. Wheeler 
This portrait was purchased from Mr. Wheeler under 
Act approved October 2, 1888 and it is a copy from an 
original by Ralph Earle, 

Oliver Ellsworth, of Connecticut, was appointed Chief 
Justice by George Washington; qualified for office March 
8, 1796; resigned September 30, 1800. Member of the 
Continental Congress 1778-1784, when he became a 
Judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court. Member of 
the Federal Convention; first United States Senator from 
Connecticut; author of the Judiciary Act of 1789; in 
1799 appointed delegate to negotiate treaty with France. 
47" x 37" 

Lent by The Supreme Court of the United States 

64. JOHN MARSHALL (1755-1835) 

By Robert M. Sully (1803-185 5) 
John Marshall, after service as an officer in the Revo- 
lutionary Army, became a lawyer at Richmond, and was 
prominent in the Ratification Convention of Virginia as 
an advocate of the Constitution. He was Washington's 
political adviser and correspondent, and the chief Feder- 
alist of his State. Washington offered him several posi- 
tions, which he declined; but under Adams he was a 
member of the famous X Y Z Mission, Secretary of State, 
and finally was made Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
which position he made one of the greatest in legal his- 
tory. He wrote the first extended biography of Wash- 
ington. 



36" X 25' 



Lent by The Corcoran Gallery of Art 



65. :: JAMES WILSON (1742-1798) 

By Leopold Seyffert (1887 ) 

Painted for the Philadelphia Bar and by it presented to 
the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Third 
Circuit. 

James Wilson was appointed Justice of the Supreme 
Court by George Washington. He qualified for office 
February 2, 1790, and died in office August 21, 1798. 
He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence; 
was a member of the Continental Congress 1775-1777, 
1782-1783, 178 5-1787; and a member of the Constitu- 
tional Convention. He was active in securing ratifica- 
tion of the Constitution by Pennsylvania. 
30" x 24" 

Lent by The United States Circuit Court of Appeals 
for the Third Circuit, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 



* In an effort to complete the personnel of Washington's Supreme 
Court and Cabinet, the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission has taken a few portraits made by later artists where original 
portraits were not obtainable. 

Every member of the Supreme Court and Cabinet during Washington's 
two administrations is represented, with the exception of Charles Lee 
(1758-1815) who was appointed attorney-general on December 10, 1795. 




)Ushrod Washington 

By Leopold Seyffert 

Lent by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 

for the Third Circuit, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

66. JOHN RUTLEDGE (1737-1800) 

Artist Unknown 
John Rutledge of South Carolina, was appointed a 
Justice of the Supreme Court by George Washington; 
took the oath of office September 26, 1789, but served 
only as a Justice on circuit; resigned March 5, 1791; 
appointed Chief Justice by George Washington August 
12, 1795; nomination rejected by the Senate September 
15, 1795. Governor of South Carolina 1779. Saw 
service in the Revolution in the army of the South 1780, 
until the end of the war. Member of the Continental 
Congress in 1774-1775 and 1782-1783; Chancellor of 
his State 1784. 
18" x 14" 

Lent by Mr. E. B. Rutledge 

67. JOHN MARSHALL (1755-1835) 

By John D. Martin (1797-1857) 

This portrait was purchased out of the Miscellaneous 
Expenses of the Court on December 21, 1889. 

John Marshall was an officer in the Revolutionary 
Army. He was Washington's political adviser and cor- 
respondent, and the chief Federalist of Virginia. Wash- 
ington offered him several offices which he declined. He 
wrote the first extended biography of Washington. 
30" x 2 5" 

Lent by The Supreme Court of the United States 

68. MRS. SAMUEL CHASE (ANNE BALDWIN) (c. 

1743-c. 1777) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

First wife of Judge Samuel Chase of Maryland, and 
her two daughters, Matilda Chase and Anne Chase. This 



13 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



portrait and the companion portrait of Judge Samuel 
Chase were left to the Maryland Historical Society under 
the will of Mrs. Ann C. Laird, of Georgetown, D. C, 
1892, a great-granddaughter of Judge Chase. 
5 0" x 36 y 2 " 

Lent by The Maryland Historical Society 

69. JOHN JAY (1745-1829) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This portrait has been in the possession of the de- 
scendants of John Jay since it was painted in 1794. It 
now belongs to his great-grandson, Peter Augustus Jay, 
who is also the owner of the silk robes portrayed in the 
picture. 

John Jay of New York was appointed by Washington 
as first Chief Justice of the United States, holding office 
from February 2, 1790 to June 29, 1795. Member of 
the Continental Congress, 1774-1776, and 1778-1779, 
and its President in 1779. Appointed Minister to Spain 
in 1779 but never officially received, he was one of the 
Commissioners to negotiate the Treaty of Peace with 
Great Britain. Secretary for Foreign Affairs in 1786, 
he continued as acting head of the department under 
Washington until March 1790. He was active in se- 
curing the rat'fication of the Federal Constitution. In 



1794 he negotiated the Jay Treaty with Great Britain 
and was Governor of New York from 179 5 to 1801. 
5 V/z" X40" 

Lent by Mr. Peter Augustus Jay 

70. SAMUEL CHASE (1741-1811) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 
This portrait and the companion portrait of Mrs. 
Chase and her daughters were left to the Maryland His- 
torical Society under the will of Mrs. Ann C. Laird of 
Georgetown, D. C, 1892, a great-granddaughter of 
Judge Chase. 

Samuel Chase of Maryland was appointed a Justice of 
the Supreme Court by George Washington, qualified for 
office February 4, 1796; died in office June 7, 1811. 
Member of the Continental Congress 1774-1778 and 
1784-178 5, and a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Served in various judicial offices in Maryland 
1791-1793. 

50" x 36 y 2 " 

Lent by The Maryland Historical Society 

71. SAMUEL CHASE (1741-1811) 

By John Wesley Jarvis (1780-1834) 

This portrait has always remained in the possession of 
the same family, descending from generation to genera- 




Governor Thomas Johnson and Family 

By Charles Willson Peale 

Lent by the C. Burr Artz Library of Frederick, Md. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



139 



tion until it became the property of Judge Chase's great- 
granddaughter, the present owner. 

Samuel Chase of Maryland was appointed a Justice of 
the Supreme Court by George Washington; qualified for 
office February 4, 1796; died in office June 7, 1811. 
Member of the Continental Congress 1774-1778, and a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence. Served in 
various judicial offices in Maryland 1791-1793. 
28" x 22/ 2 " 

Lent by Mrs. Arthur D. Addison 

72. GOVERNOR THOMAS JOHNSON AND FAMILY 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

Governor Thomas Johnson (1732-1819) of "Rose 
Hill," Frederick County, Maryland. He was a member 
of the Continental Congress, 1774-1777, and nominated 
Washington as Commander-in-Chief of the American 
Army in 1775; Revolutionary Governor of Maryland 
1777-1779; again Member of the Continental Congress 
from 1781-1787, and Associate Judge of the United 
States Supreme Court, 1791-1793. Mrs. Johnson (Ann 
Jennings) (c. 1745-1794). Thomas Jennings Johnson 
(1766-1813) eldest son. Ann Jennings Johnson (Mrs. 
John Colin Graham) (1768-1851). Rebecca Johnson 
(c. 1770— d. childhood). 

This painting was left by Mrs. Ann Graham Ross 
(Mrs. Worthington Ross) of Frederick, Maryland, a 
great-granddaughter of Governor Johnson, to the C. 
Burr Artz Library of Frederick. The Trustees of this 
Library fund have deposited it with the Maryland His- 
torical Society, pending the erection of the Library. 
48" x 58/2" 

73. THOMAS McKEAN (1734-1817) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

Thomas McKean, President of Delaware in 1777; Chief 
Justice of Pennsylvania from 1777 to 1799; Governor of 
Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1808. He was a member of 
the Continental Congress from Delaware 1774-1776, 
1778-1783; a signer of the Declaration of Independence; 
and President of Congress in 1781. 
28%" x 2434" 

Lent by Mr. John Hill Morgan 

74. JAMES McHENRY (17 5 3-1816) 

By C. B. J. F. de Saint Memin (1770-1852) 

This Saint Memin portrait of James McHenry, on pink 
paper, was made during this artist's visit to America 
when he painted so many of the notable men of that day. 
The portrait has descended to Mrs. Bruce through a 
number of generations. 

James McHenry was Secretary of War under President 
Washington. 
23"x 17" 

Lent by Mrs. James Bruce 

75. JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826) 

By Edward Dalton Marchant (1806-1887) 

This copy of a Sharpies portrait of John Adams, was 
made in 1847, and is now owned by a descendant of this 
illustrious man. 

John Adams was Vice-President under President Wash- 
ington. 
93/ 4 " x 73/ 4 " 

Lent by Miss M. L. A. Clement 

76. MRS. TIMOTHY PICKERING (1754-1824) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

Mrs. Timothy Pickering was Rebecca White, a daugh- 
ter of Benjamin White of Boston, and his wife, Elizabeth 




Mrs. Timothy Pickiri\(. 

By Gilbert Stuart 

Lent by Mrs. Richard Y. FitzGerald 

White, of Bristol, England. She was born in England 
and came to this country with her parents in 1765. In 
1776 she married Timothy Pickering of Salem. Mr. 
Pickering succeeded Edmund Randolph as Secretary of 
State in Washington's Cabinet. 
32" x 2 5" 

Lent by Mrs. Richard Y. FitzGerald 

77. TIMOTHY PICKERING (1745-1829) 

By C. B. J. F. de Saint Memin (1770-18 52) 

Charles Balthazar Julien Fevre de Saint Memin arrived 
in Canada in 1793, but soon afterward reached New 
York. Before leaving France a compatriot of his in- 
vented a machine which helped very much in producing 
mathematical accuracy in the profiles of his portraits. 
Saint Memin made portraits of some of the most dis- 
tinguished men and women of this date, including this 
one of Timothy Pickering, on pink paper. 

Timothy Pickering was born in Salem, Massachusetts. 
Under Washington he was Postmaster General (1791- 
1795), Secretary of War (1795), and after December, 
179 5, Secretary of State. 
23" x 17" 

Lent by Mr. Frederick Silsbce Whit well 

78. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS (1752-1816) 

By James Sharples (c. 175 1-1811) 

The present owner is collaterally descended from 
Gouverneur Morris through Gouverneur Morris' nephew, 
Gouverneur Morris Wilkins. 

Morris was a delegate to the New York Provincial 
Congress, 1775-1777; member of the Continental Con- 



140 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



gress 1778-1779; first United States Minister to France 
under Washington, 1792-1794; member of the United 
States Senate from New York 1800-1803. 
9 Vz" x 7 l / 4 " Unt by Mr j / Jtl s Turnbull 

79. JOHN ADAMS (173 5-1826) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

This portrait is one of a set of five replicas painted by 
Gilbert Stuart for Colonel George Gibbs who lived for 
many years in Newport, Rhode Island. The set stayed 
in the Gibbs' family for several generations. It was 
bought by T. Jefferson Coolidge of Boston about 1874 
and has s.nce remained in this same family. 

While George Washington was serving in the Revo- 
lutionary Army, John Adams was doing his part in the 
Continental Congress and as envoy abroad. When 
Washington was elected President of the United States, 
Adams was at the same time elected Vice-President, and 
he served throughout the two terms with Washington, 
succeeding him finally as second President of the United 
States. 

24 "' x 21 " Lent by Mr. T. Jefferson Coolidge 

80. JAMES MADISON (1751-1836) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

This portrait is one of a set of five replicas painted by 
Gilbert Stuart for Colonel George Gibbs who lived for 
many years in Newport, Rhode Island. The set stayed 
in the Gibbs' family for several generations. It was 
bought by T. Jefferson Coolidge of Boston about 1874 
and has since remained in this same family. 

Madison is generally known as the Father of the Con- 
stitution, and he served with George Washington at the 
Federal Convention in 1787. 
24" x 21" 

Lent by Mr. T. Jefferson Coolidge 




1. JAMES MONROE (1758-1831) 

By Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860) 

One of the interesting features of this portrait is that 
it was painted while Monroe was President of the United 
States. The figure, which is life size, is seated in a 
chair on the portico of the White House, and in the 
distance is the Capitol as it then appeared. 

Monroe's association with Washington was from his 
earliest life in the Revolution. He was severely wounded 
at the battle of Trenton and if it had not been for timely 
rescue, he would have bled to death, as an artery was 
severed. He carried the bullet to the day of his death 
and it is probably now in his coffin. He became an aide 
to Lord Stirling and was in the battles of Brandywine, 
Germantown, and Monmouth; and shared in the dreary 
winter at Valley Forge. 
54" x 44" 

Lent by Mrs. Rose Gouverneur Hoes 

12. THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This portrait is one of a set of five replicas painted by 
Gilbert Stuart for Colonel George Gibbs who lived for 
many years in Newport, Rhode Island. The set stayed 
in the Gibbs' family for several generations. It was 
bought by T. Jefferson Coolidge of Boston about 1874 
and has since remained in this same family. 

Thomas Jefferson was President Washington's first 
Secretary of State, but they differed considerably in 
regard to politics, Washington being a Federalist and 
Jefferson a Republican, precursor of the Democratic 
party, as the Federalists were of the Republican party. 
Jefferson went back to live at Monticello until he became 
Vice-President under Adams. 
24"X21" 

Lent by Mr. T. Jefferson Coolidge 

13. JAMES MONROE (1758-1831) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

This portrait is one of a set of five replicas painted by 
Gilbert Stuart for Colonel George Gibbs who lived for 
many years in Newport, Rhode Island. The set stayed 
in the Gibbs' family for several generations. It was 
bought by T. Jefferson Coolidge of Boston about 1874 
and has since remained in this same family. 

While James Monroe was serving his native State of 
Virginia as United States Senator in 1794, he was selected 
by George Washington to represent his country in France 
as Second United States Minister, to succeed Gouverneur 
Morris. He arrived in Paris just after the fall of Robes- 



pierre. 
24" X 22' 



Lent by Mr. T. Jefferson Coolidge 



Mrs. Oliver Wolcott, Jr. 

By John Trumbull 

Lent by Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 



84. WILLIAM SHORT (1759-1849) 

By John Neagle (1796-1865) 

This portrait was deposited with the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society on November 24, 1899 by the Colo- 
nization Society of Pennsylvania. That Society went 
out of existence in 1923 and gave the portrait outright 
to the present owners. 

William Short was made Charge d'Affaires to France 
in 1789 his commission being the first one that 
was signed by Washington as President. Washington 
appointed him Minister at The Hague in 1791 and 
transferred him to Madrid in 1794. 
26" X 22" 

Lent by The Historical Society of Pennsylvania 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



141 



8 5. WILLIAM BRADFORD (1755-1795) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

On January 27, 1794, William Bradford succeeded 
Edmund Randolph as Attorney-General of the United 
States by the appointment of President Washington, 
which office he held until his death. 

29 " x 24 " Lent by Mr. Willing Spencer 

86. MRS. OLIVER WOLCOTT, JR. (1767-1805) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

Portrait of the wife of the Secretary of the Treasury 
under Washington. She was Miss Elizabeth Stoughton, 
only daughter of Captain John Stoughton of Windsor, 
Connecticut. 

30 " x 25 " Lent by Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 

87. OLIVER WOLCOTT, JR. (1760-183 3) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

Oliver Wolcott, Jr., was appointed Secretary of the 
Treasury in Washington's second term, succeeding Alex- 
ander Hamilton. 

36 " x 28 " Lent by Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 

88. ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1757-1804) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

This portrait, which is known as the Hosack portrait 
of Hamilton, was painted from life by John Trumbull 
at the request of Hamilton in order to give it to Dr. 
David Hosack, who was an intimate friend and was his 
surgeon in attendance at his duel with Burr. On the 
death of Dr. Hosack it descended to his son, Nathaniel 
Pendleton Hosack, and at his death it went to his sister, 
Mrs. Harvey, who gave it to the wife of Nathaniel 
Pendleton Hosack (Sophia H. Hosack) who was the 
daughter of Philip Church of Belvidere, New York. 
On her death, April 22, 1891, she willed the portrait 
to Richard Church, her brother, who, at his death, willed 
it to his daughter, Mary Helen Gilpin. It was bought 
by the present owner on May 15, 1931. 

Alexander Hamilton was the first Secretary of the 
Treasury in Washington's Cabinet. 
30" x 245/2" Lent by Honorable Andrew W. Mellon 

89. MRS. WILLIAM BRADFORD (1764-18 54) 

Artist Unknown 

Mrs. Bradford was a daughter of Elias Boudinot of 
New Jersey. Her husband was for a brief time in 179 5 
Attorney General in Washington's Cabinet. Her father 
was devoted to the patriotic cause; was commissary- 
general of prisoners; also a delegate to Congress from 
New Jersey and its President. He was appointed by 
Washington in 179 5 to succeed Rittenhouse as director 
of the mint at Philadelphia, and held the office till July, 
180 5, when he resigned. 

30 " x 25 " Lent by Mr. Willing Spencer 

90. CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNE Y ( 1 746- 1 8 2 5 ) 

By James Earl (1761-1798) 

Mrs. F. C. Ravenel of Charleston, S. C, inherited this 
portrait from descendants of General Thomas Pinckney, 
brother of Charles Cotesworth, who had no descendants. 
She presented the portrait to the Worcester Art Museum. 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney took part in the Revo- 
lutionary War, especially in the southern department. 

In 1796 he accepted the office of United States Minis- 




ter to France. 
3 5"x29' 



Lent by The Worcester Art Muscm 



Oliver Wolcott, Jr. 

By John Trumbull 

Lent by Mrs. J. West Roosevelt 

91. GOUVERNEUR MORRIS (1752-1816) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

Mr. Morris was born in Morrisania, the family estate 
in New York, and his career was a brilliant one. 

He was a delegate to the New York Provincial Con- 
gress, 1775-1777; member of the Continental Congress 
1778-1779; first United States Minister to France under 
Washington, 1792-1794; member of the United States 
Senate from New York 1800-1803. 
3 5'V' x 28" 

Lent b\ Tin- Morris Family 
(Deposited at Columbia University as Loan) 

92. JOSEPH HABERSHAM (1751-1815) 

Artist Unknown 

Joseph Habersham was born in Savannah, of a family 
well known in the annals of Georgia history. He was a 
prominent figure in the Revolutionary army; he was 
appointed Major of the First Georgia batallion, February 
4, 1776, and defended Savannah from a British naval 
attack early in March. At the close of the war, he had 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Habersham subsequently became Postmaster General 
in Washington's administration. 
27" X 22" 

Lent by Mr. George Noble Jones 

93. MRS. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS (1775-1852) 

Artist Unknown 

Mrs. John Quincy Adams, who was Louisa Catherine 
Johnson, was born in London, the niece of Governor 
Thomas Johnson, of Maryland. John Quincy Adams 
met her while he was in England, and married her there, 
her father, Joshua Johnson, being then American consul 



142 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



at London. After their marriage they went to Berlin 
and St. Petersburg, where he was the accredited Minister. 
j 2 "x40" 

Lent by Miss M. L. A. Clement 

94. JOHN ADAMS (173 5-1826) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

This portrait was painted by Stuart when John Adams 
was in his ninetieth year, and has been in the possession 
of the family since that time. 

John Adams served as Vice-President to President 
Washington during both terms. 
30" x 2 5" 

Lent by The Honorable C. F. Adams 

95. RUFUS KING (1755-1827) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

Stuart painted this portrait in 1821 at the request of 
Christopher Gore, who presented it to Rufus King. It 
was left by him to his son, James Gore King, and has 
been in the same family since that time. 

Rufus King was Minister to Great Britain in 1796, 
appointed to that post by Washington. 
30" x 2 5" 

Lent by Mr. Allan McLane, Jr. 



96. EDMUND RANDOLPH 



(1753-1813) 

Artist Unknown 



Mrs. Grymes inherited this portrait from her aunt, 
Elizabeth Randolph Daniel, who was a daughter of 
Judge P. V. Daniel of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. She was a granddaughter of Edmund Randolph, 
her mother being his daughter, Lucy Nelson Randolph. 

Edmund Randolph of Virginia was Attorney-General 
in Washington's Cabinet; and after the resignation of 




Baron von Steuben 

By Ralph Earle 

Lent by The Honorable William Randolph Hearst 



Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State he was appointed 
to that position, holding office from 1794 into the year 
1795. 
26" x 21" 

Lent by Mrs. Lucy Randolph Grymes 

97. MRS. CHARLES LEE (1770-1804) 

By Thomas Sully (1783-1872) 

Anne Lee, the daughter of Richard Henry Lee, the 
Signer, married her second cousin, Charles Lee, who was 
Attorney General in Washington's second Cabinet. The 
portrait was painted in 1804, the year of her death, after 
a portrait by Stuart, painted the same year, during her 
last illness. 
27 "' x22 " Lent by Mrs. Joseph Packard 

98. BARON VON STEUBEN (1730-1794) 

By Ralph Earle (1751-1801) 

Ralph Earle, a Massachusetts painter, made this portrait 
of Baron von Steuben. 

Baron Frederick Wilhelm von Steuben was born at 
Magdeburg, Germany, and was educated at Breslau; he 
served as volunteer under his father in the siege of 
Prague. He became Grand Marshal of the Prince of 
Hohenzollern-Hechingen. In 1777 he came to America 
and offered his services as volunteer to Congress and was 
directed to join the army at Valley Forge. In May, 
1778, he was appointed Inspector-General of the Conti- 
nental Army with rank of Major-General. He reor- 
ganized the army on the European model, drilling un- 
trained soldiers and introducing discipline. At Mon- 
mouth he rendered valuable service and in 1780 he was 
sent with a separate command to cooperate with General 
Greene, where he opposed the marauding expedition of 
Benedict Arnold and finally took an active part in the 
siege of Yorktown. He prepared a manual for the army 
which came into general use. After the war he received 
grants of land from several states and Congress granted 
him a pension of $2,500. For several years he lived in 
New York City and then removed to the tract of land 
(Steuben Township) granted him by New York State, 
where he lived in a log cabin (near the present site of 
Utica) until his death, November 28, 1794. 
50" x4l" 

Lent by The Honorable William Randolph Hearst 

99. JAMES MADISON (1751-1836) 

By John Vanderlyn (1775-18 52) 

James Madison and James Monroe were for many years 
intimate friends although Madison was somewhat the 
senior of the latter. In the possession of the owner of 
the portrait, there is a letter from John Vanderlyn in 
which he states that he is painting a portrait of Madison 
for Monroe. This portrait has passed down in the Mon- 
roe family from one generation to another. 

Madison served with George Washington at the Federal 
Convention in 1787. 

Lent by Mrs. Rose Gouverneur Hoes 

100. MRS. WILLIAM AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON 

By C. B. J. F. de Saint Memin (1770-1852) 

This Saint Memin portrait of Mrs. Washington is on 
pink paper. She was the third wife of William Augus- 
tine Washington, who was the son of Augustine Wash- 
ington, half brother of George Washington. Her maiden 
name was Sarah Tayloe. She belonged to a family well 
known in the annals of Virginia history, the Tayloes of 
Mount Airy. 

19 "' x 14 " Lent by Mrs. Richard Washington 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



143 



100a. MOUNT VERNON 

Colored print of Mount Vernon from a painting pub- 
lished by J. Crutchett, Mount Vernon Factory, C. B. 
Graham, Lithograph, Washington, D. C. 

The owner of this picture tells a very interesting 
story. She says that it was presented to her grandfather, 
the Honorable Edward Everett of Massachusetts, as a 
token of the deep appreciation of the Board of Regents 
of Mount Vernon. It seems that Mr. Everett raised 
through his personal efforts of lecturing throughout the 
country on the subject of George Washington, a sub- 
stantial sum towards the purchase of Mount Vernon. 
18" X 14" 

Lent by Mrs. Archibald Hopkins 

100b. MOUNT VERNON 

Colored print of Mount Vernon showing the West 
Front in 18 58, published by J. Crutchett, Mount Vernon 
Factory, C. B. Graham, Lithograph, Washington, D. C. 

This picture of the West Front of Mount Vernon is 
a companion piece to number 100-a and was presented 
to Mr. Everett at the same time. 
18" x 14" 

Lent by Mrs. Archibald Hopkins 

101. WILLIAM CARMICHAEL (—-1795) 

Artist Unknown 

William Carmichael was Charge d'Affaires to Spain 
in 1790. 

l 3 / 4 " x l Vz" Unt hy Mn Al[?crt Moore 

102. WILLIAM BUCHANAN (1732-1804) 

Artist Unknown 

This miniature was left by William Buchanan to his 
only son, James A. Buchanan, and is still owned by 
members of the Buchanan family. 

William Buchanan was Commissary General of Pur- 
chases in the Continental Army 1777-1778. 
2'/ 8 "x2" 

Lent by Mrs. Esther Buchanan Tyson 

103. PEYTON RANDOLPH (1721-1775) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

Peyton Randolph was President of the First Conti- 
nental Congress in 1774; a Delegate to Congress in 1775; 
and Founder of Free Masonry in the American Colonies. 

\y 2 " xi y 4 " 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

104. JAMES MONROE (1758-1831) 

By Sene 

This miniature of James Monroe was painted in Paris 
in 1794 by the French artist, Sene, and shows him at 
earlier manhood. 

Monroe was second Minister to France during Wash- 
ington's administration. 
Diameter 2 X / Z " '. 

Lent by The James Monroe Law Office National Shrine, 
Fredericksburg, Virginia 

105. COMTE DE ROCHAMBEAU (1725-1807) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

Rochambeau was Commander of the French Forces in 
America in 1780, cooperating with General Washington 
in the capture of Yorktown in 1781. 

i!/ 2 "xiy 4 " 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 




Rui us King 

By Gilbert Stuart 

Lent by Mr. Allan McLaite, Jr. 



106. SAMUEL OSGOOD (1748-1813) 



Artist Unknown 

Samuel Osgood was a member of the Continental 
Congress in 1780-84. He was Postmaster-General 
during Washington's administration, 1789-1791. 

it/ 8 "x iy s " 

Lent by Mrs. Albert Evans through Mrs. Charles Warren 

107. JONATHAN HASKELL (—-1814) 

By Walter Robertson ( 1802) 

Major Haskell's portrait appears in a painting called 
"The Surrender of Burgoyne" hanging in the rotunda of 
the United States Capitol, which picture was painted by 
John Trumbull. 

Jonathan Haskell was made Ensign and Adjutant in 
the Continental Army from Massachusetts in 1777, 
Lieutenant and Adjutant in 1779; transferred to Seventh 
Massachusetts in 1781, and in 1783 retained in Jackson's 
Continental Regiment, serving there until the next year. 
Made Captain in 1791 in 2d United States Infantry; 
Major in 1794; Adjutant General and Inspector of the 
Army in 1796; resigning in November of the same year. 
2/ 2 "x 2" 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

108. MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE (1757-18 34) 

Artist Unknown 

This miniature of Lafayette was formerly owned by 
Charles Manigault, of Charleston, South Carolina, who 
knew General Lafayette well and had visited him at his 
home "LaGrange," near Paris, France. The picture was 
afterwards the property of Mrs. Hawkins K. Jenkins, 
granddaughter of Charles Manigault and niece of Dr. 



144 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Gabriel E. Manigault, founder of the Charleston, South 
Carolina Art Association. It was later purchased in 
New York by Mr. DuPuy. 
Diameter iy 2 " 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

109. MRS. ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1757-1854) 

By Henry Inman (1802-1846) 

Mrs. Hamilton (Elizabeth Schuyler) was the daughter 
of General Philip Schuyler of New York, and this minia- 
ture is a fine example of the artist's work. 

Henry Inman intended to follow the life of a soldier 
and had obtained an appointment to the United States 
Military Academy, but a visit to the studio of John 
Wesley Jarvis decided his career; and with the permission 
of his father, he became a pupil of that artist. At the 
age of twenty-one he opened a studio of his own and 
soon acquired a high reputation as a portrait painter. 

Lent by Mr. Alexander Hamilton 

110. WILLIAM BINGHAM (1755-1804) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

William Bingham was born in Philadelphia, and was 
a Delegate to Congress from Pennsylvania in 1787-8; 
United States Senator 179 5-1801. 

The portrait of Washington (No. 8 in the exhibit) 
which was painted by Gilbert Stuart for William Bing- 
ham, was presented by Bingham's wife (Anne Willing) 
to the Marquis of Lansdowne. 
l3/ 4 "'XlI/ 4 " 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

111. PATRICK HENRY (1730-1799) 

By Lawrence Sully (1769-1803) 

Patrick Henry was Washington's colleague in the 
Virginia House of Burgesses and the Continental Con- 
gress; he was an early protagonist of the American 
Revolution, and the first Governor of independent Vir- 
ginia. Washington offered him the position of Secretary 
of State in 1795, but Henry declined it. 
2"x l3/ 4 " 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
Ilia. JOSEPH BLAKE (1739-1818) 

By John Singleton Copley (1737-1815) 

A second lieutenant of artillery under Washington at 
the siege of Boston. Participated in the New York 
Campaign and was captured at Fort Washington. Being 
exchanged, he was promoted captain of artillery in 1777. 

Lent by Mrs. Constance Lodge Williams 

112. SOPHIA CHEW (1769-—) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

Sophia Chew was a daughter of Chief Justice Chew 
of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Elizabeth Oswald. 
She married Henry Phillips. 

W' x 3 " Lent by Mrs. H. H. Norton 

113. MRS. WILLIAM NICHOLS (1760-1808) 

By Gilbert Stuart (175 5-1828) 

Mrs. William Nichols was Margaret Hillegas, a daugh- 
ter of Michael and Henrietta Hillegas. Her father was 
the first Treasurer of the United States, 1775-1789. She 
married William Nichols (1754-1801) who had been a 
captain in the Continental Army. 

Lent by Mrs. John Hill Morgan 



114. THOMAS WHARTON, JR. (173 5-1778) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This portrait was bought by Herbert DuPuy in De- 
cember, 1908, from Titian R. Peale, grandson of Charles 
Willson Peale. 

Thomas Wharton, Jr., was born in Chester County, 
Pa., in 1735. He was first President of the Supreme 
Executive Council of Pennsylvania, and died in office at 
Lancaster, Pa., the Capital of the State having been 
temporarily removed from Philadelphia, through the 
occupation of that city by the British troops. 
Diameter l 3 /^" 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

115. THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) 

Artist Unknown. It Has Been Attributed to 
Robert Field (1769-1819) 

Thomas Jefferson was the First Secretary of State in 
Washington's Cabinet. 
3/ 2 "x2%" 

Lent by The DuPuy Collection, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

116. ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1757-1804) 

By Henry Inman (1802-1846) 

The present owner, a direct descendant of Alexander 
Hamilton, states that this Inman miniature of Hamil- 
ton was taken from a Ceracchi bust. 

Alexander Hamilton was one of the ablest statesmen 
of George Washington's time. 
2V 2 " x2" 

Lent by Mr. Alexander Hamilton 

116a. WILLIAM THORNTON (1761-1827) 

By Robert Field (1770-1819) 

A physician whose true vocation was architecture. 
Washington praised highly his design for the Federal 
Capitol, which was accepted. He moved to Georgetown 
and was intimate with Washington, visited at Mount 
Vernon, and supervised the construction of a number of 
houses in the City of Washington. He later was first 
Commissioner of Patents. 

2%"x2j/ 4 " 

Lent by Mrs. Henry H. Flather 

117. ROBERT MORRIS (1734-1806) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

This miniature of Robert Morris, the great financier 
of the Revolutionary War, is owned by his great- 
granddaughter. 
5/ 2 "x4" 

Lent by Mrs. Richard P. Tinsley 

118. THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) 

By William Birch (1755-1834) 

Thomas Jefferson was the first Secretary of State 
under President Washington. His greatest claim to 
fame is, possibly, as the author of the Declaration of 
Independence. 

An Englishman by birth, William Birch came to 
Philadelphia in 1794, where he painted many portrait 
miniatures in enamel. 
2 I / 2 " x 2" 

From the collection of the late Dr. S. Weir 
Mitchell, lent by his granddaughters, Mrs. Vin- 
ton Freedley and Mrs. Dent W. Macdonough 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



145 



119. ALEXANDER HAMILTON (1757-1804) 

By William Birch (175 5-1834) 



many miniatures in enamel 
l Englishman who came to 



This portrait is one of 

made by William Birch, ; 

this country in 1794. 

Washington became deeply interested in Hamilton 

during his Revolutionary career. Hamilton became 

Washington's aide-de-camp and, in 1781, a colonel of 

the line. He was first Secretary of the Treasury in 

Washington's Cabinet. 

2/ 2 "x2" 

From the collection of the late Dr. S. Weir 
Mitchell, lent by his granddaughters, Mrs. Vin- 
ton Freedley and Mrs. Dent W. Macdonough 

120. JAMES WILKINSON (1757-1825) 

Artist Unknown 

This miniature reached the hands of the present owner 
in line of descent from General Wilkinson's son, his 
great-grandfather, and ultimately from his uncle and 
namesake, the Honorable Theodore S. Wilkinson, one 
time Congressman from the First District of Louisiana. 

James Wilkinson was a young officer under Washing- 
ton at the siege of Boston and was sent under Arnold to 
participate in the Canadian Expedition. Later he was 
on the staff of Gates at Saratoga. After the Revolution 
he was prominent in the Army in the West, and became 
its Commander-in-Chief, retiring during the War of 
1812. 
3"x2 3/ 8 " 

Lent by Theodore S. Wilkinson 
(Commander, U. S. Navy) 

121. MRS. ROBERT MORRIS (1749-1827) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

Mrs. Robert Morris was Mary White, daughter of Col. 
(Huelings) White of Philadelphia. 

Lent by Mrs. Richard P. Tinsley 



Thomas and Esther 
5/ 2 "x4" 



122. MRS. JAMES MILES HUGHES 

By James Sharples (c. 175 1-1 8 1 1 ) 

Mrs. Hughes was Mary Bailey, daughter of Colonel 
John Bailey, and Altie van Wyck, of Poughkeepsie. She 
was one of three famous beauties, sisters, the other two 
being Mrs. John R. Bleecker of Albany and Mrs. Kent, 
wife of the Chancellor Kent of the "Commentaries." 
9 3 / 8 "x7^" 

Lent by Madame Florian Vurpillot, 
great-great-niece of Mrs. Hughes 

123. NELLIE CUSTIS (1779-1852) 

By James Sharples (c. 1751-1811) 

This pastel of Nellie Custis (Mrs. Lawrence Lewis) is 
one of the best-known works of this artist. 

The earliest available information discloses that it was 
included in a collection of some two hundred portraits, 
by James and Felix Sharpies, father and son. In the 
early part of the nineteenth century this collection was 
left by Felix Sharpies to Doctor John Winder, of Yard- 
ley, Northampton, Virginia, on whose estate he spent 
the last few years of his life. The collection remained 
intact in the Winder family until the Civil War, when, 
it is said, many of the portraits were destroyed by Union 
Troops. Fortunately the Nellie Custis pastel was not 
harmed. 

Nellie Custis was the granddaughter of Martha Wash- 
ington, and was brought up by General Washington 



after her father's death in 1781. She was brought to 
Mount Vernon and was devotedly attached to Wash- 
ington. She married Lawrence Lewis, a nephew of 
Washington, and she paid the General the handsome 
compliment of selecting for her wedding day his birth- 
day — which proved to be his last one. 
13J/ 2 "x ll/a" 

Lent by Mrs. Richard Bayly Winder 

124. JAMES MILES HUGHES (1756-1802) 

By James Sharples (c. 1751-1811) 

General Hughes was an original member of the Society 
of the Cincinnati. He entered New York City upon its 
evacuation by the British in November, 1783. He was 
in charge of the arrangements for the funeral procession 
in General Washington's memory, in New York City, 
December 31, 1799. 
9/ 2 " x 7Vz " 

Lent by Madame Florian Vurpillot, 
great-great-niece of Mrs. Hughes 



12 5. GEORGE WASHINGTON 



(1732-1799) 

By F. Kemmelmeyer 



As a portrait painter, Kemmelmeyer's work was known 
through the State of Maryland from about 1790 to 1810. 
During this period he painted a number of pictures of 
Washington, some on horseback and the others life sized 
heads. 
18" x 22" 

Lent by Fridenbcrg Gallery, 
New York, Neiv York 




Nellie Custis 

By James Sharpies 

Lent by Mrs. Richard Bayly Winder 



146 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



126. ROBERT MORRIS (1734-1806) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 
The present owner is a great-granddaughter of Rob- 
ert Morris. 

Robert Morris was a delegate to the Continental Con- 
gress from 1775 to 1778; prime mover in establishing 
the Pennsylvania Bank in 1780; founder of the Bank 
of North America in 1781; United States Senator from 
Pennsylvania from 1789 to 1795. He was known as 
the great financier of the Revolution. 

29 " x 24 " Lent by Mrs. Richard P. Tinsley 

127. WILLIAM AUGUSTINE WASHINGTON 

(1757-1810) 

By C. B. J. F. de Saint Memin (1770-1852) 

The owner of this portrait, which is on pink paper, 
inherited it through direct descent from William Au- 
gustine Washington, who was the son of Augustine, 
half brother of George Washington. 
19" x 14" Lent y y Mr$ ^ ic ] oar £ Washington 

128. CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY 

(1746-1825) By Ralph Earle (1751-1801) 

This portrait hung in General Pinckney's house in 
Charleston and has belonged to his collateral descend- 
ants ever since. 

Pinckney served during the Revolution, chiefly in the 
Southern Department. Washington offered him the War 
portfolio in 1794 and that of State in 1795, and ap- 
pointed him Minister to France in 1796. He was one 
of the Majors-General under Washington in the 
Provisional Army in 1798. 
45 x 36 Lent by Miss Josephine Pinckney 




129. MRS. CHARLES THOMSON (1731-1807) 

Artist Unknown 

Mrs. Thomson was Hannah Harrison, a granddaughter 
of Isaac Norris and a great-granddaughter of Governor 
Thomas Lloyd of Pennsylvania. 
29*4" x 2 5" 

Lent by Mrs. Robert W. McPherson 

130. GENERAL NATHANAEL GREENE (1742-1786) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

This portrait has been in the possession of the Mary- 
land Historical Society for many years, but records fail 
to show the source from which it came. He was Major- 
General, intimate with Washington, commanded in the 
Southern Department. 
23" x 19" 

Lent by The Maryland Historical Society 

131. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (1706-1790) 

By Joseph Wright (1756-1793) 

This portrait was purchased from Henry Stevens, of 
London, in 185 5. 

Benjamin Franklin was associated with General Wash- 
ington in the Braddock Campaign, when Franklin was 
interested in supplies; and they were fellow delegates to 
the Continental Congress in 1775 until Washington 
became Commander-in-Chief of the Army. They were 
also in the Federal Convention of 1787. 

The following is an extract from the will of Benjamin 
Franklin: 

"My fine crab-tree walking stick, with a gold head 
curiously wrought in the form of the cap of liberty, 
I give to my friend, and the friend of mankind, General 
Washington. If it were a sceptre, he has merited it, and 
would become it." 
31" x 2 5" Lent by Thc Corcoran Gallery of Art 



132 



133 



FREDERICK AUGUSTUS CONRAD MUHLEN- 
BERG (1750-1801) 

By Samuel B. Waugh (1814-188 5) 

Copied from an original portrait by Joseph Wright, 
this portrait hangs in the Speaker's lobby, United States 
House of Representatives. 

Frederick Muhlenberg was a member of the Conti- 
nental Congress, Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly, 
and the first Speaker of the Federal House of Repre- 
sentatives. 



50" x 38" 



Lent by The United States Government 



134 



Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg 

By Samuel B. Waugh 

Lent by the United States Government 



DR. WILLIAM SHIPPEN (1736-1808) 

By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828) 

William Shippen, generally known as Dr. William 
Shippen, the younger, son of William and Susanna (nee 
Harrison) Shippen, was born in Philadelphia, October 
21, 1736. A.B. (Princeton) 1754; M.D. (University 
of Edinburgh) 1761. He died in Germantown July 
11, 1808. 

On July 15, 1776, he was appointed "Chief Physician 
for the Flying Camp." On April 11, 1777, he was 
unanimously elected "Director-General of all the Mili- 
tary Hospitals for the Armies of the United States." 
He resigned January 3, 1781. 
29" x 24" 

Lent by Dr. and Mrs. Lloyd Shippen 

THOMAS JEFFERSON (1743-1826) 

By Thomas Sully (1783-1872) 

This replica was painted on an old door-panel for 
James Monroe, and remained in his family until January 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



147 



of 18 5 5, when it was sold by Mr. Monroe's son-in-law, 
Samuel L. Gouverneur, Sr., to the Jefferson Society. 

Thomas Jefferson was Secretary of State in Washing- 
ton's Cabinet. 

23 x Lent by The Jefferson Literary Society, 

University of Virginia 

13 5. CHARLES THOMSON (1729-1824) 

Artist Unknown 
This portrait was painted probably between 1776 and 
1785. 

Charles Thomson was Secretary of the Continental 
Congress from 1774 to 1789. He was sent by the First 
Federal Congress to Mount Vernon to inform George 
Washington that he had been elected President of the 
United States, and to escort him to New York. 

Lent by Mrs. Robert W. McPherson 

135a. GEORGE WASHINGTON (1732-1799) 

By John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

Painting of George Washington followed by a negro 
servant, riding in the direction of Mount Vernon. 
21%" x 15" 

Lent by Mr. Frederic Atherton 

136. SAMUEL WASHINGTON (1734-1781) 

By John Hesselius (1682-1755) 

This portrait hung at "Harewood," the home of 
Colonel Samuel Washington, for nearly one hundred and 
fifty years. Samuel Washington is buried at "Hare- 



wood," and the estate is still in the possession of the 
Washington family. 

Samuel Washington, brother of George, was the third 
of Mary Ball Washington's children. 

Lent by Mrs. Samuel Walter Washington 

137. PEYTON RANDOLPH, 2d (1779-1828) 

By Thomas Sully (1783-1873) 

At the distribution of Peyton Randolph's estate this 
portrait became the property of his son, Edmund Ran- 
dolph of California; at his death it came into the posses- 
sion of his wife, Tarmesia Muex Randolph, who willed 
it to her eldest daughter, Margaret Randolph. Miss 
Randolph sold it several years ago to the present owner. 

Peyton Randolph was born at Williamsburg, Virginia, 
and was the son of Governor Edmund Randolph and 
Elizabeth (Nicholas) Randolph. He was graduated 
from William and Mary College in 1798. In 1806 he 
married Maria Ward, celebrated beauty. He was elected 
to the Governor's Council and as senior member was 
acting-Governor from the death of Lt. -Governor George 
William Smith, December 26, 1811, to January 3, 1812, 
when James Barbour became Governor by election of 
the General Assembly. He was an eminent lawyer and 
in 1821 became the reporter of the Supreme Court of 
Appeals. The results of his labors as such — "Report 
of the cases argued and determined in the Court of 
Appeals in Virginia 1821-1828," were published in six 
volumes 8 vo., Richmond 1823-18 32. 

Lent by The Honorable William Randolph Hearst 




Meeting of the Generals of the American and French Armies at Yorktown After the Surrender 

By James Peale 
Lent by The Maryland Historical Society 



148 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



13 8. MARQUIS DE LAFAYETTE (17 57-18 34) 

By Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827) 

Lafayette arrived in America in June, 1777, to offer 
his services to the United States. Congress made him 
a Major General and he speedily became a trusted associ- 
ate and valued friend of Washington. In 1779 he 
returned to France to urge direct aid of the Court there, 
and in 1780 resumed his place in the army after a suc- 
cessful mission. He commanded in Virginia against 
Cornwallis in 1781 and led a division at the siege of 
Yorktown. After the siege he again returned to France. 
His visit to the United States in 1784 was his last direct 
association with Washington, but President Washington 
endeavored during the French Revolution to get Lafay- 
ette released from prison and also aided his family. 
48 y 2 " x40" 

Lent by Washington and Lee University 

139. MEETING OF THE GENERALS OF THE AMERI- 
CAN AND FRENCH ARMIES AT YORKTOWN 
AFTER THE SURRENDER 

By James Peale (1779-1876) 
This painting was given to the Maryland Historical 
Society, March 3, 1845, by Robert Gilmor, Baltimore 
art collector. Mr. Gilmor thought it was by Charles 
Willson Peale but it is unquestionably by James Peale. 
Mr. Gilmor identifies the officers as follows: Washington 
in the center; Lafayette to Washington's right and Knox 
in the rear between them. On the left of Washington 
Rochambeau and in the rear of them a French officer, 
probably the Due de Lauzun. The last person left (in 
profile) Mr. Gilmor is uncertain as to the identity of, 
but suggests that it may be Hamilton or Laurens. It 
is probably Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, however. A very 
similar, but not identical painting, signed by James 
Peale, 1786, and shown at the Chicago World's Fair in 




Mrs. Samuel Washington 

By John Hcssclius 

Lent by Mrs. Samuel Walter Washington 



1893 in the French Exhibit as then belonging to the 
Mme. la Baronne de Perron, Lafayette's granddaughter, is 
described on page 48 of the official catalogue and identi- 
fies the officers in the front row as follows: Washington, 
Rochambeau, Lafayette and Lincoln (holding the articles 
of surrender), but does not identify the remaining fig- 
ures except as "other general officers." This painting 
has been reproduced in the "Daughters of the American 
Revolution Magazine" for February, 1930. 
21" x 29/2" 

Lent by The Maryland Historical Society 

140. GEORGE DIGGES (1743-1792) 

By Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) 

This portrait has rema : ned in the Digges family and 
is owned by a direct descendant of George Digges, and 
has always been attributed to Sir Joshua Reynolds by 
members of the Digges family. 

He was an intimate friend and neighbor of George 
Washington. He lived on the Maryland side of the 
Potomac, his estate having been known as Warburton 
Manor. The present site of Fort Washington is on 
this estate. 

The Washingtons and Digges were the closest friends 
and both families owned barges to convey their guests 
as well as themselves on various excursions on the Poto- 
mac. It is a well-known fact that a code of signals 
existed between the two families. 
30" x 25" 

Lent by Mrs. Richard S. Hill 

141. THADDEUS KOSCIUSZKO (1746-1817) 

Attributed to Josef Grassi (1758-1838) 

This portrait of Kosciuszko is an original, attributed to 
Grassi, a famous painter who spent a great deal of his 
life in Poland at the end of the eighteenth and begin- 
ning of the nineteenth centuries. The two decorations 
worn by Kosciuszko in this painting are the American 
Order of the Cincinnati and the Polish Order of the 
Virtuti Militari. 

Kosciuszko left Poland in 1775 and arrived in Amer- 
ica in 1776. He received his commission as a colonel 
of engineers on October 18, 1776, and was with Gates 
in the Burgoyne campaign and later in the South with 
Greene. A brilliant figure in the Revolutionary Army, 
he engineered the West Point fortification. 
44" x 37" 

Lent by The Polish Embassy 

142. JOHN EAGER HOWARD (1752-1827) 

Artist Unknown 
John Eager Howard of Maryland served in the Revo- 
lutionary War under General Hugh Mercer. From 1789 
until 1792 he was Governor of Maryland. He was 
United States Senator from 1796 to 1803. In 1796 he 
declined a seat in Washington's Cabinet; and in 1798 
Washington selected him as one of his Brigadier-Generals. 
26/ 2 " x 2O/2" 

Lent by Mrs. H. H. Norton 

143. MRS. SAMUEL WASFONGTON 

By John Hesselius (1682-175 5) 

This is an original portrait of Mrs. Samuel Washing- 
ton (Jane Champe), first wife of Colonel Samuel 
Washington, who was a brother of General George 
Washington. 

The portrait is a companion to the one of Samuel 
Washington, and the two hung at "Harewood" for 
nearly one hundred and fifty years. 
49" x 39" 

Lent by Mrs. Samuel Walter Washington 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



149 



144. ROBERT BLACKWELL, D.D. (1748-1831) 

By Thomas Sully (1783-1872) 

On the back of this portrait, owned by the great- 
great-grandson of Reverend Robert Blackwell, is the 
legend: "From a miniature, T. S., 18 53." 

The Reverend Robert Blackwell was chaplain of 
Wayne's brigade from May 20, 1778, until January, 
1781. He began service while the army was at Valley 
Forge and was also credited with having been an acting 
surgeon. 
30" x 2 5" i en t by Mr. Willing Spencer 

145. FIELDING LEWIS (1726-1781) 

By John Wollaston 

Fielding Lewis was the intimate friend of George 
Washington, and married his only sister, Betty Wash- 
ington. They resided for many years at Kenmore. 

John Wollaston, an English portrait painter, made a 
great many pictures of early Virginians. He was in this 
country approximately from 1750 to 1767. 

This picture was bought by Mr. and Mrs. Arthur 
Meeker of Chicago, and they gave it to Kenmore. 

x Lent by The Kenmore Association 

Fredericksburg, Virginia 

146. MRS. WILLIAM CARMICHAEL 

By Jeremiah Theus ( 1774) 

Mrs. Carmichael was a daughter of Mr. James Stirling, 
Rector of St. Annes Church, Annapolis, from 1 739- 
1740. From here Stirling went to Kent County, Mary- 
land, living at Stirling Castle until he died. Stirling 
Castle has since been burned. 

Miss Stirling married William Carmichael of Queen 
Annes County, Maryland. William Carmichael was 
Charge d'Aff aires to Spain in 1790. 
26"x21" 

Lent by The Laura Davidson Sears 

Academy of Fine Arts of the Elgin 

Academy, Elgin Illinois 

147. SWORD OF LAFAYETTE (17 57-18 34) 

This sword was presented to General Lafayette by 
the Continental Congress in the year 1779. 

In a letter from Benjamin Franklin (whose grand- 
son made the presentation) to Lafayette, dated August 
24, 1779, he wrote: "The Congress, sensible of your 
merit towards the United States, but unable adequately 
to reward it, determined to present you with a sword, as 
a small mark of their grateful acknowledgements." 

The sword now belongs to the Count Perrone di San 
Martino, a descendant of General Lafayette through the 
Marquise Anatasie de la Tour Maubourg, the eldest 
daughter of the General. The sword came from Turin. 
Italy. 

38 " lon S Lent by Count di San Martino 

Through the courtesy of the Italian Government 

148. VEIL 

For many generations members of the Washington 
family have been married in this veil. The present owner 
states it is her understanding that it was at one time 
in the family of Colonel William Augustine Washing- 
ton, who was the son of the half brother of General 
Washington. 

Lent by Mrs. Mary Kathleen Washington Eruiu 

149. SNUFF BOX 

Wooden snuff box bearing the portrait of General 
George Washington. 

Bought in London in an antique shop and presented 



to General Henry T. Allen while he was in command of 
the American Forces in Coblenz, Germany, from July, 
1919, to February, 1923. 

Lent by Mrs. Henry T. Allen 



15 0. BOOK 



This volume, "The Christian Life," by John Scott, 
jsed by Mary Ball Washington 



was owned and 

(c. 1707-1789). 



From the collection of the late 

Dr. S. Weir Mitchell lent by his 

granddaughters, Mrs. Vinton Freedley 

and Mrs. Dent W. Macdonough 

151. TEA POT 

Silver tea pot used at Mount Vernon during Martha 
Washington's lifetime. 

Lent by Colonel M. C. Buckey 

15 2. AUTOGRAPH BOOK 

This volume consists of letters collected by Princess 
Isabel Czartoryska. These letters were written by Wash- 
ington to Lafayette and Kosciuszko. The volume con- 
tains also a letter of Thomas Law describing the death 
of Washington. 

Lent by The Library of the Prince Czartoryski 
family in Krakow, Poland 
15 3. TWO SILVER CUPS 

These cups were used by George Washington. 

From the collection of the late 

Dr. S. Weir Mitchell lent by his 

granddaughters, Mrs. Vinton Freedley 

and Mrs. Dent W. Macdonough 




Mrs. James Monroe 

By Benjamin West 

Lent by Mrs. Rose Gouverncur Hoes 



150 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



153a. DOLLY MADISON (1768-1849) 

Artist Unknown 
Dolly Payne Todd was a sister of Mrs. Washington, 
wife of George Steptoe Washington, nephew of George 
Washington. She was married to James Madison at 
"Harewood," the family home of Samuel Washington, 
father of George Steptoe, near Charlestown, West 
Virginia. 

This miniature has always been the possession of the 
descendants of Mrs. Samuel Washington. 
2/ 2 "xl*/ 8 " 

Lent by Col. Marvin C. Buckey 

154. DRESS 

First short dress worn by George Washington. 

Lent by Mrs. Warren Griffis 

154a. CONTINENTAL MONEY 

Notes for 4 and 6 shillings issued in Massachusetts in 
1776. These notes are printed on paper prepared under 
the Stamp Act in 1765. 

Lent by Mrs. Archibald Hopkins 

154b. WASHINGTON INVITATION 

An engraved dinner invitation form used by President 
and Mrs. Washington. 

Lent by Mrs. Archibald Hopkins 

155. MRS. JAMES MONROE (1768-1830) 

By Benjamin West (1738-1820) 

This portrait of Elizabeth Monroe is signed B. West. 

She was the wife of James Monroe, second Minister 
to France during Washington's administration. Mon- 
roe met her in New York while he was attending Con- 
gress, and they married there. She was the daughter 
of Laurence Kortright, who at one time was president 
of the New York Chamber of Commerce. 
28 y z " x 23" 

Lent by Mrs. Rose Gouvemcur Hoes 




Martha Jefferson Randolph 

By Thomas Sully 

Lent by Mr. A. B. Randolph and Mr. B. H. R. Randall 



15 5a. TOBIAS LEAR (1760-1816) 

By Joseph Wood (1778-1852) 

Lear was graduated from Harvard in 1783, and in 
1786 became Washington's private secretary on recom- 
mendation of General Benjamin Lincoln. He remained 
through the President's first administration. As his 
second wife he married Frances Bassett, niece of Mrs. 
Washington and widow of Washington's nephew, George 
Augustine; and his third wife was a grand niece of 
Mrs. Washington. Washington leased him free for life 
a farm out of the Mount Vernon estate. He was pres- 
ent at Washington's death and wrote the best account 
of it. Later he held various offices abroad and was a 
clerk in the War Department when he died. 
153/4" x 13" 

Lent by Mrs. Breckenridge Long 

156. DAVID HUMPHREYS (1752-1818) 

John Trumbull (1756-1843) 

This portrait of General Humphreys was bequeathed 
to the Wadsworth Atheneum by Daniel Wadsworth in 
1848. 

General Humphreys was on General Washington's 
staff, and in later years he became his close friend and 
companion. When Washington was notified of his elec- 
tion to the Presidency, Humphreys was staying at Mount 
Vernon and he accompanied President-Elect Washington 
on his triumphant journey to New York, and during 
Washington's administration he acted as master of cere- 
monies for his distinguished chief. 

Washington appointed him Minister to Portugal and 
later advanced him to the Spanish mission. 
24" x 20" 

Lent by The Wadsworth Atheneum, 
Hartford, Connecticut 

157. BETTY WASHINGTON LEWIS (173 3-1797) 

By John Wollaston 

This picture hangs at Kenmore, the former home of 
Betty Washington Lewis, the only sister of George Wash- 
ington, and is regarded as a very faithful likeness of this 
distinguished Virginia matron. 
3 0" x2 5" 

Lent by The Kenmore Association, 
Fredericksburg, Virginia 

158. MARTHA JEFFERSON RANDOLPH (1772-1836) 

By Thomas Sully (1783-1872) 

Martha Jefferson, the elder daughter of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, married Thomas Mann Randolph (1768-1828), 
who was Governor of Virginia in 1819-22. 

She was the life-long companion of Jefferson and was 
Mistress of the White House during his administration. 
29" x 25" 

Lent by Mr. A. B. Randall and Mr. B. H. R. Randall 

Commemorative Paintings and Sculpture 

Notable as a contribution to the series of events 
in which the National Capital honored the memory 
of George Washington in 1932 was the Exhibition 
of commemorative paintings, sculpture, and the 
Plan of Washington, at the National Gallery of 
Art from March 26 to November 24. This exhibi- 
tion was under the sponsorship of the National Art 
Association, composed of the National Sculpture 
Society, the Mural Painters, American Institute of 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



151 



Architects, the American Society of Landscape 
Architects, the American Academy in Rome, the 
American Federation of Arts, American City 
Planning Institute and National Conference on 
City Planning. 

Of chief interest to visitors to the National 
Gallery exhibition was the George Washington 
Bicentennial frieze in the great rotunda of the Gal- 
lery. The frieze was executed by a group of mural 
painters to commemorate the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington. 
It depicts various episodes in the life of the Father 
of our Country, and though planned as a unit, it 
was understood from the beginning that the per- 
sonality of each artist should dominate his canvas. 

Following are brief descriptions of the principal 

panels of this frieze: 

Hildrf.th Meiere Boyhood of Washington 

Like most Virginia gentlemen of his time, Washington 
was, all his life, a great lover of fox hunting. Always 
a fine horseman, he undoubtedly grew up in the saddle, 
and it is as authentic to picture him as a boy in the midst 
of hounds and horses as in any other surroundings. The 
panel depicts the assembling of the hunting party, young 
George Washington having just joined the others, being 
in the act of saluting his father. His mother stands 
beside him, and his two half brothers are on either side 
of his father, while the other children in the picture are 
his younger brothers and sister. A negro slave, in livery, 
holds a tray with the customary stirrup cup. 

Austin Purves, Jr. Washington at Fort Necessity, 1754 
At the beginning of the French and Indian War, Wash- 
ington was leading his men to attack Fort Duquesne, 
when he was forced, on the way, hastily to entrench 
himself and erect what he called Fort Necessity, from 
the circumstances under which it was built. In the fore- 
ground, his men are digging entrenchments. A stockade 
appears at the left. Indians are felling logs and soldiers 
are drilling. 

Arthur Covey Washington Taking Command of the Army 

This memorable event took place (traditionally) at 
Cambridge, Mass., July 3, 1775, under the historic elm 
tree. 

D. Putnam Brinley Battle of Princeton, 1777 

In this painting, Mr. Brinley shows Washington rallying 
his forces, which had begun to retreat, by riding up to 
within 20 feet of the enemy, thus turning an impending 
defeat into a victory. 

Ernest Peixotto Washington the Soldier 

This panel shows Washington in his traditional military 
costume as depicted by his contemporaries. At the left, 
General Knox, his warm friend and collaborator, ad- 
vances to greet him. Behind Knox are seen Generals 
Greene and Lincoln. At the right a cavalryman holding 
a horse, and in the distance a village green with troops 
assembling. 



J. Monroe Hewlett 



Washington and His 
Friends at Mount Vernon 



Upon the steps of Mount Vernon, standing in front of 
the entrance door, George Washington and his wife are 
receiving their friends. At the extreme left is a group 
of servants. Then Mary Washington and Mrs. John 
Parke Custis. The two children are George Washing- 
ton Parke Custis and Eleanor Parke Custis. Then 
George and Martha Washington. To the right of the 
door, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Rutledge, 
and Alexander Hamilton. Then Mrs. Rutledge, Ben- 
jamin Franklin, and Edmund Randolph. 



Ernest Peixotto 



Our French Allies 



In the center stands Lafayette. At the right is Rocham- 
beau with his hands on a piece of artillery; behind him 
a group of French soldiers carrying regimental flags. To 
the left is seen De Grasse pointing in the direction of his 
ships, from which soldiers are debarking upon a beach 
below. 



Deane Keller 



Valley Forge 



In this picture the artist has tried to depict the humane 
side of Washington, who is saying good-by to a soldier 
who has lost a leg and who is accompanied by his wife. 
To the left of this group a farmer is refusing Continental 
currency offered him by one of Washington's aides for 
grain or produce brought into camp. To the right two 
soldiers are carrying a sick comrade to the hospital; back 
of them a fatigue squad carrying wood. In the distance 
two platoons drilling near the huts used at Valley Forge; 
Washington's headquarters also appear. The color scheme 
chosen suggests the cold and suffering of the men. 



Tom Loftin Johnson 



Surrender of Yorktoun, 1781 



To the left, General O'Hara (British) presents his sword 
to General Lincoln (American). Mounted upon horses 
are Washington and Rochambeau. Below Washington 
is Lafayette; then Alexander Hamilton, Anthony Wayne, 
and De Lauzun, with several other French officers. In 
the distance to the left, the house of Thomas Nelson, 
where Cornwallis was stationed. The intention was to 
create a decorative design rather than an accurate his- 
torical portrayal of the scene. 



Ezra Winter 



Washington's Inauguration in New York 



The painting depicts the ceremony of inaugurating 
George Washington as the first president of the United 
States of America on the portico of Federal Hall, New 
York City, on April 30, 1789. The point of view taken 
is from within, the figures against the sky. 



J. Mortimer Lichtenauer 



Death of Washington 



In depicting this scene, the description of Tobias Lear, 
Washington's secretary, was used. At the extreme left 
stands Christopher, Washington's trusty servant. By the 
bed are Dr. James Craik, his intimate friend and chief 
surgeon of the Continental Army, and Tobias Lear, his 
secretary. Then Martha Washington seated, and at the 
right Dr. Elisha Cullen Dick and Dr. Gustavus Brown. 
Above hover figures of Liberty with a laurel crown, 
and Commerce and Enlightenment. Behind them is seen 
a map of the United States as it was in 1799 and its 
later development due to Washington's foresight. 



Bicentennial Commemorative Postage 

Stamps 




WELVE postage stamps bearing the 
likeness of George Washington and 
| four stamped envelopes bearing a pic- 
^-'— ^ -■-''- ture of Mount Vernon, were issued by 
the United States Government in commemoration 
of the two hundredth anniversary of his birth in 
1932. This commemorative series of stamps and 
stamped envelopes will be an everlasting tribute to 
the founder of the American nation and a per- 
petual testimony of the gratitude and esteem of 
the American people for the First President of 
the United States. 

The twelve postage stamps comprise a "minia- 
ture gallery of priceless portraits," most of which 
were painted by American artists "who perpetu- 
ated the Father of our Country as they saw him 
when alive," from a youth of seventeen to a man 
of sixty-six years. The stamps range in denomi- 
nation from one-half cent to ten cents. 

More than seven billion of these Bicentennial 
commemorative stamps were sold during the year 
1932 alone, and almost four hundred million 
Bicentennial stamped envelopes. The stamps were 
first offered for sale on January 1, 1932, in Wash- 
ington, D. C, only, and were available on January 
2 generally throughout the country. They re- 
mained on sale at post offices in all parts of the 
United States during the entire Bicentennial year 
and will be available until the stock is exhausted. 

It is estimated by the Post Office Department 
that the government has received one million dol- 
lars in profit from the sale of the Bicentennial 
stamps and stamped envelopes — which reimburses 
the Government more than seventy-five percent of 
the entire cost of the nine-months Bicentennial 
Celebration. Some estimates of the profit from 
the sale of this series of stamps have been placed 
as high as $1,500,000 — which would far more than 
pay the entire cost of the celebration. 

The Post Office Department, soon after the 
passage of the Act creating a Commission for the 
Bicentennial Celebration, inaugurated a plan to 
provide a special series of stamps in commemora- 
tion of this historic anniversary. When the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion wrote to the Treasury Department on April 



15, 1930, suggesting the appropriateness of Bicen- 
tennial commemorative stamps and coins, and 
again on May 27, 1930, with particular reference 
to stamps, plans for action along this line began 
to take definite shape. The matter was referred 
to the Postmaster General, and as a result of sub- 
sequent conferences it was decided that the Depart- 
ment would issue a series of twelve stamps in 
denominations from l /zc to 10c, each to bear a 
likeness of George Washington, as well as a series 
of stamped envelopes bearing a view of the home 
of Washington, Mount Vernon. 

Final selection of the portraits used on the 
Bicentennial Commemorative Stamps was made by 
the Postmaster General, from portraits submitted 
by the Bicentennial Commission. As far as pos- 
sible, portraits known to have been made from life 
were selected for the stamps with the object of 
giving to the people a series of likenesses of Wash- 
ington that would comprise all the best informa- 
tion available as to how he really looked at different 
periods of his life. It was felt by the Commission 
that such a series of pictures would add materially 
to the public knowledge of George Washington 
and that it would have special educational and 
inspirational value. 

To have distribution of the stamps as wide as 
possible during the celebration they commemo- 
rated, it was decided that the stamps should be 
of regular size and of the lower denominations. 
A tentative plan to have some of the stamps repro- 
duce incidents in the life of Washington was 
abandoned for a number of reasons, principally 
because they would have had to be larger and 
therefore could not have been distributed so readily 
and completely, and also because they could not 
have been produced so economically. This idea 
was carried out to a certain extent, however, in 
the stamped envelope which bears a drawing of 
Washington's home at Mount Vernon. 

Description of the Stamps 

The most authoritative description of the twelve 
George Washington Bicentennial commemorative 
stamps and four stamped envelopes is contained 
in a bulletin issued by the Post Office Department 



152 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



153 



under date of October 1, 1931. This describes the 
series for the postmasters and postal employees, and 
states that "the stamps are 75/100 inch by 87/100 
inch in dimensions and have as the central design 
a separate likeness of Washington modeled from 
the works of noted artists." The descriptions 
follow: 

Bicentennial Stamps 

One-half cent. — The stamp is dark brown in color and 
has a flat paneled border with darker interior over which 
is laid a circular panel in which appears the likeness of 
Washington taken from a miniature painted by Charles 
Willson Peale, the original of which is in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. The central design is bordered by white 
inner and outer lines forming a narrow circular panel, within 
which, across the top, is the legend "United States Postage" 
in white-faced Roman, the remainder being filled in with 
laurel leaves. The circular panel is overlaid and supported 
at the base by a curved white ribbon containing the dates 
"1732" at the left and "1932" at the right, with the word 
"Washington" underneath across the center of the ribbon. 
In each lower corner within a white edged circular panel is 
the fractional numeral "'2" in white Roman on a dark 
background. The circles are connected by a horizontal panel 
containing the word "Cent" in white Roman letters. 

One-cent. — The stamp is printed in green. Across the 
top is a flat panel containing, in two horizontal lines, the 
words "United States Postage" in white-faced Roman. The 
panel is supported at either end by vertical flat fluted columns, 
the bases of which extend to the bottom of the stamp and 
hold in each lower corner a white edged oval panel inclosing 
the numeral "1" in white Roman on a dark background. 
In the center of the stamp slightly overlapping the side 
columns is a large oval with dark background and white 
line border containing a reproduction of the profile bust of 
Washington by Jean Antoine Houdon made in 178 5 and 
now in Mount Vernon. Across the base of the oval is a 
white-ribbon panel containing in dark Gothic lettering the 
name "Washington" in the center and the dates "1732" at 
the left and "1932" at the right. In a horizontal line across 
the base of the stamp is the word "Cent" in white Roman 
on a dark background. 

One-and-one-half cent. — The stamp is light brown in color 
with a narrow white border within which in the upper part 
is a flat tinted panel inclosing a background of darker shade. 
Extending to the top of the stamp is a semicircular panel 
with white edges and dark ground, resting at either end on 
fluted side columns which rise slightly above midway of the 
stamp. Within this panel appear the words "United States 
Postage" in white-faced Roman. At the base of the column 
in each lower corner is a small rectangular panel with beveled 
upper corners containing the figure "I/2" in white-faced 
Roman on a solid ground. The small panels are connected 
by a horizontal panel with dark ground, containing the 
word "Cents" in white Roman. In the space under the 
arch in the central part of the stamp is a likeness of Wash- 
ington modeled from a painting known as the Virginia 
Colonel made at Mount Vernon in 1772 by Charles Willson 
Peale, the original of which is now at Washington and Lee 
University. At the base of the portrait is a white-ribbon 
panel containing the word "Washington" in the center and 
the dates "1732" at the left and "1932" at the right in the 
curved ends which extend slightly upward and overlap the 
lower ends of the side columns. 

Two-cent. — The stamp is printed in red and is inclosed 
in a narrow white-line border with small ornaments re- 
sembling fleur-de-lis in each upper corner. Beginning slightly 




1 ik 1 m ssi s 01 (ii org] Washington Which Appi ar on 

III! BlCENTENNIAI COM M I MORATIVE STAMPS 

Top row — Left to Right: \>'zq stamp, taken from 
miniature painted by Charles Willson Peale; lc 
stamp, taken from Houdon bust; l l /zc stamp, taken 
from "Virginia Colonel" portrait by Charles Willson 
Peale. Second row from top — Left to Right: 2c 
stamp, taken from Gilbert Stuart "Athenaeum" 
portrait; 3c stamp, taken from Charles Willson 
Peale portrait painted at Valley Forge; 4c stamp, 
taken from painting by Charles Willson Peale in 
1787. Third row from top— Left to Right: 5c 
stamp, taken from painting by Charles Willson 
Peale in 1795; 6c stamp, taken from painting by 
John Trumbull in 1792; 7c stamp, taken from 
portrait by John Trumbull in 1780. Bottom 
row — Left to Right: 8c stamp, taken from crayon 
drawing made from life by Charles B. J. F. St. 
Memin at Philadelphia in 1798; 9c stamp, taken 
from pastel portrait drawn from life by W. Wil- 
liams in 1794; 10c stamp, taken from Gibbs- 
Channing portrait by Gilbert Stuart in 1795. 



154 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



above the center on either side and reaching the top is a 
semicircular panel with the words "United States Postage" 
in white Roman on a solid background. The ends of the 
panel are supported by acanthus scrolls rising from upright 
ovals in each lower corner. Within these ovals with white 
edges is the Roman numeral "2" in white on a solid back- 
ground. At the base of the stamp between the ovals is a 
white bordered panel with the word "Cents" in white Roman 
letters on a solid background. In the center of the stamp 
with a dark background is the likeness of Washington by 
Gilbert Stuart from a painting made at Germantown, Pa., in 
1796, known as the Atheneum portrait, the original of which 
is now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. On a white 
ribbon below the portrait is the name "Washington" in dark 
Roman lettering. On the raised ends of the ribbon are the 
dates "1732" at the left and "1932" at the right. 

Three-cent. — The stamp is printed in purple ink and is 
inclosed in a white-line border. In a curved panel having 
white edges and solid background across the top of the stamp 
are the words "United States Postage" in white Roman letters. 
The panel is supported at each end by small acanthus scrolls. 
In each upper corner of the stamp is a small sunken triangle. 
In each lower corner is a circle with white edge inclosing the 
white Roman numeral "3" on a dark background. Across 
the bottom of the stamp connecting the circles is a narrow 
panel containing the word "Cents" in white Roman on a 
solid background. Above the panel is a ribbon with the 
name "Washington" in small dark Roman lettering. On the 
ends of the ribbon, which are curved upward to rest over 
the circles, are the dates "1732" at the left and "1932" at 
the right. In the central part of the stamp is the likeness 
of Washington in the uniform of a general with cocked hat 
reproduced from a portrait by Charles Willson Peale painted 
at Valley Forge in 1777. The original portrait is now in the 
State Normal School at West Chester, Pa. 

Four-cent. — The stamp is printed in warm brown and 
has a narrow rectangular border indented at the sides and 
ends. Across the top of the stamp in a narrow double-curved, 
white-edged panel are the words "United States Postage" 
in two lines in white Roman letters on solid background. 
The panel is widened at the center to accommodate the last 
word, and the ends of the widened portion are supported by 
acanthus scrolls which rise from either side of the large oval 
occupying the central part of the stamp. Within the large 



oval is the likeness of Washington taken from a painting by 
Charles Willson Peale in 1787, now in the possession of Mr. 
William Patten, Rhinebeck, N. Y. Below the portrait is a 
curved white ribbon in dark Gothic lettering is the name 
"Washington" in the center and the dates "1732" at the left 
and "1932" at the right. In each lower corner is a circular 
panel with dark ground and white edge with the numeral "4" 
in white Roman. Between the circles in a narrow white 
bordered panel curved to conform with the ribbon above is 
the word "Cents" in white Roman letters. 

Five-cent. — The stamp, printed in blue, is bordered by a 
beveled edge panel indented at the sides and ends. Across 
the top in a double curve in white Roman letters are the 
words "United States Postage" in two lines. On each side 
of the word "Postage" is a small acanthus scroll. In the 
center of the stamp is a large dark shield with white-line 
border containing the likeness of Washington from a painting 
by Charles Willson Peale made in 1795, and now in the 
possession of the New York Historical Society. On a curved 
ribbon below the portrait are the dates "1732" at the left 
and "1932" at the right, and the name "Washington" in the 
center in dark Gothic lettering. In each lower corner is a 
rectangular shaped panel containing the numeral "5" in white 
Roman with dark background. 

Six-cent. — The stamp is printed in orange color. The 
stamp is inclosed by a rectangular panel with white edge 
forming a frame for the central design representing Wash- 
ington in the uniform of a general reproduced from a painting 
by John Trumbull in 1792, now in Yale University. Over 
the head is a narrow semicircular panel with white-line border 
and solid background extending, at the center, to the top 
of the stamp. Within this panel are the words "United States 
Postage" in white Roman letters on a solid background. The 
panel is supported on either side by small acanthus scrolls. 
In each upper corner is a triangular sunken panel with white 
edge and darker interior. In each lower corner is an upright 
oval with white edge containing the numeral "6" in white 
Roman on a solid background. At the base in a horizontal 
line between the ovals is the word "Cents" in white Roman. 
Under the portrait is a curved white ribbon bearing in the 
center the name "Washington" in dark Roman lettering. 
On the ends of the ribbon, which rest at the top of the 
ovals on either side, are the dates "1732" at the left and 
"1932" at the right. 




The Honorable H*rr ert Hoover 
The White House 

Washington, D. C. 



Personal 



First Day Cover consisting of a special Bicentennial Envelope addressed to President Hoover, stamped 
with the complete series of twelve bicentennial commemorative stamps, postmarked january 1, 1932, and 

autographed by president hoover. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



155 



Seven-cent. — The stamp is printed in black ink with white 
edge and gray paneled border on the sides and top. The 
upright panels are slightly indented at the sides. Inside the 
border is a background of darker gray. Along the upper 
edge of the stamp in a horizontal line are the words "United 
States Postage" in white Roman. In each lower corner is a 
circle with white edge and black ground inclosing the 
numeral "7" in white Roman. The circles are connected by 
a white edged panel containing the word "Cents" in white 
Roman on a dark background. In the center of the stamp 
is a large oval with light background and white border which 
contains a likeness of Washington in a colonial uniform show- 
ing the head and bust reproduced from a full length portrait 
painted by John Trumbull in 1780, the original of which 
is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Below the por- 
trait is a double curved white ribbon bearing in the center 
in black Roman lettering the name "Washington." On the 
raised ends of the ribbon are the dates "1732" at the left 
and "1932" at the right. 

Eight-cent. — The stamp is of olive green color and is in- 
closed in a white line border. In a large upright oval in the 
center of the stamp is a profile bust portrait of Washington 
facing to the left, reproduced from a crayon drawing made 
from life by Charles B. J. F. Saint Memin at Philadelphia in 
1798. Inclosing the central oval is a narrow panel with 
white edges and dark ground containing the inscription 
"United States Postage" in white Roman letters. On either 
side of the central oval near the top is shown the upper 
corner of a shieldlike inner panel. In each lower corner in 
an upright rectangular panel with white edge and double 
curved top is the numeral "8" on a dark background. At 
the base of the stamp in a narrow white edged panel between 
the numerals is the word "Cents" in white Roman on a dark 
background. At the base of the central oval is a white 
ribbon with the name "Washington" in dark lettering in the 
center and on the curved and raised ends the dates "1732" 
at the left and "1932" at the right. 

Nine-cent. — The stamp is printed in pink with a white- 
line border. At the center is a large panel rectangular in 
shape below, oval and slightly widened in the upper portion, 
is the likeness of Washington modeled from a pastel portrait 
in the possession of the Masonic lodge of Alexandria, Va., 
for whom it was drawn from life by W. Williams in 1794. 



Above the central panel in a double curved white ribbon with 
scrolled ends are the words "United States Postage" in dark 
Roman. In each lower corner of the stamp is the numeral 
"9" in white Roman. In a horizontal line at the base be- 
tween the numerals is the word "Cents" in white Roman. 
On a white ribbon at the base of the portrait within the 
central panel is the name "Washington" in dark Roman. In 
the curved ends of the ribbon above the numerals are the 
dates "1732" at the left and "1932" at the right. Rising 
from each ribbon end is a small laurel branch. 

Ten-cent. — The stamp is orange in color. The sides and 
top are slightly indented along the center and are bordered 
by a narrow panel having dark center and white edges. In 
the upper part, overlapping the border at the top and sides 
is a narrow white-edged panel with double curve and small 
acanthus scrolls at either end containing in two lines the 
words "United States Postage" in white Roman letters on a 
dark background. The panel is widened at the center to 
provide space for "Postage." In the center of the stamp is 
a large oval with white edge and dark ground inclosing the 
portrait of Washington taken from a painting by Gilbert 
Stuart in 1795, known as the Gibbs-Channing portrait and 
owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 
Within the oval under the portrait is a narrow curved panel 
with white edge and dark ground containing in Gothic letter- 
ing the name "Washington" in the center and the dates on 
either side, "1732" at the left and "1932" at the right. In 
each lower corner is a white-edged panel, slightly shield 
shaped on the bottom line, in which appears the numeral 
"10" in white Roman on a dark background. At the base 
of the stamp in a horizontal line is the word "Cents" in 
white Roman letters on a dark background. 

The Post Office Department bulletin orders that 
"until otherwise directed, all stamps in demonina- 
tions from one-half cent to 10 cent, inclusive, on 
district post-office requisitions after January 1, 
should be filled with Bicentennial stamps." 

Bicentennial Envelopes 
The bulletin continues with the statement that 




£M 



! ^^Kjj 



The Honorable Franklin DARoos 
Governor of New York, 
Albany, 

I Jew York. 



First Day Cover consisting of a special Bicentennial envelope addressed to The Honorable Franklin D. 
Roosevelt, then Governor of New York, stamped with the complete series of twelve Bicentennial commem- 
orative stamps, ornamented with the four Mount Vernon imprints which were used on Bicentennial gov- 
ernment STAMPED ENVELOPES, POSTMARKED JANUARY 1, 1932, AND AUTOGRAPHED BY FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT. 



156 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



the "Bicentennial commemorative envelopes will 
be issued in extra quality paper of clear white 
color. ..." Sizes of the envelopes, and their 
denominations, are given as follows: 

Size No. Denomination 

5 . 1, l/ 2 , 2, 5 cent. 

13 . 1, I/2, 2 cent. 

8 . . 1, I/2, 2, 4, 5 cent. 

The bulletin further describes the Bicentennial 
envelopes: 

The embossed stamp on the different bicentennial envelopes 
will be identical except as to denomination numerals and 
colors. The stamp on the 1-cent envelope will be printed in 
green; the lJ/2-cent in brown, the 2-cent in red; the 4-cent 
in black; and the 5 -cent in blue ink. The stamp is a hori- 
zontal rectangle with rounded corners, approximately 15/16 
by 1-9/32 inches in dimensions. Inclosing the stamp near 
the outer edge is a white line border. The central design 
is a representation of Mount Vernon, the home of Washing- 
ton, formed by white embossing on a solid background. 
Above the central subject is a white line with curved centra! 
portion touching the top border and with bent ends extend- 
ing to the side borders and forming irregular-shaped panels 
in each upper corner, containing the dates "1732" at the left 
and "1932" at the right. Within the arch at the top of the 
stamp in a curved line is the name "Washington." Below 
the picture in a horizontal line is the name "Mount Vernon." 
In a horizontal panel with white edges at the bottom of the 
stamp are the words "United States Postage" in two lines. 
Within circles in each lower corner is the denomination 
numeral. All lettering on the stamp is in white Gothic. 



"First Day" Sale 

The George Washington Bicentennial com- 
memorative stamps and envelopes were placed on 
sale for the first time on January 1, 1932, at the 
Post Office, Washington, D. C., and at the Phila- 
telic Agency of the Post Office Department. 
More than $100,000 worth of stamps were sold in 
that one day, and more than one million, one hun- 
dred thousand "first day covers" were handled. 
Despite the fact that the day was a holiday — New 
Year's Day — about 60,000 persons visited the Post 
Office in Washington to buy the new stamps. The 
line of purchasers was so long, that it was necessary 
to stand in line two or three hours before being 
waited upon. 

The issue of so many new stamps at one time 
was in itself unusual and would have evoked much 
interest on the part of stamp collectors, but the 
tremendous sales are attributed largely to the in- 
terest of the American people in the approaching 
anniversary of the "Father of their Country." It 
is estimated that 65 percent of those buying the 
Bicentennial stamps were not collectors, and that 
a great number were children, expressing thus their 
interest in their First President. 

That the Post Office Department had anticipated 




Senator Sim 1 on D. Frss, Vice Chairman, and Honor ah le Sol Bloom, Director, respectively, of the United 
States Georgi Washington Bicentennial Commission, making the first two purchases of George Washington 
Bicentennial Stamps from Honorable William M. Moonfy, Postmaster, Washington, D. C, on January 1, 1932. 
Front row — Left to Right arc: Director Bloom, Senator Fess, and Postmaster Mooney. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



157 



an unprecedented "first day" sale is shown by the 
following excerpts from Post Office Department 
bulletins: 

... In view of the limited facilities available, and large 
number of stamps and stamped envelopes included in the 
bicentennial issue, it will not be possible in this instance for 
first-day covers to be prepared for collectors in the Wash- 
ington post office or Philatelic Agency. The facilities of 
the department are being taxed to the utmost, in coopera- 
tion with the Bicentennial Commission, to have advance 
distribution made of the bicentennial stamps and stamped 
envelopes so that the new commemorative issues may be 
placed on sale at post offices generally throughout the coun- 
try on January 2, which, with other conditions, makes it 
impossible to offer the customary free service to stamp col- 
lectors in the preparation of first-day covers. Collectors and 
dealers requiring such services are, therefore, requested to 
make private arrangements for the preparing of the bicen- 
tennial covers to bear the first-day cancellation of January 
1, 193 2. Collectors who are connected with the various 
philatelic societies should be able to arrange through local 
members for the facilities desired. 

Collectors who are interested may also be advised that the 
department will not provide a special cachet for use on 
bicentennial first-day covers mailed at the Washington 
(D. C.) post office on January 1, 1932. 

The day before New Year's and the opening day 
of the sale of Bicentennial stamps, the Post Office 
Department further revealed the tremendous in- 
terest all over the nation in these commemorative 
stamps in the following press release, dated 
December 31, 1931: 

The Post Office Department's stamp division has been 
deluged with requests from all over the country for the new 
issue of the George Washington Bicentennial stamps and 
stamped envelopes, which will first be placed on sale in Wash- 
ington tomorrow morning. On January 2 they may be 
purchased at every first and second class post office through- 
out the country. Requests for the first day's issue have 
come from Vice President Curtis, Cabinet members, mem- 
bers of the Diplomatic Corps and prominent government 
officials. 

One stamp dealer from New York has rented a store and 
has employed more than 2 5 clerks to help him handle the 
first day covers, stamps and stamped envelopes which he 
intends to purchase. His force will start to work at 7:30 
tomorrow morning. 

He has orders for 10,000 of the several varieties of stamped 
envelopes, totaling 120,000 in all. In addition he will handle 
40,000 of the one-half cent stamp, and 20,000 each of the 
one cent, one and a half cent and two cent stamps. Besides 
these he will purchase 15,000 each of the three, four, five, 
six, seven, eight, n!ne and ten cent stamps. In addition he 
will dispatch 2,000 registered letters to all parts of the 
country and Europe. He started a Ford truck last night 
from New York filled with first day covers which he will 
mail out from his temporary headquarters in Washington. 

He is only one of many dealers who will be ready to handle 
the first day's issue of the new Bicentennial stamps and 
stamped envelopes. 

Approximately two and a half billion stamps of all varieties 
have already been issued by the Post Office Department and 
it is estimated that a total of fourteen billion stamps and 
stamped envelopes will be issued to postmasters throughout 
the country during the year 193 2. 



Huge Crowd Breaks Record 

January 1, 1932, at 7:30 a. m., the sale of the 
George Washington Bicentennial stamps opened, 
with the first two purchases made by Senator 
Simeon D. Fess, and Hon. Sol Bloom, Vice- 
Chairman and Director, respectively, of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. 

By nightfall, between three and a half and four 
million stamps had been sold, and more than 
60,000 men, women and children had stormed the 
huge lobby of the post office and stood for hours 
in long lines that extended down two city blocks 
outside. 

This "first day" sale was estimated at $100,000. 
Fourteen windows were kept open from 7:30 a. m. 
until late in the night, selling the issue to the 
crowds. "Nothing like it has been known in the 
history of the Post Office," said Assistant Postmas- 
ter Haycock. "The George Washington Bicen- 
tennial stamps have drawn the greatest response of 
any special issue ever offered." 

"There has never been anything to equal it in 
the history of the Department," said M. L. Eids- 
ness, Superintendent of the Division of Stamps, 
"and there probably never will be. It is undoubt- 
edly the greatest stamp sale of all time and prob- 
ably will stand as a record for years to come." 

As one writer, in Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News, 
described it, "When the Washington baseball team 
won the American League pennant and played the 
World Series games in 1924, the enormous crowd 
present did not begin to compare with the number 
that visited the Washington post office on January 
1, 1932, in order to purchase the new series of 
Washington Bicentenary stamps on the first day 
of issue. It is estimated that during the day fifty 
to sixty-five thousand people were on hand, includ- 
ing not only Cabinet officials, foreign Ambassadors 
and Ministers, Senators and Members of Congress, 
but thousands of others. Many came from all 
over the East, from Maine, Florida, Illinois and 
Ohio." 

Despite the fact that it was a holiday, that there 
was a pouring rain, and that the President was 
holding his annual "open house" — the New Year 
Day reception — the lobby of the post office was so 
crowded all day that it was difficult to enter the 
building. When the sale began, there were already 
2000 persons standing in line. Special police were 



158 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



detailed to the scene, and by 2 o'clock in the after- 
noon it was necessary to stretch ropes and keep 
lines. 

The Department had intended to close at noon, 
but it was midnight before the weary clerks closed 
their windows, with the announcement that the 
coveted "first day cancellation" would be applied 
the next day until noon. Such "covers," however, 
could not go through the mail in regular service, 
as a postal regulation prohibits postmarking of 
mail at any other hour but that at which it is re- 
ceived. The letters were cancelled and returned to 
the persons presenting them, in a special ruling 
that accommodated collectors without violating 
regulations. 

Even on January 2, the crowd of stamp-buyers 
was still so great that it was necessary to keep the 
post office open until midnight again, although it 
was Saturday and regularly a half -day. 

Stamp dealers bought in huge quantities, but 
were outnumbered by individual buyers. One 
zealous collector was at the office at 4 a. m. He 
had more than three hours to wait to get his stamps, 
but thousands of others spent their whole holiday 
waiting to purchase the stamps. One stamp dealer 
from Ohio brought a truck containing 40,000 
covers for which to buy stamps and send out as 
"First Day Covers." However, more than half of 
the persons in the crowd at the post office were not 
collectors, but had become interested in the stamps 
through the approaching Bicentennial Celebration 
and the attendant wide publicity. 

Nearly all of the "covers" sent out that first 
day bore more than the required postage. Most 
collectors placed a whole set of the stamps, amount- 
ing to fifty-seven cents, on each envelope, netting 
the government a profit of fifty-five cents each. 
One unusual combination was worked out with 
stamps whose denominations formed the dates 
1732-1932 — a total of twenty-eight cents where 
two cents would have done the work. 

In a letter to Hon. Wm. M. Mooney, Postmaster, 
Washington, D. C, the Director of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission commented 
on the success of the opening sale of the Bicen- 
tennial stamps as follows: 

January 6, 1932. 
My dear Mr. Postmaster: 

I want to compliment you and the other members of your 
staff at the Washington City Post Office on the splendid way 
in which you handled the sale of the George Washington 



Bicentennial stamps during the unprecedented demand for 
these on January 1, 193 2. 

I understand that never before has there been such a demand 
for quick stamp sales and cancellations as on that day, and 
the efficient manner in which the crowds were handled and 
the public service rendered by your office merits the highest 
praise. I was present myself on the morning of that day 
and saw the crowds besieging the stamp windows in the post 
office, so I can personally testify to the unusual circumstances 
and to the smooth and rapid manner in which everything 
was handled under your direction. Some persons have spoken 
to me about the fine way in which the first day stamp sales 
were conducted and have sought to compliment me in that 
connection, but I am telling everyone that of course I had 
nothing to do with them, and that it is you who deserves 
every praise. It was an unprecedented situation, handled in 
an unusually fine manner. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Sol Bloom, 

Director. 
Hon. Wm. M. Mooney, 
Postmaster, 
Washington, D. C. 

$1,000,000 in Stamps Sold in Two Days 

The New Year Day sale of Bicentennial stamps 
in Washington, D. C, was repeated just as en- 
thusiastically, if on a somewhat smaller scale, at 
every post office in the country on January 2. The 
main post office in Philadelphia made sales to about 
10,000 purchasers; in New York City, there were 
streams of eager philatelists all day at the various 
post offices. Thousands of persons purchased the 
stamps who had never collected before, and it was 
estimated that a goodly portion of these stamps 
would form the basis for new stamp collections. 

Bicentennial stamp sales for January 1 and 2 
were estimated at one million dollars. It is not 
likely that such a record will be made again, as it 
is improbable that 12 different stamps will again 
be issued at one time. It is also unlikely that an 
issue for any other commemorative purpose would 
arouse such interest as this one, in honor of the 
"Father of our Country." In themselves works 
of art, with so popular a subject, the Bicentennial 
stamps "took the country by storm." No other 
commemorative stamps have ever been so sought 
after. 

"It is interesting to note that there is much 
more interest in American stamp issues than there 
formerly was," said Michael L. Eidsness, Jr., 
Superintendent of the Division of Stamps of the 
Post Office Department, in an interview in the 
Washington Stay of August 24, 1932: "Special 
Bicentennial albums have been published, contain- 
ing material on George Washington's life and 
work, as well as on the history of the famous 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 159 

paintings used in designing the Bicentennial series. a letter to the Commission dated January 27, 193 3 r 

These albums have been especially popular among said: "Approximately 367,528,5 50 Bicentennial 

school children and we have had hundreds of let- stamped envelopes have been issued, in three sizes 

ters from school stamp societies. . . . The educa- and six denominations, printed and unprinted. . . . 

tional value of the stamps, of course, is obvious." With regard to proceeds accrued to the Depart- 

^ r -o c c ir>->-i ment through the sale of these T Bicentennial] 

Over Seven Billion Stamps Sold in 1932 & L 

stamps for collection purposes, I desire to state that 

The total number of Bicentennial stamps the receipts of the Phl l at elic Agency for the last 

printed was 7,183,149,600. Of this issue, 7,141,- fiscal year (ending June 30 , 1932 ) amounted to 

588,800 stamps were sold in 1932. $330,000. These sales exceeded any previous year 

Total profit to the Post Office Department by since estab i isnment of the Philatelic Agency, and 

the time the stock was exhausted was estimated at k {s estimated that approximately $275,000 of 

$1,000,000. No such profit has ever before been these sales were stamps of the Bicentennia l series , 

made from the sale of any commemorative stamps, (NoTE . These figures do not indude the last six 

and the tremendous sale is entirely due to the months of the calendar year 1932 .) 

Bicentennial Celebration, without which there .,„. . , . , i r • i 

, , , . . . , There is no way in which we can definitely 

would have been no commemorative series of . . . , r i t-». 

, —,.,,.... . determine the actual profit to the Department, 

twelve stamps, lhe wide publicity given to the TT . . , r . , , 

. , _ ii • ii^ wr 1 • However, it is the opinion of prominent dealers 

Bicentennial Celebration by the George washing- . . , , T , ,, , , 

_,. . , _ . . . in postage stamps, with whom 1 have talked, that 

ton Bicentennial Commission was a most important . ^ .,, , . , . __. ___ 

. .... , i r i the Department will ultimately receive $1,000,000 

factor in stimulating the sale of the commemo- . r , , , , r i • • c » 

in proht through the sale of this series of stamps, 
rative stamps. 

Profit came largely through sales to collectors k is interesting to compare the sale of the Bicen- 

who either did not use the stamps at all, or placed tennial stam P s Wlth the ^gest previous sale of 

i ^i commemorative stamps — that of the three Graf 
more stamps on an envelope than were necessary. , . . 

^n i i i i ii „ ■ • _ ■ ^ i Zeppelin stamps of denominations of 65c, $1.30 

On all envelopes mailed by collectors, it is estimated FK K 

. , . -i £ and $2.60. The total sales of these only amounted 

that the government received an average of at J 

i «. ^ „ to $300,000, as compared with a profit of $1,000,- 

least ten cents excess postage. * ' ' * . . \ 

T-i j £ i r ^i r r> • • i 000 from the sale of the Bicentennial stamps, 

lhe record of sale of the issues of Bicentennial r 

stamps and stamped envelopes to December 31, Bicentennial Cachets 

1932, as furnished to the Commission by the Divi- „. _. . , , , , , , 

c _ . . _ ^^ _ The Bicentennial postage stamps played a double 

sion of Stamps of the Post Office Department is ,. -i-tttjjia- 

r 11 role in commemorating the 1 wo Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Washington. They 

Denomination N limber Sold were not only a commemoration in themselves, but 

i/ 2C 87,969,700 also a stimulus to the issuance, in 1932, of more 

lc 1,265,555,100 than 250 cachets"" relating to the anniversary. 

l]/ 2 c 304,926,800 Certainly no other event ever had so many com- 

2c 4,222,198,300 memorations. 

3c 456,198,500 These Bicentennial cachets varied from the only 

4c 145,231,600 cachet sponsored by the United States George 

5c 157,949,400 Washington Bicentennial Commission, that on 

6c 111,739,400 February 22, 1932, applied at Mount Vernon, 

7c 71,752,700 Virginia, through special cachets issued by local 

8c 96,506,100 Bicentennial Committees, Chambers of Commerce 

9c 74,345,200 and other semi-official organizations, to those issued 

10c 147,216,000 as a private enterprise to commemorate local Bicen- 

' tennial celebrations, historic connections with the 

Total 7,141,588,800 

• : " A cachet, in the language of philately used by stamp collectors, 

M. L. EidsneSS, Jr., Superintendent of the Divi- means a specially designed device affixed to covers (envelopes) that 

. t /-^vrr t~v • are t ' nen po stmar ' tec J a "d mailed on dates and from places of historic, 

sion of Stamps of the Post Office Department, in c ivk or other significance. 



160 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



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A s) i ection oj George Washington Bicentennial Cachets commemorating various dates, events, and historic 

PLACES, WHICH WERE ISSUED DURING THE BICENTENNIAL YEAR. 

(From the Collection of Mr. Charles f. Buckstein, Atlantic City, N. /.) 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



161 



memory of Washington, etc. In all cases, of course, 
the Bicentennial stamps were used to accent the 
commemorative character of the cachet. 

The most significant and perhaps the most pop- 
ular cachet issued during the Bicentennial year was 
the "Wakefield" cachet, sponsored by the Com- 
mission with the cooperation of the Post Office 
Department, and applied to covers mailed from 
Mount Vernon, Virginia, on February 22, 1932, 
the official opening date of the Bicentennial Cele- 
bration. More than 500,000 pieces of mail were 
canceled at Mount Vernon on Washington's 
Birthday, and bore the Wakefield cachet — a draw- 
ing of the restored house in which George Wash- 
ington was born. At least 20 percent of this mail 
bore a complete set of the twelve Bicentennial 
stamps, representing an enormous excess postage 
and a sample of how the Bicentennial stamps made 
so much profit for the Post Office Department. A 
conservative estimate of the profit on this day's 
issue alone would be in excess of $50,000. 

People waiting to post letters for the Wakefield 
cachet began to form a line at 6 a. m. at Mount 
Vernon on Washington's Birthday, three hours 
before the post office opened. The small staff there 
was augmented with additional help from the 
Washington, D. C, post office, but even with this 
aid, clerks had difficulty in coping with the flow 
of mail. Trucks loaded with sacks of mail left 
the post office every five or ten minutes through- 
out the morning and almost as frequently the rest 
of the day. 

The circular issued by the Post Office Depart- 
ment on February 3, 1932, concerning the Wake- 
field cachet of February 22, reads in part as 
follows: 

Third Assistant Postmaster General, 

Washington, February 3, 1952. 

In order that reliable information may be furnished local 
stamp collectors and other patrons who make inquiry at post 
offices with reference to the securing of the postmark of the 
Mount Vernon (Va.) post office on mail matter bearing 
stamps of the Washington Bicentennial series, postmasters 
are advised that in consideration of the widespread interest 
already shown, special provision will be made for the post- 
marking of this bicentennial mail matter at the Mount Ver- 
non (Va.) post office on February 22, which marks the official 
opening of the nation-wide celebration of the two hundredth 
anniversary of the birth of the first President. 

In authorizing the February 22 cancellation, the depart- 
ment is cooperating with the George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, which has provided a special cachet depicting 
Wakefield, the birthplace of Washington, which will be 
placed on letters mailed at Mount Vernon on February 22, 
in addition to the postmark. . . . 



No special postage stamp will be issued on this date as 
the bicentennial stamps placed on sale January 1 are par- 
ticularly appropriate for use on this mail. . . . 

This special February 22 mail will be machine canceled 
with the regular Mount Vernon postmark with the excep- 
tion of the covers bearing blocks or combinations of stamps, 
which will be postmarked with the usual hand stamp. 

The Wakefield cachet to be applied to this mail is separate 
and distinct from the postmark and is being provided by the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission as a special 
feature of the opening of the anniversary celebration. Clear 
space of approximately 2 ]/ 2 by 3 l / 2 inches should be allowed 
on the left side of covers to accommodate the special cachet. 

Provision will also be made for the placing of a collection 
box outside the entrance gate at Mount Vernon for the con- 
venience of collectors who desire to deposit their mail 
personally. 

The attention of the department has also been called to 
requests of collectors for Wakefield, Va., cancellations on 
February 22. George Washington was born at Wakefield, 
Westmoreland County, Va., where there is now no post 
office by that name. The Wakefield, Va., post office listed 
in the United States Official Postal Guide is in Sussex County, 
Va., and bears no relation to the birthplace of Washington. 

F. A. Tilton, 
Third Assistant Postviaster General. 

Another outstanding cachet was that of the 
National Masonic Memorial to George Washington, 
sponsored by the Alexandria, Virginia, Chamber of 
Commerce, in cooperation with the Post Office 
Department, and applied at that city on May 12, 
1932, to commemorate the formal dedication of 
the memorial to Masonry's most outstanding 
American member. On this day, at Alexandria 
alone, 200,000 Bicentennial stamps were sold, and 
the postmaster estimated that the average letter or 
"cover" that received the Masonic cachet bore ten 
cents postage — an excess of eight cents for each 
piece of mail, or a profit of at least $15,000 for 
the day. 

The special circular of the Post Office Depart- 
ment regarding the cachet on May 12, reads: 

Third Assistant Postmaster General, 

Washington, April U, 19} 2. 

For the information of local stamp collectors and other 
patrons who may be interested, postmasters are notified that 
the department is cooperating with the Alexandria (Va.) 
Chamber of Commerce in sponsoring special mailings from 
the local post office on May 12, the dedication date of the 
George Washington Masonic National Memorial. 

The chamber of commerce has prepared a suitable cachet 
depicting the memorial temple and showing the dedication 
date for use on the special mail dispatched through the local 
post office on the date of the celebration, which will be in 
addition to the regular postmark. 

Postmasters should advise local patrons who make inquiry 
that stamped addressed covers to receive the special cachet 
should be sent under separate wrapper, plainly addressed, to 
the Chamber of Commerce, Alexandria, Va., and conspicuously 
indorsed on the face "For cancellation May 12." 

In consideration of the fact that the furnishing of the 
special cachet is being undertaken by a private organization, 



162 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



the number of covers sent should be restricted to a reason- 
able quantity, and collectors should not request the return 
of covers by registered mail. 

Postmasters may also advise local stamp collectors who 
make inquiry that the 9-cent stamp of the bicentennial issue 
bears the likeness of Washington modeled from a pastel por- 
trait painted by W. Williams in 1794, the original of which 
is now in the possession of the Alexandria Masonic Lodge. 

A special collection box for mail matter to receive the 
special cachet and May 12 postmark will be installed in the 
Alexandria post office for the benefit of collectors and dealers 
who desire to deposit their mailings in person. 

In applying the special cachet to the May 12 covers the 
Alexandria Chamber of Commerce will endeavor to perform 
satisfactory service, but they have informed the department 
that they can not be responsible for any errors, omissions, etc. 

F. A. Tilton, 
Third Assistant Postmaster General. 

One of the most interesting of all the Bicenten- 
nial cachets was not issued in the United States, 
but in Poland. 

The Government of Poland issued a special 
commemorative stamp in honor of the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of the birth of George Wash- 
ington. This first appeared on May 3, 1932, and 
a cachet was issued on that day in Warsaw by the 
Central Committee for the Celebration in Poland 
of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth 
of George Washington. 

Local Committees Issue Cachets 

The Bicentennial Committees of a number of 
cities, notably New York and Boston, sponsored 
cachets in honor of the Bicentennial anniversary. 
Each of these issued a series of cachets on dates 
identified with George Washington and his presence 
in that vicinity. 

The New York City George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission issued twelve postal cachets 
with the approval of the Post Office Department. 
Each cachet marked the anniversary of an incident 
in or near New York connected with the life of 
Washington and was applied to mail presented for 
the purpose at a special temporary post office sub- 
station in the reproduction of Federal Hall in 
Bryant Park. 

From a Post Office circular of July 29, 1932, is 
taken the following description of the cachets, and 
their dates of issue: 

As a feature of the local bicentennial celebration the New 
York City Bicentennial Commission has constructed in Bryant 
Park back of the Public Library, corner of Fifth Avenue 
and Forty-second Street, a reproduction of the original "Fed- 
eral Hall" which was the first Capitol Building of the United 
States. A temporary postal station will be established in 



this building, effective August 5, 193 2, through which mail 
matter bearing the cachets will be dispatched. This mail 
will also be postmarked with a special canceling die reading: 
"Federal Hall Station, New York, N. Y." 

Special cachets will be provided as follows: 

August 7, 1789 — Washington signed the act creating the 
Department of War. and also signed the act confirming the 
Northwest Territory and appointing a governor thereof. 

August 12, 1790 — Final session of Congress held in Federal 
Hall, New York, adjourning to meet at its next session in 
Philadelphia, our second capital city. 

August 27, 1776 — The Battle of Long Island. 

September 2, 1790 — Washington signed an act creating 
the Treasury Department. 

September 16, 1776 — Battle of Harlem Heights, near pres- 
ent location of Grant's Tomb. 

September 17, 1790 — Constitution Day. 

September 24, 1789 — Washington signed an act creating 
the judicial courts of the United States, including the organi- 
zation of the Supreme Court. 

September 26, 1789 — Washington appointed a Postmaster 
General. 

October 15, 1789 — Washington left New York City for 
a 3 0-day tour of the New England and Eastern States, "to 
acquire knowledge of the face of the country, the growth and 
agriculture thereof, and the temper and disposition of the 
inhabitants toward the new Government." 

November 11, 1796 — Final session of the New York State 
Assembly held in Federal Hall, New York, adjourning to meet 
at its next session in Albany, the permanent State capital city. 

November 16, 1776 — Battle of Fort Washington and its 
surrender, with 2,000 men, to the British. 

November 25, 1783 — Washington reentered New York 
City, as the British troops evacuated the city and embarked 
for England. 

The Boston George Washington Bicentennial 
Committee issued seven cachets during the Bicen- 
tennial year, and the following dates and descrip- 
tions are taken from a circular issued by the 
Committee: 

October 24 — (first of series) — Welcome to President Wash- 
ington, 1789. Cachet; and also sticker. Color, blue. 

October 27 — Navy Day — "Start of U. S. Navy" by Wash- 
ington at Siege of Boston; and launching of "Constitution." 
Cachet only. Purple. 

November 10 — Commemorative Design — Noting gold 
medal by Congress to Washington after Siege of Boston; and 
his three visits of 1756, 1775-6, and 1789. Sticker only. 
Buff and blue. 

November 24 — Thanksgiving Day — Commemorating first 
Thanksgiving at Boston, by Puritans, 1631. Printed grey 
envelope with design in green and brown. Also regulation 
cachet, green. 

December 16 — Boston Tea Party — 159th anniversary of 
famous event inspiring to Washington's career. Design shows 
a revenue stamp of 1773; Old South Meeting House; the 
"Indians"; and John Hancock tea kettle made by Paul Revere. 

Issued in two forms: a — regulation cachet, one color, blue, 
affixed to prepared covers; b — same historical design printed 
on stickers, in two colors, blue and red, affixed to envelopes 
by committee. Mailing at post office near where tea went 
into harbor. 

Historical account, printed, with each item except when 
envelopes come sealed. 

December 18 — Mourning for Washington — (by request) — 
An unusual cachet in black commemorating the close of his 
life and public services at Boston. (Funeral December 18, 
1799; death, 14th.) 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



163 



Historical account, printed, with each item except when 
envelope is sealed. 

December 25 — Christmas — (Final in Boston series for 
Bicentennial) — Commemorating reunion of Martha Wash- 
ington with the General at Siege of Boston for holiday sea- 
son, 1775. Design indicates present-day Boston customs with 
outdoor trumpeters and carolers; and also cross, star and 
wreath. 

Issued in two forms: a — regulation cachet, red, affixed to 
prepared covers addressed and stamped, sent to the commit- 
tee by collectors, prepaid and with remittance; b — same design 
printed in two colors, red and green, on special envelopes 
supplied by committee. 

Other Historic Cachets 
On October 27, 1932, the anniversary of the 
launching in 1797 of the U. S. Frigate Constitu- 
tion, Navy Day and the Bicentennial were all 
linked together with the issuance of a special 
cachet on board the rebuilt old ship which made 
history in the early days of our nation. 

With the Post Office Department cooperating 
and announcing the cachet in its bulletins, the 
officers of "Old Ironsides" and the Navy League 
sponsored a Navy Day cachet from the historic 
frigate stationed at the Navy Yard in Washington, 
D. C, in honor of the Bicentennial. There were 
32,865 covers cached on that occasion and sent 
to all parts of the world, including each of the 
states of the Union, several of our island posses- 
sions, and twenty foreign countries. Visitors to 
the ship that day were equally interested in this 
unusual cachet and its appropriate double com- 
memoration. 

The cachet, an oval stamp about three inches 
wide, showed a drawing of the U. S. Frigate Con- 
stitution in full sail, and in the border "Navy Day, 
October 27, George Washington Bicentennial 
1732-1932." 

On September 14, 1932, the George Wythe 
House at Williamsburg, Virginia, issued a Bicen- 
tennial cachet under the auspices of the Postmaster 
and City Council. 

The Wythe House was Washington's headquar- 
ters in Williamsburg from September 14 to Sep- 
tember 28, 1781, just prior to the siege of York- 
town. The owner of the house, built in 1755, was 
George Wythe, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and first College Professor of Law in 
the new nation. At the College of William and 
Mary in Williamsburg, he taught Thomas Jefferson, 
James Monroe, and Chief Justice John Marshall. 
The house has been preserved and restored, and 
there 10,812 covers were given the Wythe House 



cachet at 4 p. m. September 14 — the hour and 
day of General Washington's arrival in Williams- 
burg in 1781. 

The report by the committee in charge at the 
Wythe House stated that "these covers went to 
every state in the Union and to England, France, 
Germany, Switzerland, Poland, Argentina, Bahama 
Islands, Philippine Islands, Alaska, Newfoundland, 
Hawaii, Canada and Morocco." 

A Bicentennial cachet on April 8 from Fred- 
ericksburg, Virginia, commemorated the many 
visits which George Washington paid to his mother 
and his beloved sister Betty, and especially his visit 
of April 8, 1791, when he began a tour of the 
southern colonies. The cachet bore a reproduction 
of "Kenmore," the beautiful home of Betty Wash- 
ington Lewis, in Fredericksburg, Virginia, which, 
it is claimed, Washington helped to design, and the 
inscription, "The soul of Washington is seen in the 
beauty of Kenmore." 

Fort Duquesne and Fort Necessity, indissolubly 
linked with Washington, were also commemorated 
with cachets during the Bicentennial of his birth. 
More than 10,000 Fort Duquesne cachets were 
issued from Pittsburgh on June 24. On July 3 
and 4 there was a two-day celebration in honor 
of the Bicentennial, during which a reconstructed 
fort was dedicated, and a cachet was issued in honor 
of the occasion. 

"Washington" Postmark in Demand 
The United States Postal Guide lists a city named 
Washington in twenty-seven states and the District 
of Columbia. There are also about fifteen other 
places in the United States whose names include 
the word Washington, as Washington Court 
House, Ohio. 

Inquiries made to all of these brought replies 
from about half, to the effect that although no 
cachets were issued from these towns named after 
the First President, covers mailed from there on 
February 22 and on other historic dates during the 
Bicentennial year were in great demand. 

Washington, Arkansas, cancelled more than 800 covers 
on February 22. One enterprising stamp collector sent a 
letter to George, Arkansas, first, and had both the George 
and the Washington postmarks on it. 

Washington, Illinois, reported more than a thousand special 
cancellations on Washington's birthday and several hundred 
additional through the year. 

Washington, Kansas, cancelled about 750 covers on Feb- 
ruary 22. 

Washington, Kentucky, cancelled a like number at the 
opening of the Bicentennial Celebration. 



Series of Bicentennial Cachets Sponsored by the George Washington 
Bicentennial Committee of the City of Boston 




No. 1 Welcome to Washington at Boston, 1789 
Commemorating 14}rd anniversary of arrival of 
President Washington on his good-will tour of New 
England. Issued October 24, 1932. 




No. 2, Washington and the Navy at Boston, 177) 
Commemorating "Navy Day" as currently ob- 
served annually; and action of General Washington 
during Siege of Boston "starting the U. S. Navy," 
1775. Also commemorating the launching of the 
Frigate "Constitution" at Boston, 1797. Issued 
October 27, 193 2. 




WASHINGTON 




IN BOSTON 



GEORGE WASHINGTON 
t^£- BICENTENNIAL -1< ))~ 




No. 3, Commemorative Design of Boston 

Committee, 1932 

Indicates three visits to Boston by Washington, in 

1756, 1775-76, and 1789; also only gold medal 

awarded by Congress to George Washington; and 

present dh Seal Issued November 10, 1932. 




No. 4, Commemorating 301st Anniversary of First 
Thanksgiving directed by the Massachusetts Bay 
Government, 1631 
Design indicates a Puritan with wild turkey re- 
turning to his home; and fruits and vegetables com- 
mon to New England of 17 th century. 1732 — Birth 
of Washington. 1789 — First national Thanksgiving 
Proclamation, by President Washington. Issued 
November 24, 1932. 




No 



5, Commemorating the 159th Anniversary of 

Boston Tea Party, December 16, 1773. 

Design shows a rare British revenue stamp used in 

Boston at that time; the Old South Meeting House; 

the "Indians" at work; and a tea kettle used by the 

women of the household of Governor John Hancock. 

Issued December 16, 1932. 



164 






Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



165 




No. 6, Mourning for Washington 
Issued by request on the 13 3</ anniversary of the 
burial of George Washington in the tomb on his own 
estate at Mount Vernon, Virginia. He died Decem- 
ber 14, 1799; funeral, December 18, 1799. The 
design was suggested by an old memorial engraving 
showing "the American Eagle guarding the Spirit 
of Washington." Issued December 18, 1932. 




7, Commemorating Reunion of Martha Washing- 
ton and the General during siege of Boston; 
for Christmas, 1775 
Design indicates the arrival of Mrs. Washington at 
Cambridge, December 11, 1775; and present Boston 
custom of holiday season carolers and trumpeters; 
with the traditional Star of Bethlehem and holly 
wreath. Issued December 2 5, 1932. 



Washington, Michigan, reported 700 covers for February 
22 cancellation, with a considerable increase in the sale of 
Bicentennial stamps. 

Washington, Missouri, cancelled more than 1,200 Bicen- 
tennial covers. 

Washington, Nebraska, achieved considerable press notice 
when "a fast mail train which speeds through the hamlet of 
Washington, Nebraska, without even slowing down," stopped 
there for the first time "to take on 5,000 pieces of Washing- 
ton Birthday mail addressed to stamp collectors throughout 
the world." The train had to stop rather than pick up the 
mail "on the fly" because of the unusual weight. 

Washington, North Carolina, which claims to be "the first 
town named for the Father of our Country," received about 
1,500 February 22 covers for cancellation. The North Caro- 
lina town, it is claimed, was "founded in 1772 and named 
for George Washington in 1775 or 1776. Documents show 
the town to have been named Washington not later than 
October 1, 1776." 

Washington, Pennsylvania, reported 5 00 special cancella- 
tions on February 22 and the sale of more than two hundred 
dollars worth of Bicentennial stamps. 

Washington, Texas, received 1,399 requests for February 
22 cancellations, and several hundred more throughout the 
year. 

Washington, Utah, postmarked more than 900 letters on 
Washington's Birthday, 1932. 

List of Washington Bicentennial Cachets 

Many interested stamp collectors have asked the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission to publish an "official list" of cachets 
issued in 1932 in honor of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington. 

The Commission sponsored only one "official" 
cachet during the Bicentennial Celebration — the 
Wakefield cachet issued on February 22, 1932, at 



Mount Vernon, Va. There can be, then, no list 
of "official cachets." 

Nor is it possible for the Commission to issue 
an "official list" of Bicentennial cachets. As the 
Commission was responsible for only one of the 
several hundred cachets that were undoubtedly 
issued during 1932, it was necessary to depend for 
information regarding them on such voluntary 
data as was submitted. For that reason, the Com- 
mission can assume no responsibility for any list 
of Bicentennial cachets. 

However, recognizing that it would undoubt- 
edly be helpful to the thousands of stamp collec- 
tors who showed such interest in the George Wash- 
ington Commemorative Stamps to have a list of 
commemorative cachets — although the list may 
not be complete — the Commission is giving here- 
with the following list of some of the many cachets 
issued during 1932. 

This list of Bicentennial cachets has been taken 
from "A Philatelic Record of the George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial," by Charles J. Buckstein, with 
the kind permission of the author. In the words 
of Mr. Buckstein, an endeavor was made to "make 
this list as complete and correct as possible. If 
any cachets have been omitted or incorrectly listed, 
it has been due to lack of information." 

It must be borne in mind that this list of Wash- 
ington Bicentennial cachets is published without 
responsibility on the part of the United States 



166 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



George Washington Bicentennial Commission. It 
is in no sense an "official list." 

Bicentennial Cachets 

1932 

January 1 — Washington, D. C. — First Day of Bicentennial 
Issue of Stamps and Stamped Envelopes — Many types of 
cachets and printed envelopes. 

January 1 1 — Fort Wayne, Ind. — Visit of Miss Fanny Wash- 
ington. County Celebration. 

February 6 to March 6 — U. S. Fleet in Hawaiian Waters — 
Covers on three varieties of printed envelopes commemo- 
rating the Bicentennial and U. S. Battleship Fleet Maneuvers 
prepared by the Hawaii Philatelic Association and mailed 
from various ships of the Fleet. 

February 11 — Wakefield, Va. — Washington's Birthday by 
the Julian Calendar. Private printed cachet. 

February 22 — Keyser, W. Va. — Washington's Birthday. 
Head of Washington cachet. 

February 22 — U. S. S. Utah — The words "George Wash- 
ington" between bars of cancellor and cancelled in blue. 
February 22 — Alexandria, Va. — Wakefield. 
February 22 — Cincinnati, Ohio — Celebration. 
February 22 — Greenfield, Mich. — Greenfield Village. 
February 22 — Mt. Vernon, Va. — Wakefield. 
February 22 — New York, N. Y. — Bust of Washington. By 
Aerophilatelic Club. 

February 22 — Seattle, Wash. — Dedication of Washington 
Memorial Bridge. 

February 22 — Shamokin, Pa. — Flags, Stars and Wreaths. 
February 22 — Somerville, N. J. — Wallace House. 
February 22 — Sulgrave, England — Sulgrave Manor. 
February 22 — Syracuse, N. Y. — Welcome to Miss Fanny 
Washington. 

February 22— Wakefield, Va.— Wakefield. 
February 22— Washington, D. C— Wakefield. Washing- 
ton, D. C. — Merchants and Manufacturers Association 
cachet. 

February 22 — Valley Forge, Pa. — Printed Anniversary 
cachet. 

February 22 — U. S. Frigate Constitution — Six line cachet. 
February 22 — Henton, 111. — Cancellation depicting Head 
of Washington. 

February 22 — Hilo, Hawaii — Picture of Washington and 
appropriate wording. Printed cachet. 

February 22 — Washington, Pa. — Four line cachet. 
February 22 — Washington, Ga. — Sticker with picture of 
Washington and appropriate wording. 

February 22 — Washington Crossing, Pa. — Printed envelope. 
February 22 — Syracuse, N. Y. — Washington's Birthday. 
February 22 — Ed, Ky. — Two varieties of Washington head 
cancellations. 

February 22 — Kelso, Wash. — Blue cachet. 
February 22 — Keystone, S. Dak. — Printed cachet of 
Borglum's Statue of Washington. 

April 7 — St. Petersburg, Fla. — Visit of U. S. Frigate Con- 
stitution. Portrait of Washington used as backstamp. 
April 8 — Fredericksburg, Va. — Visit to Kenmore House. 
April 14 — Petersburg, Va. — Commemorating the Visit of 
Washington to Petersburg. 

April 21 — Trenton, N. J. — Washington's Reception at 
Trenton on his way to New York for his Inauguration. 

April 23 — New York, N. Y. — Washington Comes to New 
York for Inauguration. Private printed envelopes showing 
arrival of Washington. 

April 26 — Cape Henry, Va. — 32 5th Anniversary of Dedi- 
cation of Lighthouse in Washington's Administration. 
April 29 — New Haven, Conn. — Tree Planting. 



April 3 — U. S. S. Evans — Commemorating the Inaugura- 
tion of President Washington. 

April 3 — New York, N. Y. — Inauguration of Washing- 
ton. Jacob H. Schiff Center cachet. Washington Bridge 
cancellation. 

April 30 — New York, N. Y. — Inauguration of Washing- 
ton. Aerophilatelic Club of New York cachet. Depicts 
Federal Hall with appropriate wording. Wall Street Station 
cancellation. 

April 3 — New York, N. Y. — Inauguration of Washing- 
ton. Private printed envelopes showing Inaugural Scene at 
original Federal Hall. 

April 3 — San Francisco, Calif. — Inauguration. Profile of 
Washington superimposed on the Capitol. 

April 3 — Hammond, Ind. — In commemoration of Wash- 
ington's Inauguration. Private printed cachet. 

May 3 — Warsaw, Poland — First Day of Washington Com- 
memorative stamp. 

May 6 — Dermott, Ark. — Community Celebration. 
May 7 — Washington, D. C. — Re-enactment of First In- 
augural Ball. 

May 8 — Fredericksburg, Va. — Home of Mary Washington. 
Mother's Day. 

May 12 — Alexandria, Va. — Dedication of Masonic National 
Memorial. 

May 13 — Washington's Birthplace, Va. — First Day Can- 
cellation. 

May 14 — Washington's Birthplace, Va. — Dedication of 
same. 

May 20— Charlotte, N. C— Red, White and Blue sticker. 
May 28 — Newburgh, N. Y. — Dedication of Post Office. 
Washington's Headquarters. 

May 28 — Winston-Salem, N. C. — Salem Tavern. 
May 28, 29, 3 0— Flushing, N. Y.— Jackson Heights 
Celebration. 

May 29 — Waynesburg, Pa. — Celebration. C. of C. 
May 3 — Morristown, N. J. — Dedication of Jockey Hol- 
low Cemetery. 

May 30 — Boston, Mass. — The United Stamp Societies 14th 
Annual Convention. Printed cachet pictures Washington and 
was sponsored by the Suburban Stamp and Curio Club of 
Boston. 

May 31 — Perth Amboy, N. J. — Hicks Tavern. 
June 7 — Wethersfield, Conn. — Connecticut Bicentennial 
Celebration. Webb House and appropriate wording. Printed 
cachet. 

June 7, 8 — Hartford, Conn. — Bicentennial Celebration. 
Depicts Old State Capitol. 

June 14 — Bound Brook, N. J. — Flag First Flown over Con- 
tinental Army Headquarters. 

June 14 — Philadelphia, Pa. — Betsy Ross House. 
June 14 — Washington's Birthplace, Va. — Washington's 
Birthplace. 

June 14— Philadelphia, Pa.— Flag Day. P. O. S. of A. 
cachet. 

June 15 — Northampton, Mass. — Head of Washington. 
Pony Express from Northampton to Florence by Three Coun- 
ties Fair Association. 

June 16 — Washington, D. C. — First Day of three cent 
purple Stuart Washington stamp. 

June 16 — Washington, D. C. — First Day of three cent 
Bicentennial stamped envelope. 

June 16 — Washington, D. C. — First Day of three cent 
Washington head stamped envelope. 

June 17 — Bloomsburg, Pa. — Cachet containing profile of 
Washington and a pen inscription. Sponsored by Caldwell 
Consistory 32 (only five mailed). 

June 22 — Atlantic City, N. J. — Printed cachet for Bicen- 
tennial Pageant. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



167 



June 24 — Pittsburgh, Pa. — Fort Duquesne. Applied in 
blue by Pittsburgh Sun-Telegram. 

June 24 — Pittsburgh, Pa. — Fort Duquesne. Printed in red 
and blue. 

June 24 — Washington, D. C. — First Day of three cent 
Stuart Washington stamp horizontal coil. 

June 28 — Chicago, 111. — Printed cachet for the Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Military Tournament. 

June 28, 29, 30, July 1 — New Orleans, La. — Celebration. 
Depicts Washington on Horseback. 

June 3 — Schenectady, N. Y. — Commemorates Washing- 
ton's Second Visit. 

July 1 — Newton, Conn. — Blue printed cachet. 

July 2 — Seaford, N. Y. — Chamber of Commerce cachet. 

July 2 — York, Pa. — Washington's Headquarters. Cachet 
by the Yorktowne Press. 

July 3 — Confluence, Pa. — Battle of Great Meadows. 

July 3 to 9 — Souderton, Pa. — Franconia Bicentennial. 

July 3 — Cambridge, Mass. — Washington takes command 
of the Continental Army. 

July 3-4 — Uniontown, Pa. — Dedication of Fort Necessity. 
Bicentennial Celebration. Printed cachet in red and blue. 
(Marked officially sponsored.) 

July 4 — Chicago, 111. — U. S. Army Tournament. 

July 4 — Morristown, N. J. — Washington Pageant. Cachet 
depicts his Headquarters. 

July 4 — Morristown, N. J. — Map cachet by the C. of C. 

July 4 — Philadelphia, Pa. — Shrine of Liberty. 

July 4 — St. Petersburg, Fla. — 15 0th Anniversary of the 
Signing of the Declaration of Independence. 

July 4 — Sulgrave, England — Sulgrave Manor. The Wash- 
ington Coat of Arms. 

July 4 — Uniontown, Pa. — Defense of Fort Necessity de- 
picted on privately printed cachet. 

July 4 — Westwood, N. J. — Celebration. 

July 4 — Philadelphia, Pa. — Independence Hall. Private 
printed cachet. 

July 4 — Valley Forge, Pa. — Washington's Headquarters. 
Private printed cachet. 

July 4 — Morristown, N. J. — Map cachet for Pageant is- 
sued by the Chamber of Commerce. Applied in blue. (This 
is a different cachet as two were used on the same day.) 

July 5 — Monroe, La. — Semi-profile of Washington. Last 
Day of 2 cent and 5 cent rate of postage. 

July 6 — Monroe, La. — Semi-profile of Washington. First 
Day of 3 cent and 8 cent rate. 

July 9 — Braddock, Pa. — Bravery of Washington and his 
men at the Defeat of Braddock's Army. Privately printed 
cachet shows Washington and the Virginia Riflemen as well 
as Fighting in the Ambush. 

July 12 — Ridgewood, N. J. — Commemorating Washing- 
ton's Attending Services at Paramus Church. 

July 2 5 — Bethlehem, Pa. — 150th Anniversary of Wash- 
ington's Visit. 

July 2 5 — Bethlehem, Pa. — 15 0th Anniversary of the Visit 
of Washington to Bethlehem. 

July 2 5 — Washington, D. C. — First Day of three cent 
Stuart Washington booklet pane stamp. 

July 2 5 — Washington, D. C. — To commemorate the flight 
over the Routes taken by General Washington, by Major 
Doolittle. 

July 26— Lebanon, Pa.— Post Office Day. Heads of Wash- 
ington and Franklin. Lebanon Visited by Washington in 
1792-3-4. 

July 26 — Dover, Delaware — National Post Office Day. 
Yellow sticker with printing in blue showing head of Wash- 
ington and appropriate wording. 

July 26 — Chestertown, Md. — Post Office Day. 

July 26 — Darby, Pa. — Post Office Day. 

July 26 — Hammond, Ind. — Post Office Day. 



July 26 — Jersey City, N. J. — Post Office Day. 

July 26 — Mesick, Mich. — Post Office Day. 

July 26 — Morristown, N. J. — Post Office Day. Memorial 
Flight of Major James H. Doolittle over Washington's Routes. 

July 26 — Newark, N. J. — Post Office Day. Cachet of 
C. of C. 

July 26 — Northampton, Mass. — Post Office Day. Several 
cachets on each cover. 

July 26— Richmond, Va.— Post Office Day. 

July 26 — Somerville, N. J. — Post Office Day. Cachet of 
Washington. 

July 26— Springfield, 111.— Post Office Day. 

July 26— Syracuse, N. Y.— Post Office Day. 

July 26 — Williamsburg, Va. — Post Office Day. 

July 29 — Friendship, N. Y. — Circular cachet of Washing- 
ton for Bicentennial Celebration. 

July 3 — Plainfield, N. J. — Bicentennial Celebration. 
Cachet by the Ball-Kirch Post 265 of the American Legion. 

August 1 — Chicago, 111. — Commemorating Washington's 
visit to Williamsburg, Va., to speak for the colonies. 

August 1 — National Park, N. J. — Visit to Fort Mercer. 

August 3 — New York, N. Y. — Washington's Order for 
Troops to have the opportunity to attend Public Worship. 

August 5 — New York, N. Y. — First Day of Federal Hall 
Post Office Station. 

August 7 — New York, N. Y. — Washington Signed Act 
Creating War Department and Northwest Territory. Fed- 
eral Hall Series. 

August 10 — Waterford, Pa. — Dedication of Site of Fort 
Le Boeuf. Cachet by Daughters of American Colonists. 

August 12 — New York, N. Y. — Final Session of the Fed- 
eral Congress in New York. Federal Hall Series. 

August 14 — Monongahela, Pa. — Cachet marking the 
Whiskey Rebellion during the Administration of President 
Washington. 

August 16 — Newport, Tenn. — Bicentennial Celebration. 
Cachet by the Kiwanis Club. 

August 18 — Los Angeles, Calif. — First Day of six cent 
Washington stamped envelope. 

August 19 — Washington, D. C. — Bicentennial Aviation 
Day. 

August 22, 23, 24 — Warren, Ohio — Bicentennial cachet by 
the Universal Stamp Association. 

August 23, 24, 2 5 — Collingdale, Pa. — Patriotic Sons of 
America cachet. 

August 23, 24, 2 5 — Philadelphia, Pa. — Cachet showing 
Bust of Washington. 

August 23, 24, 2 5 — Philadelphia, Pa. — Patriotic Sons of 
America cachet. 

August 27 — New York, N. Y. — Battle of Long Island. 
Federal Hall Series. 

August 27 — Wilmington, Del. — Washington's Head- 
quarters. 

August 27 — Litchfield, Conn. — Bicentennial Celebration. 
Sponsored by the Litchfield Historical Society. 

August 3 1 — Asbury Park, N. J. — National Baby Parade. 
The cachet depicts the Mt. Vernon School House. 

August 3 1 — Alaska, W. Va. — Cachet depicts Fort Ashby 
ordered built by Col. Washington. Last day as Alaska Post 
Office. 

September 1 — Fort Ashby, W. Va. — Fort Ashby Cachet. 
First day as Fort Ashby Post Office. 

September 2 — New York, N. Y. — Commemorating the 
Creation of the Treasury Department. Federal Hall Series. 
1789-1832. 

September 2 — New York, N. Y. — Same cachet. 1790- 
1932. (Error in date.) 

September 3 — Alburtis, Pa. — Bicentennial event. 

September 5 — Steelton, Pa. — Bicentennial Celebration and 
American Legion Parade. 



168 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



September 6 — Northampton, Mass. — Lafayette cachet. 

September 1 1 — Hammond, Ind. — Bicentennial event. 

September 13 — Chester, Pa. — Washington reassembles his 
Army at Chester, Pa., after his defeat at Chadd's Ford. Pri- 
vate cachet. 

September 14 — Williamsburg, Va. — Home of George 
Wyeth. 

September 16 — New York, N. Y. — Battle of Harlem 
Heights. Washington in Command. Black and Red cachet. 
(This is not the Federal Hall cachet but an additional one 
sponsored in New York.) 

September 16 — New York, N. Y. — Commemorating the 
Battle of Harlem Heights. Federal Hall series. 

September 16, 17 — West Hartford, Conn. — Sarah Whitman 
Hooker House. 

September 17 — New York, N. Y. — Constitution Day. 
Federal Hall series. 

September 17 — U. S. Frigate Constitution — Constitution 
Day. 

September 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 — Springfield, 111. — Grand 
Encampment of G. A. R. 

September 22, 23, 24 — Peoria, 111. — Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion. 

September 24 — New York, N. Y. — Washington Signed 
Act Creating Judicial Courts. Federal Hall series. (Error 
in spelling Judicial as "Judical" on all covers.) 

September 26 — New York, N. Y. — Washington Appointed 
Postmaster General. Federal Hall series. 

September 26 — Washington, D. C. — Anniversary of the 
Establishment of the U. S. Post Office. First day of the 
Benjamin Franklin Station. 

September 30 — Columbia, Tenn. — Bicentennial Celebration. 
Cachet by the Zion Community Club. 

October 3 — Lebanon, Pa. — Washington's Visit to Lebanon 
on way to Rendezvous with Troops ordered out to quell 
Whisky Rebellion. Sponsored by Lebanon County Historical 
Society. 

October 4 — Richmond, Va. — Bicentennial Celebration at 
Va. State Fair. Reunion of Washington Descendants. 

October 8 — Lebanon, Conn. — Connecticut Bicentennial 
Celebration. Cachet depicts Gov. Trumbull's War Office. 

October 9 — Lebanon, Pa. — Washington Examines Union 
Canal in 1792. 

October 10-11 — Providence, R. I. — Four line written 
cachet in pen and ink for Brown University Celebration and 
Commemorating Washington's Visit. 

October 11 — Bayonne, N. J. — 15 3rd Anniversary of the 
death of Casimir Pulaski. Cachet sponsored by Polish-Ameri- 
can Veterans Post 8 5. 

October 11 — Savannah, Ga. — 15 3rd Anniversary of the 
Death of General Casimir Pulaski who died of Wounds at the 
Siege of Savannah, Ga. 

October 12 — Washington, D. C. — First Day of three cent 
Stuart Washington vertical coil stamp. 

October 12 — Morristown, N. J. — 440th Anniversary of the 
Discovery of America by Columbus in the Bicentennial Year. 

October 1 5 — New York, N. Y. — Commemorating Wash- 
ington's Departure for a 30 Day Tour of New England. 
Federal Hall series. 

October 16 — Fredericksburg, Va. — "To the Glory of God 
and in Commemoration of the Religious Character of George 
Washington." 

October 18 — Fort Lee, N. J. — Commemorating the Con- 
struction of Fort Lee. Also pictures the George Washington 
Memorial Bridge from Fort Lee to New York. 

October 22 — East Hartford, Conn. — Aviation Center of 
the East Commemorates George Washington Bicentennial. 

October 22, 23, 24, and 2 5— White Sulphur Springs, West 
Va. — 21st Annual Convention of the Investment Bankers 
Association of America. Washington Bicentennial Year. 



October 24 — Boston, Mass. — Welcome to Washington. 
Scene at Triumphal Arch at Old State House. 

October 26 — Montclair, N. J. — Washington's Temporary 
Headquarters in Cranetown, now Montclair. 

October 27 — Washington, D. C. — Navy Day and George 
Washington Bicentennial. Cancelled on the U. S. Frigate 
Constitution. 

October 27 — Boston, Mass. — Commemorating start of 
U. S. Navy by Washington at Boston. 

October 28 — White Plains, N. Y. — Commemorating the 
Battle of White Plains in the Bicentennial Year. Private 
Printed cachet. 

October 29 — Fort Wayne, Ind. — Dedication of Post Office 
Building. Stamps cancelled with a bust of Washington. 

October 30 — Springfield, 111. — Special Washington Bicen- 
tennial cachet. 

October 3 1 — Portsmouth, N. H. — Commemorating the 
Arrival of Washington in Portsmouth. 

October 3 1 — National Park, N. J. — Commemorating 
Washington's Visit to Fort Mercer. 

November 4 — Fredericksburg, Va. — Typed cachet by the 
Fredericksburg Lodge A. F. & A. M. No. 4 in commemora- 
tion of Washington's Initiation as a Mason. 

November 10 — Boston, Mass. — Commemorating Washing- 
ton's visit to Boston. Sticker cachet by Boston Bicentennial 
Commission. 

November 11 — Columbus, Ohio — Armistice Day in Bicen- 
tennial year, C. of C. cachet. 

November 1 1 — Enfield, Conn. — Washington Bicentennial 
Portrait of Washington. V. F. W. Post 1501 and Citizen's 
Committee. 

November 1 1 — New York, N. Y. — Commemorating the 
Final Session of the New York State Legislature at Federal 
Hall before being moved to the State Capital at Albany. 
Federal Hall series. 

November 11 — Scotch Plains, N. J. — Armistice Day and 
Bicentennial Celebration. Cachet by Scotch Plains Post 209 
of the American Legion. 

November 1 1 — Spring City, Pa. — Zion Lutheran Church 
used by Washington as a Hospital while at Valley Forge. 

November 1 1 — Albany, N. Y. — Unveiling of a Houdon 
Statue. 

November 1 1 — Syracuse, N. Y. — Armistice Day in the 
Bicentennial Year. 

November 12 — Washington, N. H. — Washington Bicen- 
tennial Celebration. First Town in United States to be named 
after George Washington, then in Command of the Conti- 
nental Armies and later President of his Country (Dec. 9, 
1776). Printed cachet by Keene Philatelic Society. 

November 13 — Fort Lee, N. J. — Commemorating the Oc- 
cupation of Fort Lee by General Washington. Cachet in red. 
Same cachet as October 18. 

November 16 — New York, N. Y. — Commemorating the 
Battle of Fort Washington. Federal Hall series. 

November 19 — Hammond, Ind. — 180th Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Rogers Clark in the Bicentennial Year. 

November 20 — Chicago, 111. — Army and Navy Memorial 
Service. 

November 20 — Palmyra, Pa. — Dedication of Marker to Dr. 
John Palm, founder of Palmyra, who rendered Medical Aid 
to the wounded soldiers at the Battle of Brandywine. 

November 22 — Jersey City, N. J. — New Jersey Philatelic 
Federation cachet commemorating the Bicentennial. 

November 23 — New Market, Va. — Washington Surveying 
the Fairfax Line. 

November 24 — Meadville, Pa. — Thanksgiving Day and the 
Close of the Bicentennial Celebration. 

November 24 — Syracuse, N. Y. — Thanksgiving Day and 
the Last Day of the Bicentennial Celebration. 

November 24 — Mesick, Mich. — Last Day of the Bicenten- 
nial Celebration. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



169 



November 24 — Boston, Mass. — Thanksgiving Day. Cachet 
sponsored by the Boston Bicentennial Committee but cachet 
does not relate directly to Washington. 

November 24 — Columbus, Ohio — Commemorating Thanks- 
giving in the Bicentennial year. 

November 24 — Springfield, 111. — Thanksgiving and the last 
day of the Bicentennial Celebration. Private printed cachet. 

November 24 — Washington's Birthplace, Va. — In honor of 
the 143rd anniversary of the first Presidential Thanksgiving 
Proclamation, Oct. 3, 1789, by President George Washington. 
Printed cachet by the Fort Washington Branch of the Sons 
of Daniel Boone. 

November 2 5 — Pittsburgh, Pa. — Commemorating the 
Evacuation by the British of Fort Duquesne. Cachet by the 
Pittsburgh Sun Telegraph. 

November 2 5 — New York, N. Y. — Commemorating the 
Re-entry of Washington and his Troops to New York. Fed- 
eral Hall series. 

November 26 — New York, N. Y. — Last Day of the Federal 
Hall Postal Station. Cachet sponsored by the Historic Cele- 
bration Association of New York. 

November 26 — New York, N. Y. — By Presidential Procla- 
mation from Federal Hall, this day was celebrated as the 
First National Thanksgiving Day, 1789. Private cachet. 

November 3 — Whitemarsh, Pa. — Private Printed cachet 
commemorating Washington's Encampment at Whitemarsh. 

December 1 — Charlotte, N. C. — For First Flight for A. M. 
Route 19 from Charlotte. 

December 1 — Morristown, N. J. — General Washington Ar- 
rived at Morristown for a Six Months' Stay, Dec. 1, 1779. 

December 1 — Natural Bridge, Va. — Change of Lighting. 
Pictures of Washington and Jefferson. 

December 4 — New York, N. Y. — Washington's Farewell to 
his Officers. Private printed cachet of Farewell Scene from 
the Painting of Alonzo Chappel. 

December 4 — New York, N. Y. — Washington's Farewell 
to his Officers at Fraunce's Tavern. Printed in purple. Addi- 
tional cachet of the words of Washington's Farewell Toast 
applied on back and on some covers in front as the only 
cachet. 

December 4 — Plainfield, N. J. — Peter Muhlenberg Unit No. 
398, Steuben Society of America, Dedicates Living Memorial 
to the Washington Bicentennial. 

December 4, 7, and 12 — Franklin, Meadville and Waterford, 
Pa. — Meadville Fort Le Boeuf cachet but printed in black. 
Mailed at Franklin on Dec. 4; starting date of trip; at Mead- 
ville on Dec. 7, passing through; and at Waterford on Dec. 12, 
his arrival at the fort. 

December 5 — Bethlehem, Pa. — Commemorating the estab- 
lishment of a General Hospital. Black printed cachet by the 
P. O. S. of A. 

December 7 — Meadville, Pa. — Printed cachet by the Cham- 
ber of Commerce in purple picturing the original Fort Le 
Boeuf with appropriate wording. 

December 7 — Morristown, N. J. — Commemorating the 
Arrival of Washington's Army on Dec. 7, 1779. Printed 
cachet in red and blue. 

December 1 1— U. S. S. Brooks— Words "Valley Forge- 
Washington" in bars of cancellor. 

December 12 — Waterford, Pa. — Fort Le Boeuf cachet with 
the addition of a three line printed cachet reading "Water- 
ford, Pa. Built on the Site of Old Fort Le Boeuf." 

December 14 — Mount Vernon, Va. — Commemorating the 
133rd Anniversary of the death of George Washington. 
Printed cachet sponsored by the Fort Washington Branch of 
the Sons of Daniel Boone. 

December 14 — Philpot, Ky. — Pilgrimage to Washington's 
Land. 

December 14 — Mount Vernon, Va. — Private blue cachet. 

December 14 — Mount Vernon, Va. — Gold and Black pri- 
vate printed cachet. 



December 14 — U. S. S. Brooks — Words "Washington Died 
1799" in bars of cancellor. 

December 14 — U. S. S. Tillman — Words "Washington's 
Death" in bars of cancellor. 

December 14 — Mount Vernon, Va. — Anniversary of the 
Death of Washington. Cachet by the Boy Scout Stamp Club 
of Washington, D. C. 

December 14 — Meadville, Pa. — Anniversary of the Death 
of Washington. Cachet by the Chamber of Commerce. 

December 16 — Boston, Mass. — Boston Tea Party. Cachet 
sponsored by Boston Bicentennial Committee but does not 
relate directly to Washington. 

December 17 — Dedham, Mass. — Cachet depicting Powder 
House built in 1766. Sponsored by the Massachusetts Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission and Dedham Rotary Club. 

December 17 — Fort Lee, N. J. — Washington at Fort Lee. 
Printed cachet in green. 

December 18 — Boston, Mass. — Mourning for Washington. 
Cachet by Boston Bicentennial Committee. 

December 19 — Owensboro, Ky. — Bicentennial Celebration. 
Cachet pictures Washington. 

December 19 — Philpot, Ky. — Bicentennial Celebration. 
Same cachet as used in Owensboro. 

December 19 — Valley Forge, Pa. — Commemorating the 
Encampment at Valley Forge. Scene on cachet similar to 
that of Valley Forge Commemorative Postage Stamp. 

December 20 — Garfield, N. J. — Shield shaped cachet for 
the George Washington Bicentennial. 

December 21 — Newtown, Pa. — Washington leaves New- 
town to Attack Trenton. Private printed cachet. 

December 23 — Annapolis, Md. — Washington Resigns as 
Commander-in-Chief of the American Army. Maryland 
D. A. R. cachet. 

December 23 — Annapolis, Md. — Washington Resigns his 
Commission. Private printed cachet in brown. 

December 23 — Annapolis, Md. — Washington Resigns his 
Commission. Private red cachet. 

December 23 — Annapolis, Md. — Washington Resigns his 
Commission. Private red and blue cachet. 

December 24 — Bethlehem, Pa. — Printed cachet for the Bi- 
centennial. 

December 24 — Trenton, N. J. — Small all lettering cachet 
for the Battle of Trenton. 

December 2 5 — U. S. S. Brooks — "Washington at Trenton" 
between bars of cancellor. 

December 2 5 — Meadville, Pa. — Christmas in the Bicenten- 
nial Year. 

December 2 5 — Boston, Mass. — Circular cachet by the Bos- 
ton Bicentennial Commission. 

December 2 5 — Columbus, Ohio — Christmas in the Bicen- 
tennial Year. 

December 2 5 — Washington Crossing, Pa. — Commemorating 
the Crossing of the Delaware to Attack Trenton. Keystone 
shaped cachet in green by P. O. S. of A. Stamps cancelled 
in green. 

December 2 5 — Washington Crossing, Pa. — Small all letter- 
ing cachet. Washington Crossed the Delaware. 

December 26 — Trenton, N. J. — Commemorating the Battle 
of Trenton. Cachet by T. H. S. Philatelic Club. 

December 26 — Trenton, N. J. — Private printed cachet in 
black. Washington Captures Trenton from the British. 

December 29 — Pittsburgh, Pa. — Washington crossed the 
ice-filled Allegheny River in 175 3. Sticker cachet. 

December 3 1 — Valley Forge, Pa. — Last Day of the Bicen- 
tennial. Private printed cachet. 

December 31 — Somerville, N. J. — Last Day of the Bicen- 
tennial Year. Private cachet. 

December 31 — Fort Wayne, Ind. — Last Day of the Bicen- 
tennial Year. Private cachet. 

December 31 — Chicago, 111. — Last Day of the Bicentennial 
Year. Private cachet. 



170 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



December 3 1 — Bethlehem, Pa. — Flag shield in red, white 
and blue with photo of Washington superimposed. Last day 
of Bicentennial. Printed cachet. 

December 3 1 — Cranford, N. J. — Shield shaped cachet show- 
ing head of Washington superimposed on crossed cannon. 
Special circular postmark in blue. Stamps cancelled by a 
ring of stars with "32" in the center. Last day of Bicen- 
tennial Year. 

December 3 1 — Dairen, Conn. — Design of Marker erected to 
mark spot passed by Washington on his way to Boston. 

December 31 — Detroit, Mich. — Last Day of Bicentennial. 
Printed cachet in red and blue showing Washington greeting 
his men on Christmas Day, 1777. 

December 3 1 — Fort Lee, N. J. — Close of Bicentennial Year. 
Printed cachet showing head of Washington on shield and 
draped flags design. 

December 31 — Syracuse, N. Y. — Circular cachet for last 
day of Bicentennial Year showing head of Washington. 



December 31 — Pontiac, Mich. — Last Day of Bicentennial 
Year. Five line cachet over Indian head outline. 

December 31 — Hammond, Ind. — Last Day of Bicentennial. 
Seven line all lettering cachet. 

December 3 1 — Morristown, N. J. — Last Day of Bicenten- 
nial. Blue printed cachet, with head of Washington and 
appropriate wording. 

December 3 1 — Newtown, Conn. — Close of Bicentennial 
Year. Printed cachet in Old English type of appropriate 
wording around a picture of Washington. 

December 31 — New York, N. Y. — Last Day of the Bicen- 
tennial Year. Head of Washington in starred border. 

December 3 1 — Cincinnati, Ohio — Last Day cachet by 
Chamber of Commerce. 

December 3 1 — Greenfield, Mich. — Four line last day ca- 
chet. Washington Bicentennial, 1732-1932, Dec. 31, 1932, 
Dearborn, Mich. 




v 1732 - 1032 

ifitnttea States (Commission 

fur the (Selctnr.tKoii of the <t»luu "Huitftrcilh 
AnniluTanrjj uf the Birth of 

(ienrgp Washington 

WASHINGTON 8U1LOINS 
WASH I NGTON.O C 





The Honorable Herbert Hooker 
White Housa 

Washington, D. C. 



The One Official Cachet Sponsored by the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 
at Washington's Birthplace, Virginia, February 22, 1932 



Medals 




rNE OF THE PRINCIPAL observances 
of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Birth of George Washington by the 
Federal Government was the striking of 
the official George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
memorative medals. These medals were used as 
awards in the George Washington Bicentennial 
Nation-wide Series of School Oratorical, Essay, and 
Declamatory Contests, for deposit with national, 
state and other authorized museums, libraries, 
numismatic and historical societies, and other offi- 
cial depositories. Medals were also sent abroad in 
recognition and appreciation of foreign govern- 
mental, municipal and individual participation in 
the world-wide observance of the Bicentennial. 

In addition to the official Commemorative 
Medals, special Bicentennial badge medals were 
distributed by the Commission to those who par- 



ticipated in the Celebration in an official capacity, 
and for similar purposes. Among those who re- 
ceived this medal are members of the Cabinet, 
Members of Congress, Commissioners of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, and other officials of the United States 
Government. 

Medal Advisory Committee 

As early as 1930 an advisory committee was 
named to consider suggestions for an official com- 
memorative medal and to make appropriate recom- 
mendations. This committee was composed of 
representatives of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission, the Treasury 
Department, and the National Commission of Fine 
Arts. The Committee met on June 2 5, 1930, and 
recommended that, subject to the approval of Con- 




HONORABLE SOL BLOOM, DIRECTOR OF THE UNITED STATES GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION; MRS. LaURA 
GaRDIN FRASER, SCULPTOR OF THE OFFICIAL GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL COMMEMORATIVE MEDAL; AND HON- 
ORABLE Robert J. Grant, Director of the United States Mint, examining the first medal struck from the die. 



172 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



gress, the Commission should have a Commemora- 
tive Medal struck by the United States Mint to 
be used for award purposes in the various contests 
to be conducted under the auspices of the Com- 
mission, and for such other purposes as the Com- 
mission might approve. 

A program of competition for the selection of 
a design was prepared by the National Commission 
of Fine Arts. Under the terms of this program 
leading medallists of the country were invited to 
enter the competition and to submit their models 
not later than December 31, 1930. It was stipu- 
lated that the obverse of the medal should bear a 
portrait of George Washington modelled on the 
Houdon bust at Mount Vernon, and the design 
on the reverse should be national in conception. 

The models submitted were judged anonymously 
by a jury of award consisting of the present and 
former sculptor-members of the National Com- 
mission of Fine Arts, whose decision was unani- 
mous in favor of a model which proved to be the 
work of Mrs. Laura Gardin Fraser, of New York 
City. The United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, as well as the National 
Commission of Fine Arts, approved this decision. 

The official Commemorative Medals were struck 
in platinum, gold, silver and bronze. The first, 



or master medal, was struck in platinum and pre- 
sented to the President of the United States, 
Herbert Hoover. This was the first medal ever 
struck from platinum by the United States Gov- 
ernment. There were two other medals struck 
from this same metal, which was supplied to the 
Commission through the patriotic interests of the 
platinum industry. One was presented to the 
Director of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, and the other to the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

There were two replicas of the platinum medals 
struck in gold. These were presented to the na- 
tional winners in the school essay and oratorical 
contests conducted under the auspices of the 
Commission. 

Three hundred silver medals and thirty-five 
hundred bronze medals were also struck. Silver 
and bronze medals were used as first and second 
awards in the various state and regional school 
contests. 

Of the remaining bronze medals more than two 
hundred were presented to numismatic and histori- 
cal societies for exhibition in their museums and 
libraries. The remaining bronze medals were dis- 
tributed to persons who participated to an out- 



,<; 





Obverse Reverse 

George Washington Official Commemorative Medal 

Showing the obverse and reverse of the Official Commemorative 
Medal designed by Mrs. Laura Gardin Fraser and selected by 
the special committee of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission for use in the Celebration of the Tivo 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



173 



standing degree in the world-wide George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration. 

The artistic beauty and general appropriateness 
of the official Commemorative Medal may be seen 
in the accompanying illustration. The principal 
feature of the design on the obverse is a portrait 
bust of Washington after Houdon, in military uni- 
form, profile view. Above it, is the inscription 
"Washington," while beneath it a shield bearing 
the Washington coat of arms which separates the 
dates "1732" and "1932." On the reverse is a 
full length symbolic figure of Liberty, standing on 
the prow of the Ship of State, holding a lighted 
torch in the right hand and a sword in the left. 
In the field above this figure appear an eagle with 
outspread wings, and thirteen stars. The inscrip- 



tion which completes the design reads: "Proclaim 
liberty throughout all the land." 

President Receives Platinum Medal 

The master official Commemorative Medal was 
presented to President Herbert Hoover at the 
White House on December 1, 1932. The presenta- 
tion took place at the Executive Offices at 12:30 
P. M. Senator Simeon D. Fess of Ohio, Vice- 
chairman of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission and Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, presented the medal to 
President Hoover as Chairman of the Commission. 
Mrs. Laura Gardin Fraser, sculptor of the medal, 
was present at the ceremony, as were also Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury James H. Douglas, and 




tional News Photo. 



Senator Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, pre- 
senting President Hoover with the Master Official George Washington Bicentennial Commemorative Medal. 
From left to right: Senator Fess, Preside/7 1 Hoover, Mrs. Laura Gardin Fraser, who designed the medal which 

was the first to be struck in platinum by the United States Government mint, and Honorable Sol Bloom, Director 

of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 



174 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 




The George Washington Bicentennial Badge Medal, 

slightly enlarged in order to show the details of 

its design 

Representative Sol Bloom of New York, Director 
of the Commission. 

As presented to the President, the medal is 
encased under glass in a handsome upright bronze 
frame showing both sides, mounted on a marble 
base. A metal plate bears the following inscrip- 
tion: 

"George Washington Bicentennial Commemora- 



tive Medal, Presented to Herbert Hoover, President 
of the United States and Chairman of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion. First Platinum Medal Struck by the United 
States Government." 

The medal is three inches in diameter and con- 
tains platinum sufficient to make 120 wedding 
rings. 

Bicentennial Badge Medals 

There were 3,800 badge medals issued by the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, in bronze and gold on bronze. 

These badge medals are in the shape of a shield 
suspended on a ribbon of buff and blue. On the 
obverse of the shield the head of George Wash- 
ington, modelled after the profile view of the 
Houdon bust, occupies a circular field in the center. 
Mount Vernon is pictured directly above, between 
the coat of arms of the United States at the right 
and the Washington coat of arms at the left, 
while a scroll beneath the central device bears the 
inscription, "George Washington Bicentennial," 
above the dates "1732" and "1932." On the re- 
verse is shown the Capitol of the United States 
above an appropriate inscription including the 
name of the Commission. The design of this medal 
was made and executed by the Bailey, Banks and 
Biddle Company of Philadelphia. 

In addition to distribution of these badge medals 
to officials of the United States Government, many 
were sent to American diplomatic and consular 
officers abroad who by their interest and active 
cooperation contributed greatly to the observance 
throughout the world of the George Washington 
Bicentennial. Medals were also sent to individuals 
in 8 1 foreign countries, both foreigners and Ameri- 
cans residing abroad who took a prominent part 
in Bicentennial Celebrations in foreign countries. 
These medals were also sent to a number of public 
libraries for their permanent possession. 



The George Washington Quarter Dollar 




"GEORGE WASHINGTON" quarter 
dollar was issued in 1932 as a feature of 
the Federal Government's participation 
in the George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration. This is the first United States coin of 
general circulation bearing the likeness of George 
Washington and supplanted in design the quarter 
previously issued. 

Six million of the new coins were minted in 1932 
and the design will continue in use for all twenty- 
five-cent pieces to be minted for general circu- 
lation during the next twenty-five years, or until 
changed by act of Congress. 

Suggested by Commission 
The United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission in a letter of April 15, 1930, 
to the Secretary of the Treasury, Honorable 
Andrew W. Mellon, suggested that the Government 
issue a coin in commemoration of the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington. After conferences with officials of the 
Treasury Department, it was decided not to recom- 
mend a special coin to be sold at a premium, but 
a new coin to replace the current type of quarter- 
dollar, which would continue in use indefinitely. 
In this connection, the Secretary of the Treasury 
wrote the following letter to the Director of the 
Commission: 

THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 

Washington 

February 7, 1931. 
Hon. Sol Bloom, 

House of Representatives. 
My dear Congressman: 

Referring to your conversation concerning the matter of 
commemorating the two hundredth anniversary of the birth 
of George Washington by the issue of special coins, I am 
enclosing draft of proposed legislation which has the approval 
of the Treasury Department. 

In the attached bill it is proposed to commemorate the two 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Washington by 
changing the design of the current quarter dollar so that the 
portrait of George Washington shall appear on the obverse 
with appropriate designs for the reverse. The new quarter 
dollar could be issued in 1932 as a part of the Government's 
participation in the two hundredth anniversary celebration. 
Coins of the proposed new design would replace the current 
quarter dollar, and would be placed in general circulation 
throughout the country at face value, and not as a special 
coin to be sold at a premium. As the new coins would re- 
place the present type of quarter dollar, the issue of the same 
would not be contrary to the objections set forth by the 
President in his veto message in connection with the issue of 
special commemorative coins. 



In view of the provisions of Section 3 510 of the Revised 
Statutes (Sec. 276, Tit. 31, U. S. Code) prohibiting the 
making of any change in the design or die of a coin oftener 
than once in twenty-five years without authority of Congress, 
and since the design of the current quarter dollar was adopted 
in 1916, this legislation will be required, and will be sufficient 
to enable the Treasury to make the change. No appropria- 
tion will be necessary beyond that already provided for the 
Mint Service. 

The design of the current quarter dollar has been the sub- 
ject of considerable criticism. It wears very badly and is a 
difficult coin to manufacture; the design is too elaborate for 
the small surface, and it is almost impossible to bring the 
details into proper relief. 

A similar letter has also been addressed to Senator Fess, 
who also discussed the matter with the Treasury Department. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) A. W. Mellon, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 

Act of Congress Passed 

Identical bills providing for this change in the 

design of the quarter-dollar were introduced in 

the Senate by the Hon. Simeon D. Fess, United 

States Senator from Ohio, and Vice Chairman of 

the United States George Washington Bicentennial 

Commission, and in the House of Representatives 

by the Hon. Randolph Perkins, Representative 

from New Jersey, chairman of the Committee on 

Coinage, Weights and Measures. The bill was 

passed by Congress and approved by the President 

on March 4, 1931. The Act of Congress is as 

follows: 

Public No. 8 52 — 71st Congress 
(S. 6103) 

An Act to authorize a change in the design of the quarter 
dollar to commemorate the two hundredth anniversary of 
the birth of George Washington. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives 
of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That 
notwithstanding the provisions and limitation of section 3 510 
of the Revised Statutes, as amended, the Secretary of the 
Treasury is authorized and directed, for the purpose of com- 
memorating the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington, to change the design of the twenty-five- 
cent piece so that the portrait of George Washington shall 
appear on the obverse, with appropriate devices on the reverse, 
of said piece. The new coins shall be issued for general 
circulation beginning in 193 2, the year of the said bicenten- 
nial anniversary. 

Approved, March 4, 1931. 

Leading sculptors were invited by Hon. Robert 
J. Grant, Director of the Mint, to enter a com- 
petition for the selection of an appropriate design 
for the new coin, and October 15, 1931, was desig- 
nated as the final date for the submission of models. 
More than one hundred models were submitted 
and considered by the Secretary of the Treasury, 



175 



176 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



and in the Spring of 1932 the Secretary of the 
Treasury selected a design submitted by John 
Flanagan, a sculptor of New York City. 

The principal feature of the design is the head 
of George Washington in profile on the obverse, 
with the word "Liberty" above it, the date "1932" 
below and the motto "In God We Trust" on the 
side. On the reverse is an eagle with wings out- 
spread standing on a bundle of arrows with two 
sprays of olive and the words "Quarter Dollar" 
beneath this central figure, while above are the 
inscriptions, "The United States of America" and 
"E Pluribus Unum." 



The new coins were minted at United States 
Mints at Philadelphia, Denver, and San Francisco, 
and placed in circulation simultaneously in all parts 
of the country on August 1, 1932, through the 
Federal Reserve Banks. They are exactly the same 
weight, size and fineness as the quarter dollar pre- 
viously made. 

Numismatists and the general public exhibited 
a lively interest in the new coin and it was in great 
demand by collectors all over the country as soon 
as it was available. 




sJRST IN WAR, FIRST IN PEACE, AND FIRST 
IN THE HEARTS OF HIS COUNTRYMEN, HE WAS 
SECOND TO NONE IN THE HUMBLE AND ENDEAR- 
ING SCENES OF PRIVATE LIFE: PlOUS, JUST, HU- 
MANE, TEMPERATE, AND SINCERE; UNIFORM, DIG- 
NIFIED, AND commanding; HIS EXAMPLE WAS AS 

edifying to all around him as were the ef- 
fects of that example lasting. 

to his equals he was condescending; to 
his inferiors kind, and to the dear object of 
his affection exemplarily tender; correct 
throughout, vice shuddered in his presence, 
and virtue always felt his fostering hand; 
the purity of his private character gave 
effulgence to his public virtues. . . . such 
was the man for whom our nation mourns. 
Henry Lee (1799). 



Foreign Language Societies 




^MERICAN CITIZENS of foreign birth 
or descent, and citizens of other nations 
residing in the United States, took a 
prominent part in honoring George 
Washington during the Bicentennial Celebration of 
his birth. 

The United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission co-operated directly with more 
than 300 foreign language societies in this country 
and the thousands of foreign born Americans 
throughout the nation were further reached by 
local Bicentennial Committees. Historical data for 
speeches, with special reference to the national 
heroes of other countries and those men of foreign 
birth who aided General Washington, was furnished 
to individuals, organizations and the foreign lan- 
guage press of the country. Suggestions for cele- 
brating this great anniversary, especially adapted 
for foreign language societies and their members, 
were compiled and distributed. It was pointed out 
that celebrations in honor of George Washington 
might well be combined with the usual anniver- 
saries of each group, and this was done in many 
instances. 

German organizations presented programs in 
honor of Von Steuben and Washington. Goethe 
was also linked with George Washington in a Bi- 
centennial Celebration on "German Day" in 
Chicago. An essay contest was held in the colleges 
of the United States and Germany, and throughout 
the celebration period German language news- 
papers and magazines featured the Bicentennial on 
many occasions. 

Garibaldi and Washington were honored jointly 
on the 50th anniversary of Garibaldi's death, by 
the Italians of Washington, D. C, on July 31, 1932, 
and similar celebrations were held during the year 
in all parts of the country in honor of these two 
patriots. "Casa Italiana" of Columbia University, 
New York City, published a series of lectures held 
in 1932 on the relations between Italy and the 
United States during Washington's lifetime, and 
a great deal concerning the significance of the 
Bicentennial year was published in the Italian lan- 
guage press. The Washington, D. C, branch of 
the Italy-America Society held a "George Wash- 
ington evening" on February 2 5, and the national 



Society published a special Bicentennial number of 
its Bulletin containing a bibliography of Italian 
books on Washington and books dealing with Italy 
and the United States. The Sons of Italy, an inter- 
national organization, has under way plans to erect 
a monument to George Washington in Rome, Italy. 

Polish-Americans in the United States emulated 
their mother country in actively celebrating the 
Bicentennial and there are innumerable clippings 
from the Polish-American press in the files of the 
Commission detailing Polish Bicentennial celebra- 
tions all over the country. The association of those 
two great heroes of Poland, Pulaski and Kosciuszko, 
with General Washington, gave added significance 
to these celebrations. Perhaps the most outstand- 
ing Polish observance of the Bicentennial was that 
of Pulaski Day in Washington, D. C, on Octo- 
ber 11, when, besides exercises at the Pulaski Monu- 
ment, there was an international radio broadcast 
in which the principal speakers were the Charge 
d 'Affaires ad interim of Poland and the Director 
of the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission. 

French celebrations of the Bicentennial also had 
a special significance in recalling the aid given to 
General Washington by Lafayette, De Grasse, 
and Rochambeau, and the French press in America 
made frequent reference to this added interest of 
French-Americans in this great anniversary. The 
Director of the Commission participated with the 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim of France in an inter- 
national radio broadcast on September 13, 1932, 
in honor of the 210th anniversary of the birth of 
Comte de Grasse. 

The Scandinavian and Danish press featured the 
Bicentennial throughout the year, and the various 
associations were very active. The three hundredth 
anniversary of the death of Gustavus Adolphus and 
the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington were jointly commemorated 
by the striking of a medal in New York City, while 
Swedish societies in the United States held about 
300 celebrations during the Bicentennial and there 
were commemorative services in 2,000 Swedish 
churches. The Danish Minister to Washington 
addressed the United Danish Societies of Perth 
Amboy, N. J., on June 26, 1932, at the Washing- 



178 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



ton monument in that city. The Sons of Norway 
celebrated the Bicentennial in all its lodges, while 
the Leif Erikson Association of America observed 
October 9, 1932, as Leif Erikson Day in connec- 
tion with honors paid to George Washington. The 
first Scandinavian society in America was the Scan- 
dinavian Society of Philadelphia, founded in 1789, 
and George Washington was a member and its 
honorary president. 

Jewish organizations perpetuated the commemo- 
ration of the Bicentennial by planting a Memorial 
Forest in Palestine in honor of George Washington. 
It is also planned to erect a monument to him there. 

Hungarians, Slovaks, and Jugo-slavs all over the 



United States held special meetings in honor of the 
First President of the United States, while the 
Ukrainians arranged a tour of thirty cities by the 
Ukrainian Chorus and Folk Ballet as a special 
Bicentennial feature. 

Americanization School 

This homage of many peoples found literary 
expression in the publication by the Americaniza- 
tion School Association of "Tributes from Many 
Lands," a compilation of tributes to George Wash- 
ington gathered from the literature and expres- 
sions of the outstanding personages of fifty foreign 
countries. 




*JV| 



PRESIDENT HOOVER RECEIVES POLISH DELEGATION 



Members of the Polish Delegation which held exercises commemorating the 15 3rd anniversary of the death 
of Casimir Pulaski, famous Polish hero who died fighting for American freedom, are seen here as they visited 
President Hoover at the White House after the exercises. Children are wearing the native garb of their 

country. 

Front row, center, left to right: Chester Hibner, of Chicago, Vice President of the Polish Alliance; Colonel J. 

Miller Kenyon, of Washington, D. C, presiding officer at the exercises; President Hoover; Honorable Sol Bloom, 

Director of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission; Ignatius K. Wcrivinski, of South Bend, 

hid., Chairman of the Polish National Memorial Committee. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



179 



The Americanization School Association is com- 
posed of the representatives of 5 1 nationalities "who 
work together to bring about a better understand- 
ing between native Americans and newcomers." 
The foreword of the publication states that "to the 
native born American, George Washington is the 
great national hero; to the child of the far away 
lands, he is something more than this — he is a uni- 
versal hero, and as the symbol of the liberator of 
human rights, he is close to the soul of the world." 

The tributes were, of course, originally given in 
other languages, but were translated into English 
for inclusion in the book, although "care was taken 
to preserve the spirit and characteristic form of 
the original prose or verse." 

With an original drawing illustrating the con- 
tribution from each nationality and typical of the 
country, the volume is a worthy contribution to 
the Bicentennial from the students from many 
lands who have come to the nation which George 
Washington founded. 

Polish-Americans Celebrate Bicentennial 

Polish- Americans in 1932 joined as enthusias- 
tically in the observance of the Bicentennial anni- 
versary of George Washington's birth as their 
compatriots, Kosciuszko and Pulaski, joined him 
in his fight for liberty more than 150 years ago. 

There were celebrations by organized Polish 
groups all over the United States, books and his- 
torical sketches were published, and the Polish 
press — newspapers and periodicals — gave a great 
deal of attention to this anniversary all during the 
celebration period. 

Every effort was made by the Polish organiza- 
tions to reach their members and every American 
of Polish extraction as well, with news of the Bi- 
centennial and helps to its observance. 

The Educational Department of the Polish 
National Alliance in Chicago, in order to facilitate 
the plans of its Districts, Communities, and Groups 
in holding celebrations in honor of Washington, 
issued at its own expense and distributed to all the 
Groups of the Alliance a brochure treating on the 
life of George Washington, accompanied by brief 
accounts of the connections of Thaddeus Kosci- 
uszko and Casimir Pulaski in serving this country 
during the Revolutionary days. 

The official organ of the American Polish Cham- 
ber of Commerce and Industry, New York, 
"Poland," had a special Bicentennial issue. The 



Polish magazine "Skarb Rodziny," made its Feb- 
ruary, 1932, issue a Bicentennial number. The 
Associate Editor of the Polish Union Daily of Chi- 
cago, Mieczyslaw Haiman, published a book in 
honor of the Bicentennial, "Polacy W Walcz O 
Niepodleglosc Ameryki." Hundreds of newspaper 
clippings in the files of the Commission attest to 
the participation of the Polish daily press. Selected 
at random, some of these are: 

Gwiazda, Philadelphia; Kuryer Narodowy, New 
York; Gwiazda Zachodu, Omaha, Nebraska; 
Dziennik Zjednoczenia, Chicago; Nowy Swiat, 
New York; Dziennik Zwiazkowy, Chicago; Polak 
Amerykanski, Perth Amboy, New Jersey. 

Polish Tribute to Washington 

This summary of the participation of Polish 
Americans in the George Washington Bicentennial 
may well close with the quotation of an excerpt 
from an article by Mr. Mieczyslaw Haiman, As- 
sociate Editor of "The Polish Union Daily" of 
Chicago, voicing as it does the admiration of the 
Polish people everywhere for the First President of 
the United States: 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 
FRIEND OF POLAND AND OF POLES 

A Portrait Sketch 

By 

Mieczyslaw Haiman 

Associate Editor 

THE POLISH UNION DAILY 
Chicago 

. . . The American nation rightly values Washington as 
the greatest of its heroes. For that reason, our glory is 
enhanced, because he was a friend of Poland. The writings 
of Niemcewicz are the best index for that. Washington's 
writings point to the same fact. Poland's Constitution of 
May 3 quickly received the attention of Washington, who 
was at that time President of the United States. In a personal 
letter to his friend, David Humphreys, American Ambassador 
to Portugal, he wrote on July 20, 1791: 

"Poland, according to newspapers, seems to have taken great 
and unexpected steps toward freedom; which, if it is achieved, 
will bestow a great honor on the ruling king who appears to 
be the motivating force in that matter." 

When Kosciuszko came to America for the second time, 
Washington, greeting him in the country, "to whose freedom 
he contributed so much," assured him that "no one hoped 
more ardently than I during your hard struggle for the 
freedom of your nation that she would be crowned with 
victory." 

On the other hand, he wrote Niemcewicz on June 18, 
1798, in bidding him farewell: 

"That your nation is not happy, though its efforts are 
patriotic and noble, is unfortunate, which all lovers of just 
liberty and the rights of man bitterly deplore; and if my 
prayers during these hard times could be of assistance, you 
would now be under your own vineyard and fig tree (to 



180 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



quote the Bible) equally happy in the joy of desired posses- 
sions with the people of the United States who rejoice in 
theirs." 

Poland also mutually looked with favor and wonder at the 
rising United States and Washington. The enlistment of the 
Polish patriots under the American standard though it isolated 
them from the movement, it, in a large measure, resulted in 
the expression of sympathy from nations in general. Heading 
the movement in Poland at that time was the same king, 
Stanislaus August, who was keenly interested in the American 
Revolution and who yet before the war broke out sympa- 
thized on the side of the burdened colonies, foreseeing even 
finally their independence. . . . When Washington was 
elected President, the Polish king sent him a letter of con- 
gratulations, which, however, has not been preserved. But 
another letter of Stanislaus August to Washington has been 
handed down. It was written from Grodno, April 27, 1795, 
after the third partition of Poland, in which the unhappy 
king assured the American hero: 

"Your attitude in war and in peace has a long time ago 
awakened in me the hope to express the high esteem which 
I hold for you. ... It pleases me that it is an American 
who will deliver to his fellow countrymen marks of my 
respect and feeling, to the nation, which has already earned 
for itself the regard of the inhabitants of the old hemisphere, 
to the country which in many ways can serve them as a 
lesson and an example." 

This was eloquent proof of the sympathy of Stanislaus 
August for America — it was regrettable that he had limited 
his wonder for Washington only to feeling and that he had 
not bestirred himself to action and imitated his deeds. 

As felt the king, so felt the people of Poland. A sub- 
stantial number of Polish contemporary writers of the Revo- 
lutionary War testify to that. Paul Mostowski, Polish lord, 
aroused by the rumblings of war, drafted plans for a "new 
Poland" in America and, laying them before the Continental 
Congress, gave the assurance that he "rejoices that the Colonies 
will free themselves from the despotism, which you are crush- 
ing," and that he "looks forward to seeing them happy in 
the sweetness of freedom, similar to that, which reigns in 
my land." 

Poland preceded all Europe and even America herself in 
issuing the first biography of Washington. The author of 
it was Niemcewicz, who expressed his conviction in the 
preface in the following words: "I do not doubt that whatever 
is concerned with that truly great man, the liberator of his 
country, will interest my compatriots. I write of him with 
praise, with enthusiasm, for to whom does honor belong more 
than to the man who knew how to battle and govern, whom 
success had not spoiled, whom power had not intoxicated, 
and who in the end finished his last days reproachless and 
without a flaw." That biography under the title of "A Short 
Account of the Life and Deeds of General Washington" 
came out with the issuance by Niemcewicz of "Various 
Writings" in Warsaw in the year 1803, one year before the 
first American biography of Washington. 

"Washington may have had faults since he was human" — 
Niemcewicz characterizes him — "but taking him as a whole, 
he was a great man, because he was without obvious flaws 
and displayed no selfish interest; his virtues equalled his serv- 
ices to his country. In battle he displayed great courage 
and an extraordinary knowledge of military tactics and in 
difficult and adverse times stability and persistence, in all 
activities humility and unselfishness. He served through the 
whole war without pay and in a time of exaltation on the 
part of grateful countrymen he never wanted to accept the 
smallest reward; he finally demonstrated that he never sought 
praise and great power by resigning the presidency when he 
could have remained at the helm of his government until 
his death." 

Another Polish writer, Lucian Siemienski, appraises Wash- 



ington as follows: "To study Washington closely was to be 
educated in the best school. As a legislator, as a philosopher, 
as a commander-in-chief, he was a type of those rare people, 
who elevate mankind and who impress on him the mark of 
greatness. His politics as his domestic life are an example 
of the deepest disinterestedness. When storms rumbled about 
him, he threw aside all thoughts of ambition. The prosperity 
of the people through independent development was the end 
of his efforts and aspirations. Not even the magnificence of 
camp reviews; not even the glory linked with the name of a 
hero; nor any other exterior sign could turn his head; he 
never desired power and he accepted the dictatorship only 
after he was convinced that it would be for the common 
good, but he put this power aside as soon as he saw that 
right could go along its usual course without its support. 
His unceasing concern for the public good was the quintes- 
sence of his character, and it has served all the more to 
stamp him as a genius." 

Washington — he was truly a genius of unselfish love for 
country and service, a genius who combined the virtues of a 
statesman, a commander, and an organizer. History has few 
men of his caliber who can be likened to him. 

Kosciuszko, coming to America on his second occasion, 
greeted him with these words: "I have the honor to pay my 
respects to you not only as my commander, but also as a 
great man whose distinguished services to his country have 
endeared him to every person." 

In these words our hero — who among historical figures of 
all nations perhaps resembles Washington the most closely in 
character — uttered what must feel every noble person, every 
Pole. 

To us Polish-Americans, Washington has a two-fold signifi- 
cance: First, as the greatest of Americans, the finest example 
of citizenry and patriotism, and, secondly, as the friend of 
Kosciuszko and Pulaski and Niemcewicz, and as a sympathetic 
friend of Poland who — as he himself admitted — prayed for 
her success during her struggle for liberty, and who in times 
of her subjection and sorrow wept at her misfortune. 

Therefore in the year of the 200th anniversary of his 
birth, Polish emigrants in America unite with the entire 
American nation in paying homage to the memory of George 
Washington — "First in war, first in peace, and first in the 
hearts of his countrymen." 

Pulaski Day in Washington 

Pulaski Day was observed in Washington and 
elsewhere in the United States in accordance with 
a resolution of Congress and a proclamation of 
President Hoover setting aside October 11, 1932, 
the 15 3rd anniversary of the death of Casimir 
Pulaski, for the commemoration of the Polish hero 
who gave his life in the cause of American freedom. 
The program in the National Capital was under 
the joint auspices of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission and the 
Pulaski National Memorial Committee, of which 
I. K. Werwinski was chairman. 

The United States Army was represented by 
three troops from the Third Cavalry Regiment, as 
Pulaski was one of the leaders in the establishment 
of the American cavalry in the Continental Army, 
and by a squadron of machine gunners. The Navy 
was represented by a Navy airplane, which dropped 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



181 



a wreath into the Potomac River, symbolizing the 
burial of Pulaski, which is believed to have taken 
place at sea. 

The program in Washington began the morning 
of October 11, with exercises at the Pulaski Monu- 
ment, Thirteenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, 
Northwest. Large delegations of Polish Americans 
from Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore and other 
parts of the United States joined citizens of Polish 
descent in the Nation's Capital, representatives of 
the Polish Embassy and of the American Govern- 
ment, and the people of Washington in this com- 
memorative ceremony which inaugurated the pro- 
gram for the day. 

The official program of the Pulaski National 
Memorial Committee for the exercises in Wash- 
ington on October 11, 1932, follows: 

Pulaski Memorial Day, October 11, 193 2, 
Washington, D. C. 
Under the auspices of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission and the Pulaski 
National Memorial Committee. 

I 

10:30 to 12:00 A. M. — Commemorative exercises at 
the Pulaski Monument, 13th and Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue, on the occasion of the 153rd anniversary of the 
death of General Casimir Pulaski, in compliance with 
Public Resolution No. 32, 72nd Congress. 

Introduction of Presiding Officer, Colonel J. Miller 
Kenyon, President District of Columbia Reserve Offi- 
cers Association by I. K. Werwinski, Chairman Pulaski 
National Memorial Committee. 

1. The United States Army Band will play the Amer- 
ican and the Polish National Anthems. 

2. Invocation by the Reverend Stanislaw A. Czyz, 
of the Church of the Immaculate Conception, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

3. Reading of the Proclamation of the President of 
the United States. 

Miss Angelina Byczkowska. 
Miss Wanda Witczak. 
Laying of wreaths. 

4. Address by the representative of the Polish Gov- 
ernment, Mr. Wladyslaw Sokolowski, Charge d'Affaires, 
a. i. of the Polish Embassy. 

5. Address by Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission. 

6. Address by the Representative of the Polish- 
American people, Mr. Czeslaw Hibner, Vice President 
of the Polish National Alliance of America. 

7. Recitation by Delores Biniek. 

8. Address by Mr. John J. Olejniczak, President of 
the Polish Roman Catholic Union of America. 

9. Address by Honorable Louis Ludlow, United 
States Representative from 7th District of Indiana. 

10. Address by Mr. Frank B. Steele, Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the National Society of the Sons of the Ameri- 
can Revolution. 

Troops from the 3rd Cavalry of the United States 
Army will participate as Guard of Honor. 

II 
12:15 to 12:3 P. M. — Reception of the delegation 
at the White House by President Herbert Hoover. 



Ill 

1:30 P. M. — Pilgrimage starts from the Willard 
Hotel, 14th and Pennsylvania Avenue to Mt. Vernon. 

2:00 to 3:00 P. M. — Mt. Vernon — Laying of wreaths 
by committees representing the various organizations. 
Presiding Officer: Miss Emily Napieralska, President of 
the Polish Women's Alliance of America. 

Brief addresses by: Mrs. Kazimiera Obarska, Vice- 
Pres. of the Polish National Alliance. Dr. S. B. Pawli- 
kowski, Pres. of the Polish Beneficial Association of 
Delaware. 

IV 

3:30 to 4:15 P. M. — Arlington Cemetery — Presiding 
Officer: Mrs. Klara Palczynska, Vice-Pres. of the Pol- 
ish Roman Catholic Union of America. 

Laying of wreath at Tomb of Unknown Soldier and 
viewing a Navy plane which will drop a wreath over 
the Potomac River. This wreath will float to the sea 
to commemorate the fact that General Pulaski was 
buried in the Atlantic Ocean by French Naval Officers. 

Brief addresses by: Mr. C. Mrozowski of the Polish 
Army Veterans and Mrs. Stefania Dworak, Director of 
the Polish National Alliance. 

4:15 to 4:45 P. M. — Review of Cavalry from Fort 
Myer, Va. 

V 

6:00 to 7:00 P. M. — Polish Embassy — Reception of 
participating guests and delegations representing the 
visiting and the local Polish-American groups. 

This program has been arranged, with the coopera- 
tion of the Polish Embassy and the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, by the 
Pulaski National Memorial Committee representing: 
The Polish National Alliance of America 
The Polish Roman Catholic Union 
The Polish Women's Alliance of America 
The Polish Army Veterans and The Polish Beneficial 
Association of Delaware and all other Polish-American 
Organizations. 

The address of Mr. Wladyslaw Sokolowski, 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim of the Polish Em- 
bassy, at the statute of Pulaski, follows. Although 
the latter portion of the address was delivered in 
Polish, the entire speech is here given in transla- 
tion: 

I am proud that this ceremony has brought together such 
distinguished representatives of Americans as well as of Polish 
organizations and it is my agreeable duty to express my 
warmest thanks to Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, and to all 
those, who, by their efforts have helped to arrange this cele- 
bration. 

Permit me now to address a few words in my native lan- 
guage to the delegates of Polish-American organizations. 

One hundred fifty-three years have passed since the heroic 
death of Casimir Pulaski, and two nations — Polish and 
American — unite in paying homage to his memory. Al- 
though this day is an anniversary of death, we celebrate it 
joyfully, since the death of Pulaski was a fruitful sacrifice 
for a holy cause. 

This young warrior for freedom, who fell at Savannah as 
Brigadier General of the American Cavalry, was already a 
Polish hero. He was one of those whose life and death 
attest that our Motherland in her decline did not fall spirit- 
ually, that she did not die morally; that falling politically, 
she was yet able to provide other nations with defenders and 
martyrs for their freedom. We honor today the memory of 



182 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



a man who placed our national honor on the highest plane, 
and through that, became for following generations an ideal 
and pattern of the highest patriotism and consecration. 

Today's anniversary is joyful, because both causes for 
which Pulaski lived, fought and died, finally conquered and 
were triumphant. Free and united Poland, looking with con- 
fidence to the future, pays homage today to one of her best 
sons. From the foundation mixed with the blood of Pulaski 
rises today the edifice of a powerful Republic — the United 
States — in which structure a million hands of Polish descent 
daily take active part. When during the great World War 
came the need for defense of this Republic, the number of 
volunteers of Polish extraction in the American Army ex- 
ceeded the number of all others. That attests to the fact 
that in you the traditions of Pulaski has not been extinguished 
— that you are faithful heirs of his spirit. 

You cannot then today, other than with joy and pride, 
celebrate the anniversary of him who fought for your free- 
dom first, and then died for the freedom of your adopted 
Motherland. Becoming then the citizens of this most powerful 
Republic in the world — becoming Americans — do not cease to 
be Poles. Following in the footseps of your fathers, and re- 
membering the deeds of Pulaski, with the collective strength 
of the spirit of your Polish organizations, in this land you 
can do a work of peace for Poland — alike to that which her 
best sons did by sabre and courage in battles for her inde- 
pendence. 

May each one of you equally add a brick to the structure 
of a powerful and independent Poland, her good name, the 
defense of her honor outside her borders, — and then you will 
earn gratitude from the Motherland, and in that way you 
will render here in the United States the best tribute to the 
memory of Pulaski. 

To the organizations, which sent delegates for today's cere- 
monies, as well as to the Local Committee, and especially to 
its Director, Mr. Pawl, I give my thanks for the labors inci- 
dent to the organization of this celebration. 

(Translated by L. E. Kowalewski.) 

The address of Hon. Sol Bloom, Director of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, at the statue of Pulaski, was as follows: 

Today we are gathered in the Capital of the nation to do 
honor to Casimir Pulaski whose services to the American 
Revolutionary cause will always be remembered in gratitude 
by our people. 

When the word "liberty" rang throughout the world, fol- 
lowing the Declaration of Independence, many men of many 
nations heard that cry and responded to it. The dream of 
freedom for humanity was not new in 1776. For centuries 
patriots had struggled toward this bright vision in vain. So 
when the American colonies openly revolted against the mis- 
rule of the greatest Empire in the world at that time, it was 
a challenge to humanity that inspired the imagination and 
rekindled the patriotic ardor of heroes in many lands. 

Among those distinguished men of foreign birth who 
offered their sword to George Washington and the American 
cause, none was more colorful, more dashing and adventur- 
ous than Casimir Pulaski. He had struggled in Poland for 
those ideals which he could not establish because of the united 
arms of Russia, Austria and Prussia. 

His country being in the clutch of these strong powers, 
Pulaski looked to America for the opportunity to fight for 
the ideals of freedom which, for the time being, were denied 
his own countrymen. 

Pulaski came to America and offered himself as a volunteer 
in the Revolutionary Army in the Summer of 1777. We 
all know what the so-called Revolutionary Army was at that 
time. It was made up of patriots without military training 
or experience. Washington was struggling against the pick 



of British and mercenary veterans, but without a sufficient 
amount of arms or food or clothing. In spite of this pitiful 
situation, Pulaski threw himself heart and soul into the Amer- 
ican cause. 

It did not require long for General Washington to recog- 
nize Pulaski's superior military genius and he was made a 
Brigadier General. It was providential that Pulaski was essen- 
tially a cavalry leader. Our army had no cavalry as such, 
although there were some mounted troops. Pulaski was a 
superb horseman and under the authority of Congress he or- 
ganized a troop of cavalry which became an effective arm of 
the service. 

He soon gained a reputation in America for heroism and 
strategy that made him an outstanding figure. He seemed 
fired with a new enthusiasm for freedom in this country that 
symbolized much of his own Poland's historic struggle. His 
devotion to the cause of the colonies, his fine personality, and 
patriotism appealed to the imagination of the American 
people. 

It has been assumed that Casimir Pulaski was a soldier of 
fortune. I do not believe that this is true. I believe that 
his love of liberty alone kindled his devotion. During his 
brief, but active military career in Poland, he fought for 
those ideals of freedom for which the Americans themselves 
were struggling. He transferred that patriotic zeal from 
Poland to America because we were following the vision 
which had aroused his enthusiasm on European soil. 

Pulaski was always an active and courageous officer in the 
American Army. This personal bravery admits of no com- 
ment. Always in the forefront of every engagement, leading 
his men into danger, he established himself as one of the 
bravest and most skillful officers of the struggling nation. 

In the winter of 1779 the British were already in possession 
of Georgia and were rapidly acquiring a foot-hold in South 
Carolina. The impending clash of the two armies demanded 
a strengthening of Colonial forces. 

Pulaski, with a newly formed legion was especially fitted 
to meet this emergency. On the eighth day of May, the 
first division of Pulaski's legion reached Charleston. Three 
days later the second division arrived. They entered the city 
at a crucial moment when the City Council was on the verge 
of surrender. Pulaski's appearance revived their hopes and 
his gallant pledge to defend the city re-awakened the spirit 
of resistance in the South. 

The story of the seige of Charleston and the retreat of 
the British toward Savannah is well known history. The 
Continental Army followed the British to Savannah where 
they were joined by the French fleet under Admiral D'Estaing. 
The enemy were summoned to surrender and a siege became 
necessary. 

The attempt of the Colonial troops to drive the British 
from Savannah was unfortunate. It led to confusion and 
Pulaski, hoping by his presence to encourage his men, rushed 
into the midst of the battle. Then it was that he fell with a 
wound in the thigh and was carried from the field. 

Two days later, October 11, 1779, while on board the 
frigate Wasp leaving Savannah on the way to Charleston, 
Casimir Pulaski died. He was buried at sea with simple but 
impressive ceremony and his martyrdom was sincerely re- 
gretted by all the patriots of America. 

He had served in the American ranks about three years 
and his death came at the early age of 3 1 years. In his com- 
paratively brief career he had established himself in history 
as a dauntless defender of human liberty on two continents. 

His was a life influenced by the best traditions of Polish 
chivalry. He was a worthy member of the gallant band of 
men of foreign birth to come to our land to help our colonists 
in their struggles for liberty. His faith in our cause led him 
to make the supreme sacrifice. 

Thus, today, we meet to express again our everlasing grati- 
tude for the service rendered by Poland's noble son. He will 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



183 



live in our hearts and memories as long as we shall honor the 
heroes of the past — men of our own and men of other 
nationalities. 

Among the noble leaders of many lands who came to us in 
our time of need, Casimir Pulaski stands forever in heroic 
commemoration. 

Later in the day, Mr. Sokolowski and Mr. Bloom 
again joined in paying homage to the hero of both 
Poland and the United States in an international 
radio program commemorating Pulaski Day. This 
program was broadcast from Washington, D. C, 
between 4:30 and 5 p. m., over a national hook-up 
in the United States, and was transmitted by short 
wave to Poland and other European countries. The 
United States Marine Band also participated in this 
broadcast, playing the Polish and American na- 
tional anthems. 

Mr. Bloom, representing the Government of the 
United States as host, spoke first. His address fol- 
lows: 

We may search the pages of history in vain for a more 
heroic, adventurous and patriotic spirit than that of Casimir 
Pulaski, whose memory we honor today. This great Polish 
hero, glowing with enthusiasm for liberty, came from his own 
distressed land to fight upon our shores for those ideals of 
freedom that, for the time being, were crushed in his beloved 
Poland. 

Many brave and colorful foreign soldiers were enlisted 
under the banner of George Washington. Also, many of 
these were inspired with a passion for the ideals for which the 
colonists fought. Some of these men of foreign birth con- 
tributed important services to our cause and helped to mold 
out of the untrained, undisciplined, but determined men of 
George Washington's army, a fighting force which carried on 
a struggle that was the admiration of the world. 

Against the very pick of Great Britain's veteran troops 
and veteran German mercenaries, these men of America were 
fitted to contend on grounds of equality, and it was due in 
large measure to the experienced military experts from other 
European countries that George Washington was enabled to 
marshal his forces with effectiveness. 

Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski was a dashing and ro- 
mantic soldier, who had already achieved a reputation for 
patriotism, heroism and strategy that made him an outstand- 
ing figure in Europe. After having seen his father and his 
brothers treacherously made victims of that conspiracy of 
Russia, Austria and Prussia to crush and dismember Poland, 
Pulaski fought upon his native soil, until, having exhausted 
the last remnant of his strength, he was forced to flee, as 
Poland lay helpless at the feet of the three conspiring 
sovereigns. 

It was not surprising that the noble Pulaski should be fired 
with new enthusiasm for freedom in a nation that symbolized 
something of Poland's heroic struggles. And so he came to us 
and immediately his devotion to the cause of the colonies, his 
reckless heroism, his superb horsemanship and his magnetic 
personality, appealed to the imagination of our own America. 
Time does not permit a review of the important services which 
he performed under Washington's leadership. That is all a 
matter of history. 

He was not a soldier of fortune. His love of liberty alone 
kindled his devotion. He saw in the struggle for American 
independence an opportunity to pursue that bright vision 
which had so animated him in his career as a Polish patriot. 



And he transferred to Washington's service those remarkable 
qualities of military genius which everywhere aroused admira- 
tion and confidence. 

Pulaski joined the Revolutionary army as a volunteer in the 
summer of 1777. From that time on he progressively demon- 
strated his value and became one of the outstanding Com- 
manders of our forces. His glorious martyrdom in the de- 
fense of Savannah brought to a dramatic close a career which 
was matchless in its sincerity and zeal in the cause of human 
liberty. 

Trusted by George Washington, admired by him, and in- 
spiring a devotion that only the comradeship of war can bring 
about, Pulaski went to his death, dauntless and unafraid. 
Under direction of Congress, he was sent to Charleston, South 
Carolina, where the British had taken a sudden and defensive 
position. The arrival of Pulaski baffled the British. The 
Governor and the Council of Charleston had already agreed 
upon terms of capitulation, but General Pulaski went to the 
Council Chamber to protest against this measure, declaring 
that as a Continental officer he would defend the City for 
the United States. 

Accordingly, the defense of the City fell upon Pulaski, 
and so effective was that defense that the British forces re- 
treated from their attempt to capture Charleston and retired 
to Savannah. Pulaski pursued the enemy with relentless 
courage. In the ill-fated assault on that city, October 9, 
1779, Pulaski was wounded in the thigh by a grape shot 
when trying to arrest the retreat of French soldiers. Two 
days later, October 11, 1779, after more than two years of 
service under our flag, Pulaski died on board the ship Wasp 
where he had been taken after being wounded. His body was 
buried at sea, with simple but impressive ceremony, and his 
death was lamented universally by the patriots of the Revo- 
lution. 

Today, upon the 15 3rd anniversary of Pulaski's martyrdom, 
we stand with bowed heads in remembrance of that magnifi- 
cent sacrifice. We reaffirm to Poland and the Polish people 
our everlasting gratitude for the service which Pulaski ren- 
dered to our country. 

We have upon the program here today in commemoration 
of the death of Casimir Pulaski, the distinguished representa- 
tive of Poland, Mr. Wladyslaw Sokolowski, Charge d'Affaires 
ad interim of Poland during the absence from our shores of 
His Excellency, Mr. Tytus Filipowicz, Ambassador of Poland. 
Mr. Sokolowski will address you on behalf of his own country 
and his own people. It is to him, and through him, that I 
express again the remembrance which the people of the United 
States will always cherish of his great countryman who came 
to us in our time of need and who so valiantly and heroically 
served in our own patriot army. 

Responding on behalf of the Polish Govern- 
ment, Mr. Sokolowski said: 

In the first place I want to fulfill my agreeable duty to 
express my profound gratitude to Honorable Sol Bloom for 
the feelings expressed in his address. Through his splendid 
and successful efforts to commemorate, during the celebration 
of the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, 
the Pohsh-American cooperation during the period of the 
War of Independence, he has earned the well merited friend- 
ship of my compatriots. 

Two nations, America and Poland, today are paying tribute 
to the memory of Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski, and 
uniting in honoring the memory of this brilliant soldier and 
idealist, who, after having fought for the liberty of his Mother 
country, joined the American revolutionists who were strug- 
gling for the same freedom. 

Americans are commemorating Pulaski for what he did for 
this country. Permit me, as the representative of Poland in 
the United States, to explain to you briefly why we honor 
Pulaski in my country. 



184 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Almost at the same time — when the American struggle for 
independence began, three autocracies had combined to deprive 
Poland of her freedom. Polish patriots formed the Con- 
federacy of Bar in order to resist Russian armies. Amongst 
them — old Joseph Pulaski and his three sons were the most 
conspicuous. Old Pulaski died in camp, one of his sons was 
killed in battle fighting the Tsarist hordes, another was taken 
prisoner and sent to Siberia. The youngest, Casimir, con- 
tinued to fight against ever increasing odds. At the head of 
his cavalry he held his own against the Russian and Prussian 
forces, and proved that he was a first-class leader. Heedless 
of his own safety, always leading his men into sallies against 
the enemy, which was much more powerful than his poorly 
equipped army and much larger in size, he made repeated 
stands against the enemy. His fame as a cavalry leader spread 
throughout Europe. 

But the chief significance of Pulaski to Poland as we see it 
now, was not of military, but of political and moral order. 
His one claim to glory lies in the spiritual power of his activi- 
ties, in his unremitting efforts, in the magnitude of his sacri- 
fice and above all in the force of his conviction as a patriot 
and as a republican. 

In Poland his material efforts, his bravery and conduct 
were of no avail against the preponderance and power of the 
enemy. He did not save his country against the imperialism 
of the three powerful usurpers. Yet, though the country 
remained oppressed, it was he, who, in the words of Rousseau, 
"saved his unhappy fatherland, for he redeemed the glorious 
name of Poland, for he restored her moral forces." 

To the country invaded by foreign armies, whose popula- 
tion lost faith in its forces and was politically demoralized by 
invaders, Pulaski's figure stands as the incarnation of national 
honor. In the person of Pulaski and of his comrades, Poland 
protested against the oppression of invaders, and called for 
the justice of God and man. His figure served as an example 
to the future generations of Poles. 

But — not only for Poles. For — after Poland temporarily 
succumbed to the overwhelming forces of her enemies — the 
enemies of freedom — Pulaski, like other Polish and French 
patriots, went to America, justly believing that the cause of 
democracy was one and indivisible — and that whenever it 
would win, sooner or later the results of its victory would 
benefit his own country. 

This hope was realized when after one hundred and fifty 
years, the United States assisted Poland in regaining her na- 
tional independence, and continues to lend her a helping hand 
in the peaceful work of the reorganization of her economic 
life. 

This is another reason why, at this moment, when the people 
of the United States are paying tribute to the hero, we cele- 
brate his memory in Poland as well. Worshipping him as 
her own hero, Poland is proud that Pulaski gave his life for 
the independence of America. We rejoice that in the glorious 
edifice of the American Republic — there are stones laid by 
Polish hands and cemented by Polish blood. We are happy to 
see that while Poland celebrates the one hundred and fifty- 
third anniversary of Pulaski's death, President Hoover, in 
pursuance of the provisions of the resolution of the Seventy- 
second Congress, issued a proclamation making October 11th 
Pulaski Memorial Day for the observance and the commemo- 
ration of his death. 

As a hero of two nations, as an outstanding example of 
patriotism and noble efforts in both countries, Pulaski has 
always been and will always remain a symbol of Polish- 
American friendship. If he could rise from his grave deep 
in the ocean, he would be proud of his sacrifice, proud that 
his blood was not shed in vain, and proud that the debt con- 
tracted by America towards him and towards his country was 
well repaid. 

And now, since this broadcast is being received in Poland — 
and listened to by some four million people of Polish origin 



in the United States, I would like to speak a few words to 
my countrymen in my native language. 

Polska jednoczy si? w dniu dzisiejszym z Ameryk| w 
oddaniu czci bohaterowi obu tych narodow. Miljonowe rzesze 
Wychodztwa naszego w Ameryce biora^ dzis udzial w 
uroczystosciach uczczenia pami^ci i zaslug Pulaskiego; a choc 
jest to rocznica jego smierci, jest ona radosna, gdyz obie 
sprawy dla ktorych Pulaski zyl, walczyl i polegl 
zwyciezyly i zatryumfowaly. 

Ofiara zycia Pulaskiego wzniosla na ziemi amerykahskiej 
honor Polaka do wyzyn, do jakich tylko dochodz^ synowie 
narodow, posiadajacych takiego ducha i tradycje; jak Polska. 
Otrzymalismy oden bezcenn^ puscizn? — i Warn wychodzcom 
polskim — a dzisiaj Amerykanom — w glownej mierze straz tej 
puscizny jest powierzona. 

Przywiazanie do rodzimej kultury, i dbalosc o dobre imi? 
Polski,z ktorej pochodzicie, — skarb ten tylko moze powiekszyc 
i przyczynic si? do dalszego rozwoju wi?zow, laxz^cych Polsk^ 
z Ameryk^. 

Other Polish Celebrations 

There were many fine celebrations by Polish 
groups in practically every city in the country. 
The files of the Commission have reports on hun- 
dreds of these, and yet they do not include all the 
celebrations held. Typical, however, are the fol- 
lowing: 

"The festivity in honor of George Washington, 
arranged by the Poles of Baltimore on September 
26, 1932, eclipsed all like celebrations which were 
held during the year by Americans and various 
foreign groups," in the words of the Chicago Pol- 
ish language paper, Dziennik Zjednoczenia. The 
account continues: 

A Colonial Ball in the Polish Home opened the festivities. 
On the following day a wreath was laid at the Washington 
Monument, through the courtesy of Mr. W. Sokolowski, 
Charge d'Affaires ad interim of the Polish Embassy in Wash- 
ington. On this occasion Mr. Sokolowski spoke in the Polish 
language, and he was answered by Dr. Arthur B. Bibbins in 
English, who represented the State and City George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission. 

In the evening of this day there was a parade through the 
city streets, led by General Bowie, the chief marshal. Gov- 
ernor Ritchie took part in the march with other dignitaries. 
Marching also were Federal and State troops, policemen, mail- 
men, veterans, Sokols, ladies in Colonial costume, the Pulaski 
brigade, school children, etc. 

A special celebration was held in Patterson Park under the 
leadership of Mayor Preston. Invocation was delivered by 
Father S. Wachowiak. Addresses were made by Mayor Jack- 
son, Mr. F. Switlik, chairman of the Polish National Union, 
and Governor Ritchie. The latter lauded the Polish heroes 
who served so well in the Revolution and acknowledged the 
Poles in Maryland, of whom the State is proud. 

The rest of the program consisted of graceful Polish dances 
and tableaux of scenes from the life of Washington. 

A beautiful program, with pictures of George 
Washington, Kosciuszko and Pulaski on the cover, 
will be treasured souvenirs of this memorable cele- 
bration. 

In Bayonne, New Jersey, under the joint aus- 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



185 



pices of the Society of Polish Army Veterans and 
the Polish-American Veterans' Club, a celebration 
was held in honor of Washington and Pulaski on 
Sunday, October 9. 

A committee of these two organizations made 
arrangements to celebrate the occasion, and the 
Governor of New Jersey, the Mayor of Bayonne, 
Consul General Dr. Marchlewski and many other 
prominent persons accepted the invitation to ad- 
dress the large gathering of Polish-Americans and 
pay honor to the two great heroes. All other Pol- 
ish societies and clubs in Bayonne also assisted in 
the ceremonies. 

Polish Hall in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, was the 
scene of a Washington-Pulaski celebration on May 
Day of the Bicentennial Year. Patriotic songs and 
speeches featured the program, the principal ad- 
dress of the occasion being made by Hon. R. 
Pfeifle, Mayor of Bethlehem, who spoke on the 
heroes of the day's celebration. 

Jamaica, L. I., New York, witnessed a gigantic 
parade and celebration in honor of George Wash- 
ington on June 19, by all the Polish societies of 
Queens County and children of Polish parochial 
schools in the borough. More than 5,000 witnessed 
the ceremonies which were held in King Park and 
conducted by Vincent J. Kowalski, chairman of 
the event. Thirty-nine religious, political, athletic, 
patriotic and business societies were represented, 
with four bands. Silver falcons on scarlet and blue 
backgrounds, massed banners and floats made the 
celebration colorful and picturesque. 

The State Attorney General John J. Bennett, 
was the principal speaker and other speakers were 
District Attorney Charles S. Coldon, the Polish 
Consul, Joseph Kubisz and Antoni Rusyn, presi- 
dent of the Polish National Alliance of Brooklyn. 

The tribute of the Polish-Americans of Brook- 
lyn, New York, on Sunday, June 12, 1932, to the 
memory of George Washington "was a remarkable 
demonstration of the loyalty and enthusiasm of 
the Polish element," in the words of the Brooklyn 
Times of June 16, 1932. 

Continuing its editorial, the Times said: 

The persons of Polish birth or extraction now in the 
United States number more than four million. On Sunday 
afternoon, in spite of a downpour of rain which grew in in- 
tensity as the day wore on, many thousands turned out and 
paraded bravely into the park. Then they gathered around 
the bandstand and listened with interest to a long and im- 
pressive program. 

It was the tribute of the Poles of Brooklyn to the memory 
of George Washington, and at the same time to the memories 



of two gallant Poles who helped Washington to establish 
American independence, Thaddeus Kosciuszko and Casimir 
Pulaski. The young folks in many of the societies, and some 
of their elders as well, had donned costumes of the colonial 
period to carry out the Washington Bicentennial idea. Some 
had prepared floats and other elaborate displays. The rain 
played havoc with all these preparations, but the courageous 
Poles went through with their program just the same. 

To Consul General Mieczyslaw Marchlewski, who brought 
the greetings of the Republic of Poland, it was an occasion of 
special satisfaction. He heard many speakers praise the cour- 
age and steadfastness of his people, in 1776 and in 1932. To 
him were given many kind messages to send back to the old 
country. To him, to Dr. Antoni W. Rusyn, president of 
the United Polish Societies, to Mr. Bernard A. Kozicki, who 
was active in making the arrangements, and to all the others 
connected with this remarkable demonstration, belong the 
heartiest congratulations. 

The anniversary of the adoption of the Consti- 
tution of Poland was made the occasion of a com- 
memoration in honor of George Washington by 
the Polish Central United Societies of Bridgeport, 
Connecticut. The actual anniversary of the adop- 
tion of the Constitution was May 3, but the cele- 
bration was not held until May 15. 

Patriotic anthems, American and Polish, were 
sung by the entire assemblage. The principal 
speakers were the Mayor of Bridgeport, Hon. E. T. 
Buckingham, and Representative William F. 
Tierney. 

The participation in the George Washington 
Bicentennial by the Polish Americans of Chicago 
opened with a two day celebration, February 21 
and 22, featured a mass celebration on May 8, 
1932, at which the Mayor of Chicago, Hon. Anton 
J. Cermak, was the principal speaker, and con- 
cluded with an observance on Pulaski Day. 

As early as the Fall of 1931, representatives of 
seventeen Polish American organizations of Chi- 
cago met and organized a Polish-American George 
Washington Bicentennial Committee, with Jerome 
W. Jurewicz as General Chairman. The celebra- 
tions were largely the result of the efforts of this 
committee, which also did much to foster interest 
in the Bicentennial among the Polish language press 
of the country. 

The February program in Chicago began with a 
parade of more than 200 automobiles from the 
offices of the Polish-American Businessmen's Asso- 
ciation to Washington Park, where a throng of 
3,000 Polish-Americans had assembled. There, the 
Consul General of Poland, Hon. Titus Zbyszewski, 
placed a wreath at the foot of the Washington 
equestrian statue with appropriate remarks. 

The next day, Washington's birthday, the Com- 



186 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



mittee held a patriotic Mass Meeting at 8 p. m. in 
the auditorium of the Holy Trinity High School. 
The May celebration began in the morning with 
a solemn high mass preceded by a parade. The 
afternoon gathering was held in Humboldt Park, 
at the statue of Kosciuszko. Patriotic Polish and 
American songs were sung by the entire assemblage, 
and addresses were delivered by the Consul of 
Poland, Mr. T. Buynowski, the Chairman of the 
Polish National Alliance, Mr. F. X. Swietlik, with 
the principal address that of the martyr mayor, 
Mr. Cermak. A wreath was laid at the Kosciuszko 
Monument by the Polish Legion of American Vet- 
erans, and the exercises closed with singing by the 
children's choir of the Polish Singers' Alliance of 
America. 

Pulaski Day, October 11, 1932, brought to a 
close the series of Bicentennial celebrations in Chi- 
cago by the Polish-Americans there. This cele- 
bration was held under the auspices of the Educa- 
tional Division of the Polish Union of America, and 
paid honor not only to George Washington but to 
those two Poles who were also American heroes — 
Pulaski and Kosciuszko. 

The wholehearted participation of the Polish- 
Americans of Chicago in the celebration of the 
200th anniversary of the birth of the First Presi- 
dent of the United States, is exemplified by a reso- 
lution passed by the "Polish Young Men's Alliance 
on the Washington Land," and forwarded to the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission : 

BE IT RESOLVED, that we the members of the Polish 
Young Men's Alliance on the Washington Land, with head- 
quarters in Chicago, and by the heritage of our forbearers, 
Generals Kosciuszko and Pulaski and the myriads of soldiers 
of our racial complexion who have dedicated and given their 
lives for the world's republican ideals, we, most sincerely 
devoted to the principles and standards set forth by the 
Father of our Country, assert our sincerest respect and pay 
due homage to the builder of the nation in which we pride 
ourselves of becoming an integral part. 

At East St. Louis, Illinois, Polish Americans 
planted a cherry tree as a part of a joint observance 
of the George Washington Bicentennial and the 
15 3rd anniversary of Casimir Pulaski. The cere- 
mony took place at the Polish Gymnasium, Sunday, 
October 30, and was held under the auspices of the 
local Polish Council, comprising all the city's 
Polish-American organizations. 

The Mayor, Hon. Frank Doyle, and the presi- 
dent of the Polish National Alliance of America, 
Mr. F. X. Swietlik, were the principal speakers. 



The program opened with an invocation by the 
Rev. S. Czerniejewski and featured, in addition to 
the speeches, singing by Boy and Girl Scouts and 
a flag dance. During the exercises, the Polish 
Council presented portraits of Washington, Kos- 
ciuszko and Pulaski to the East St. Louis High 
School. At the close of the program, a Washing- 
ton cherry tree was planted in front of the Polish 
Gymnasium. 

The Polish-Americans Citizens' Club of Hack- 
ensack, New Jersey, staged a torch-light parade 
through the city and climaxed the event with the 
presentation of portraits of Washington, Kosci- 
uszko and Pulaski to the Board of Education. 
About 500 took part in the picturesque torch- 
light parade and the stirring program of speeches 
and songs that followed. As the feature of the 
demonstration, the portraits of the Revolutionary 
heroes, enclosed in one frame and covered with 
the flags of Poland and the United States, were 
unveiled by two children dressed in Polish and 
Colonial American costumes. The picture was 
hung in the Jackson Avenue School, "as an inspira- 
tion to the pupils there, and as a memorial of the 
George Washington Bicentennial." 

The mass celebration of the Washington Bicen- 
tennial and Pulaski Day in Lowell, Massachusetts, 
held on October 16, 1932, was described as follows 
in the Courier-Citizen of Lowell in its issue the 
next day: 

Nearly 1,000 persons attended the 153rd anniversary ob- 
servance of the death of Brig. Gen. Casimir Pulaski, Polish 
patriot and American hero, held yesterday afternoon at 3 
o'clock, in Polish hall, 10 Coburn street, in connection with 
the Washington bicentennial celebration. Stirring speeches 
were given by prominent people in the national and local 
life. They included Representative Edith Nourse Rogers, 
Mayor Charles H. Slowey, Col. Frederic Bauer, United States 
army; Henry H. Harris, headmaster of the Lowell high school; 
W~. Dackiewicz of Boston, representing the Polish National 
Alliance and Bronislaw Wysocki, of Scranton, Pa., represent- 
ing the Polish National Union. 

The hall was decorated in the national colors. A prominent 
feature was the placement of a large picture of Gen. Pulaski 
at the front of the platform, with floral pieces massed about it. 

The elaborate program had been prepared through the 
endeavors of Rev. W. J. Pawlowski, pastor of St. Casimir's 
church. Young people of the church choirs sang selections, 
while Polish girls gave recitations. There were also selections 
by a band. 

An impressive feature was the sounding of "Taps" and 
the carrying in of the national flag and placing it on the 
platform. The national anthem, "The Star Spangled Banner," 
and "My Country 'Tis of Thee" were sung in English and 
Polish by the gathering. 

In Milwaukee, Polish-Americans opened the 
George Washington Bicentennial celebration with 
a parade to the monument of Washington, where 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



187 



wreaths were laid, followed in the evening of 
Washington's birthday by a patriotic mass meet- 
ing in the City Auditorium. The Milwaukee 
Society and the Casimir Pulaski Society also held 
exercises in honor of the First President during the 
opening week of the Bicentennial. 

Niagara Falls, Cleveland, and New York all 
witnessed celebrations of the Bicentennial by Polish 
Americans. The Polish-American Civic Club of 
Pine Island, New York, held a patriotic meeting 
on March third; Plainfield, New Jersey, honored 
Washington and Pulaski on Pulaski Day, October 
11; in Toledo, Ohio, 5,000 Polish residents of the 
Fourth and Fourteenth wards assembled at Ottawa 
Park to hear the former ambassador to Poland, 
Hon. John N. Willys, speak on the significance of 
the day. 

A parade of 1,200 people featured the Bicen- 
tennial celebration of the Polish-Americans of 
North Tonawanda, New York, with floats, ban- 
ners and bands, and an address by the acting mayor. 
A gigantic parade was also held in Utica, New 
York, with tableaux from the life of Washington, 
and many of the participants wearing Polish cos- 
tumes of their ancestors. 

Unusual Jewish Commemoration 

The commemoration of the Bicentennial by 
Jewish organizations took the form of an ever- 
lasting and living tribute to George Washington — 
a memorial forest in Palestine. 

"The George Washington Palestine Forest" idea 
was conceived by the Jewish National Fund of 
America, and the proposal of this noble tribute 
met with immediate and enthusiastic response. A 
meeting of notable leaders and educators, Jew and 
non-Jew, was convoked by the Jewish National 
Fund and presided over by Nelson Ruttenberg, 
President of the Fund. This meeting took place 
at the Pennsylvania Hotel in New York City on 
Washington's birthday in 1932 and was attended 
by several thousand persons. Judge Julian W. 
Mack, honorary Chairman of the Zionist Organi- 
zation of America; Grover Whalen, Chairman of 
the City of New York George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Committee, Rabbi Israel Goldstein, of Con- 
gregation B'nai Jeshurun and Rabbi Wolf Gold 
addressed the meeting. 

In his address Rabbi Goldstein averred that — 

the Washington Forest in Palestine would also serve as a 
token of America's sanction of approval upon the develop- 
ment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. No nation has 



been a greater friend of that ideal than America. Countless 
monuments in marble have been erected in memory of Wash- 
ington. Stone, however, is inanimate. In time, it often 
wears out and even becomes corroded by the elements. A 
forest, however, is a living memorial which, as the years go 
on, grows ever more abundant and more beautiful. Many 
Jews in other countries will thus honor the name of Wash- 
ington. Surely there is no more fitting tribute that American 
Jews can render to honor the memory of the Father of his 
Country. 

According to The Jewish Ledger of Rochester, 
N. Y., "the audience was moved to a high pitch 
of enthusiasm for the Washington Forest plan by 
the enthusiastic expressions of opinion contained 
in messages from President Herbert Hoover, lead- 
ing American statesmen, clergymen and outstand- 
ing citizens regarding this memorial that would 
forever link the name of America's first and fore- 
most national hero with the ancient land of Israel 
and with the soil, sacred to all, now giving forth 
new growth and new life." 

The following resolution was adopted at the 
meeting: 

Whereas, the President of the United States of America 
has issued the following proclamation: 

"The happy opportunity has come to our generation to 
demonstrate our gratitude and our obligation to George 
Washington by fitting celebration of the 200th anniversary 
of his birth. 

"To contemplate his unselfish devotion to duty, his cour- 
age, his patience, his genius, his statesmanship and his accom- 
plishments for his country and the world, refreshes the 
spirit, the wisdom, and the patriotism of our people. 

"Therefore, I, Herbert Hoover, President of the United 
States of America, acting in accord with the purposes of 
the Congress, do invite all our people to organize themselves 
through every community and every association to do honor 
to the memory of Washington during the period from Febru- 
ary 22 to Thanksgiving Day." 

Whereas, the lofty principles of equality, liberty and 
freedom proclaimed by the founders of the United States 
under the leadership of George Washington have inaugurated 
the new era of civic freedom and religious liberty, thus giving 
an unprecedented example and inspiring ideal to the world; 

Whereas, throughout the history of the United States 
runs a thread of American sympathy, interest and deep 
understanding for a restored Zion; 

Whereas, the planting of a Washington Forest in Pal- 
estine, the land sacred and dear to all mankind, will consti- 
tute a living and evergreen memorial to the memory of the 
first President of the United States and will be of great and 
everlasting benefit to the land; 

Whereas, the Jewish National Fund which is the agency 
of the Jewish people for the reclamation and afforestation of 
Palestine has proposed a plan for the planting of a forest of 
pine and eucalyptus trees to bear the name of George Wash- 
ington on an historic site in Palestine which is held in 
perpetual trust as the property of the Jewish people: There- 
fore be it 

Resolved, That this conference expresses its heartiest and 
most enthusiastic approval of this plan; be it further 

Resolved, That this conference invites Americans of all 
faiths, and in particular American Jews and Zionists, to pay 
their tribute to George Washington on the occasion of the 
Bicentennial Anniversary of his birth by planting trees in 
the Washington Forest in Palestine. 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentenniat Commission 



Extensive Planting Program 

The plan at its outset called for the planting of 
approximately five hundred thousand eucalyptus 
and pine trees — "not a monument of marble nor 
a statue of stone; not a figure of copper or bronze 
nor a eulogium on perishable parchment, but an 
evergreen memorial of a growing forest." 

Machinery for furthering the plan was immedi- 
ately set in motion under the auspices of the Jewish 
National Fund of America. As an inducement for 
the planting of trees in the Washington Forest, this 
organization issued certificates to those who were 
responsible, through contributions, for the plant- 
ing of one, five, or one hundred trees. Names of 
the donors were also enrolled on the records of the 
American Tree Association, which records contain 
names of many prominent people who planted 
trees in honor of Washington during the Bicen- 
tennial year throughout the world. 

The George Washington Forest is a continuation 
of a great afforestation project to bring Palestine 
into its heralded glory. More than one million 
trees have been planted already by the Jewish Fund 
on its possessions in Palestine. According to infor- 
mation supplied to the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission in a letter 
from the Jewish National Fund of America, the 
status of the George Washington Forest project in 
Palestine is as follows: 

Site Designated. — The George Washington Forest is being 
planted in Palestine on land belonging to Keren Kayemeth 
Lelsrael, which is the parent organization of the Jewish 
National Fund of America, and is the agency of the Jewish 
people for the acquisition and perpetual ownership of the 
land acquired. Before the project was announced in this 
country, consent was obtained of the Jerusalem organization 
to set aside a special area for afforestation work in the name 
of George Washington. 

We have recently been informed that our Jerusalem head- 
quarters have set aside for the planting of the Washington 
trees an area of approximately 8,000 dunams (200 acres) 
on the historic site between Haifa, Palestine's future port- 
city, and Nazareth. . . . The area is the property of the 
Jewish National Fund and begins South of the excellent 
Haifa-Nazareth road, a pathway extensively travelled along 
by the numerous tourists to the Holy Land, as well as by 
the residents of the country. 

Number of Trees to Be Planted. — It is difficult at this 
juncture to predict the number of trees which will comprise 
the Washington Forest in Palestine. Unfortunately our ap- 
peal for contributions for the realization of this patriotic 
project had to be made during a time of the most severe 
economic depression and in many instances the steps neces- 
sary for the raising of the appropriate contributions had to 
be postponed. 

Still I am glad to be able to report to you that up to date 
we are in receipt of the amount of $6,226.44, representing 
contributions towards the Washington Forest Fund which 
will make possible the planting (at a price of $1.50 per tree) 



of 4,12 5 trees. In addition, we are in receipt of unspecified 
contributions for the planting of trees in the amount of 
$2,500.00, making possible the planting of 1,670 trees which 
will also be planted in the Washington Forest. The initial 
amount for the Washington trees has already been transmitted 
by us to our Jerusalem headquarters with the direction to 
carry out the planting of the Washington trees during the 
next planting season in Palestine. In addition, there are a 
number of communities where functions for the Washington 
Trees Fund will be held in the near future and the proceeds 
thereof will be applied for this purpose. 

Palestine is badly in need of reforestation work. The 
planting of trees is therefore an important and integral part 
of our rehabilitation work in the country. It is our plan 
to present the appeal for the planting of additional trees in 
the Washington Forest annually during the month preceding 
Washington's Birthday and on other suitable occasions until 
the great Washington Forest in Palestine will be completed. 

Italian-Americans Participate 

Italian-Americans throughout the United States 
entered whole-heartedly into the celebration of the 
two hundredth anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington. Many Italian groups took the oppor- 
tunity of commemorating the Washington anni- 
versary on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary 
of the death of the great Italian patriot, Garibaldi. 
Outstanding among these celebrations was that 
held in Washington, D. C, on July 31, 1932, which 
His Excellency Nobile Giacomo de Martino, Royal 
Italian Ambassador, attended. This meeting was 
held under the auspices of the Italian societies and 
clubs of Washington, and the United States Army 
Band furnished the music. 

From Rutland, Vermont, came news of a July 4 
celebration in honor of George Washington and 
Garibaldi, by members of the local Sons of Italy. 
Patriotic singing and speeches formed the program, 
which was followed by supper and dancing. 

From the Erie, Pa., Times of June 30, 1932, 
is taken the following regarding tributes of Italian 
Americans in that section to the memory of George 
Washington: 

Italian social orders of North East vie with their American 
brother citizens in honoring George Washington in the 
Bicentennial parade this afternoon. They have decorated 
the Stars and Stripes float most elaborately in carrying out 
the idea of George Washington describing the flag to Lafay- 
ette and other foreign military aides. 

In Birmingham, Alabama, the Federation of 
Italian Societies of the South held a mass meeting 
in honor of the Washington and Garibaldi anni- 
versaries on July 3, 1932. The Italian consul at 
New Orleans attended, and the speeches were in 
English as well as in Italian, for the benefit of the 
many persons of other nationalities who were 
guests. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



189 



July 3 celebrations in Providence, R. I., took 
the form of a huge Bicentennial parade under the 
auspices of more than 60 Italian organizations. 

The international society, Sons of Italy, the 
Italy- America Society, and practically every other 
Italian organization, through its branches all over 
the United States, paid honor to Washington dur- 
ing the bicentennial anniversary of his birth. 

The Washington, D. C, branch of the Italy- 
America Society held a "George Washington Eve- 
ning" on February 25, the following description 
of which is taken from the special Bicentennial 
number of the Society's Bulletin for February, 
1932: 

Invitations were issued by the Italy America Society of 
Washington to celebrate "a George Washington evening," 
Thursday, February 2 5 th. 

The Society took this means of making a contribution to 
the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration and selected 
February 2 5th as it is the anniversary of the surrender of 
Vincennes, Ind., to George Rogers Clark, whose success was 
due largely to the assistance given him by the Italian, Fran- 
cesco Vigo. This surrender is considered by many to be one 
of the most dramatic events of the Revolutionary War, with- 
out which the vast territory northwest of the Ohio would 
not have passed to the Colonies under the treaty of peace 
with Great Britain. 

The program included the dancing of two minuets that 
were said to be accurate reproductions of ones danced for 
President and Mrs. Washington, and also the rendition of 
Italian music, for which the first President had preference, 
and other music of the period of Hopkinson and other 
composers of that time, including several marches that were 
dedicated to George Washington. 

Even the orchestra was in strict accordance with ones of 
the Colonial days and included a harpischord that was in 
general use at that time before the advent of the piano. 

Appropriate ceremonies that evening also attended the 
presentation of an American flag and an Italian flag to the 
Society by Miss Alice Driggs, one of the members. 

Dancing followed the program. 

The Bicentennial issue of the Italy-America 
Society Bulletin also contained a splendid bibliog- 
raphy of Italian books on Washington and books 
dealing with Italy and the United States. 

The "Casa Italiana" of Columbia University, 
New York City, conducted a series of lectures 
during the Bicentennial year on "Italy's contribu- 
tion to the early period of America's making." 
These lectures were then combined and published 
under the title, "Italy and the Italians in Washing- 
ton's Times" — a distinct contribution to the cul- 
tural phase of the Bicentennial Celebration. From 
the Foreword, is taken the following description 
of the purpose and scope of the book: 

... It is too readily assumed, unfortunately, that the 
Italians are a people without roots in this country. The 
impression seems to be that they came here after the process 
of nation building had been completed, and that the whole 



of their contribution is limited to what the immigrant him- 
self has given. 

The truth is, as the following pages so clearly reveal, that 
long before the coming of the immigrant, the Italians played 
a highly significant role in American history, and that they 
too helped in building the foundations upon which the 
present Republic rests. 

Italian discoverers, explorers, soldiers, missionaries, scholars, 
and men of affairs have passed in unending stream upon the 
stage of our country's making. Some have wrought mightily 
and their names are remembered, their deeds recorded; others 
no less deserving are lost in the background of the great epic, 
leaving only faint traces of their gifts to the new land. 

. . . this volume . . . will inspire the millions of Italians 
in America and strengthen their sense of common kinship 
with all Americans ... it illustrates to what extent men of 
Italian blood have labored heroically and unselfishly that this 
country of ours might be better and greater than they 
found it. 

The Sons of Italy, an international organization, 
inaugurated plans for the erection of a statue of 
George Washington in Rome, Italy, soon to be 
completed, and its branches throughout the United 
States held special George Washington Bicentennial 
meetings during the period of the celebration. 

The official publications of the various Italian 
societies all cooperated in aiding Italian-Americans 
to participate in the Washington anniversary, with 
special Bicentennial issues, the publication of his- 
torical data, Italian estimates of Washington, etc. 

Italian periodicals and the daily Italian press also 
joined in the celebration. Some of the issues filed 
with the Commission are "La Voce dell Emigrato," 
monthly magazine; "La Tribuna Italiana Trans- 
atlantica di Chicago," daily newspaper; "The 
Italian Tribune of America," Italian Educational 
Weekly; "La Capitale," Sacramento, California; 
"Venerdi," of Newark, New Jersey; "La Concor- 
dia," of Weed, California; "La Voce del Popolo," 
of Pueblo, Colorado; "II Progresso Italo- Ameri- 
cano," of New York — all daily papers. 

French Diplomat Delivers Address 

Frenchmen, Hungarians, Czechoslovaks, Nor- 
wegians, Swedes, Dutch, Danes, Swiss, Greeks, 
Slovaks, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Yugoslavs, Rus- 
sians, Armenians, Finns and the many other na- 
tionalities represented in this country, all entered 
heartily into the observance of the Bicentennial 
throughout the United States. 

The Charge d'Affaires of France, Mr. Jules 
Henry, and the Director of the George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, commemorated the Bi- 
centennial of the birth of Washington and the 
210th anniversary of the birth of Comte de Grasse 
on September 13, 1932, when they delivered ad- 



190 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



dresses over a nation-wide radio hook-up from 
Washington, D. C. The United States Marine 
Band played "The Stars and Stripes Forever," "The 
Marseillaise," and "The Star Spangled Banner" 
during the program. 

Mr. Bloom, as Director of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission and 
representing the United States Government as host, 
spoke first in presentation of the distinguished 
French diplomat, Mr. Henry. Mr. Bloom said: 

Since February 22, 1932, the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission has marked for special honor 
various anniversaries of those patriots who helped George 
Washington to win the War of the Revolution. We have 
now come to a date of special significance, the 210th anni- 
versary of the birth of the man whose timely action made 
possible the final blow which brought victory to our arms. 

It is well known among students of history that many 
great men of foreign birth came to America to join George 
Washington and his patriot army in a glorious but discour- 
aged cause. 

Without detracting in the least from the honors due to 
those other patriots of foreign birth, we may well pause today 
to give a thought to the man whose unselfish and patriotic 
impulses, whose prompt and vigorous cooperation, brought 
victory to the allied armies upon the American continent and 
forever sealed the liberties of the American people. 

Comte de Grasse, a nobleman of France, brought his men 
and ships to our coast at the extreme of our necessity, and 
it is well to remember that this great French Commander 
not only placed his fighting forces at Washington's service, 
but brought with him a large sum of much needed money 
which he offered as a free gift to the American cause. 

We must also remember that the Revolutionary War had 
dragged six years of its course, during which time Wash- 
ington's patriot army was almost continuously awaiting the 
uncertainties of British movements. That army lacked prac- 
tically everything that an army needed, except courage. 

Rochambeau with his French troops had landed on Ameri- 
can shores and was cooperating in an attempt at organizing 
more energetic operations, but George Washington realized 
the hopelessness of an effort to defeat the pick of British troops 
upon American soil unless he struck a great decisive blow. 

Therefore, in the Spring of 1781, Washington and Rocham- 
beau were cooperating in planning a movement against New 
York which was held by the British. What would have been 
the outcome of a determined attack such as they seemed to 
contemplate we will never know, but it was quite evident 
that George Washington did not have great faith that such 
an action would provide the decisive victory to American 
arms which was necessary to final success. 

What must have been the exaltation in the heart of George 
Washington during these dark hours and after all those long 
years of war and almost fruitless maneuvering, when there 
was placed in his hands a letter written by the French Foreign 
Minister to the French plenipotentiary in America, which said: 

... "I may say to you M., and you may confide to M. the 
General Washington exclusively, that M. de Grasse has express 
orders, after having provided for the safety of our islands, to 
detach or take the greater part of the fleet to the continent 
of North America and to lend himself to all operations judged 
practicable for as long as the season will permit him to remain 
in those parts. If the Spanish are not in need of reinforce- 
ments from our troops, all of them will join you. It will be 
well that General Washington prepare to make the greatest 
possible use of this help and that he take measures in advance 
to assure their subsistence. . . ." 



The promise of prompt and adequate naval aid concen- 
trating in Chesapeake Bay, in a letter from Comte de Grasse 
received August 14, turned the entire plan of action. 

The proposed attack upon New York was abandoned and 
the American troops journeyed to Virginia, where Lafayette 
had practically bottled Cornwallis and his Army on the 
peninsula of Yorktown. 

We know that story now and how the British in New York 
were misled into an expected attack while the allied troops 
hurried to Virginia. We know of the timely arrival of 
De Grasse and his mighty naval force and how that arrival 
prevented the rescue of Cornwallis or his escape from York- 
town. 

We know of the gratitude felt and expressed by George 
Washington and his fellow Americans at this magnificent 
stroke which practically ended the American conflict with 
the surrender of Cornwallis. 

Today as part of the Celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington we pay 
tribute to the memory of Comte de Grasse. The suggestion 
that we do this came from Mrs. George Durbin Chenoweth, 
Regent, Comte de Grasse Chapter, National Society, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, at Yorktown, Virginia. It 
is a celebration, jointly, by the French and the American 
Governments and we are honored today by the presence here 
of the official representative of the French Government, Mr. 
Jules Henry, Charge d'Affaires ad interim of France, in the 
absence from our shores of His Excellency, M. Paul Claudel, 
the French Ambassador. 

Before making this introduction, however, I can not refrain 
from referring to a recent testimonial of the people of France 
which is most touching in its significance and which fits so 
perfectly into the tribute which we are paying to the memory 
of Comte de Grasse today. 

On July 4 last, Baron de Fontenay, President of the Munici- 
pal Council of Paris, presented to the Mount Vernon Ladies' 
Association of the Union, Mount Vernon, Virginia, a painting 
representing "La Ville de Paris," the flagship of Comte de 
Grasse, which played such a heroic part in the siege of York- 
town. It is interesting to know that this flagship was thus 
named because it was presented to Louis XVI by the Parisian 
people. It was said to be the most beautiful ship of the time 
and served as flagship of Admiral de Grasse until its mag- 
nificent and dramatic end, when ablaze from stem to stern, it 
sank beneath the waves in the great battle with the English 
in 1782. 

That painting is another and fitting reminder of the historic 
friendship between the people and governments of France 
and the United States. It recalls a glorious chapter of our 
long history and vividly indicates the essential character of 
the help which France gave to us in our time of need. 

I can not leave this subject without referring to the attitude 
of George Washington toward Admiral de Grasse after the 
siege of Yorktown, as indicated by his final expression of 
thanks to the Admiral. 

No one knew or felt more keenly than George Washington 
the value of the services performed by Admiral de Grasse. 

Presumably many of his compatriots, as well as we of 
today, considered the arrival of De Grasse at Yorktown a 
happy coincidence, yet Washington knew that this circum- 
stance was directed by that Providence which had guided 
him and protected his countrymen through all the long years 
of that terrible war. 

De Grasse, it is true, was working under general orders 
from his government, but had he not been sincerely devoted 
to the American cause he could easily and conveniently have 
delayed his action or terminated his service without achieving 
the glorious results which came with the surrender at York- 
town. 

I do not believe that we Americans have ever expressed 
proper appreciation for the service rendered by De Grasse, and 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



191 



the thought comes to me that I do not remember of having 
seen or heard of a monument to Comte de Grasse upon 
American soil. 

If this is true, it is a regrettable omission and a neglect 
that should be promptly and adequately rectified. 

In this capital city of the nation, where many beautiful 
monuments stand as memorials to other great foreigners who 
aided George Washington and his patriot army, there should 
be a suitable memorial erected to one of the greatest of these 
men — Admiral Comte de Grasse. 

Just recognition of his service has been too long delayed to 
this French hero whose presence at Yorktown, whose personal 
interest and strong support, made the victory possible which 
virtually ended the war of the Revolution. 

And now, as the Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, it is my privilege and 
pleasure to present the Representative of the French Govern- 
ment and to express through him, to his countrymen, the 
lasting gratitude of the United States of America for this 
supreme act which crowned our Revolutionary arms with 
success, and brought freedom to our beloved land. Mr. Henry 
will speak after the United States Marine Band plays the 
French National Anthem. 

... I now take great pleasure in presenting Mr. Jules Henry, 
the distinguished Charge d'Affaires of France, representing 
the French Government. 

Mr. Henry, responding on behalf of the French 
Government, spoke as follows: 

Let me first assure the Honorable Sol Bloom of my profound 
gratitude for the feelings expressed in his address. I know 
how sincere they are and I would not fulfill a most pleasant 
duty if I did not tell him that through his splendid and 
successful efforts to commemorate, during the celebration of 
the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, 
the Franco-American cooperation of the period of the War 
of Independence, he has earned the admiration and friendship 
of my compatriots. 

Last year, on the occasion of the Celebration of the 150th 
anniversary of the surrender of the British forces at York- 
town, the American Government extended to my Govern- 
ment the invitation to participate in the never to be forgotten 
festivities that were held on the same spot where Franco- 
American friendship was first cemented. A French mission, 
headed by Marshal Petain and composed of the descendants 
of those gallant Frenchmen who fought for American inde- 
pendence, came to this country and, for a few days, in the 
presence of the President of the United States and General 
Pershing, all the common glories and common sufferings of 
both nations during the War of Independence were evoked 
and described. 

Today the Bicentennial Commission and its eminent Di- 
rector, Hon. Sol Bloom, are celebrating the 210th anniversary 
of the birth of Admiral de Grasse. Knowing as they do the 
essential part played by him in the capitulation of Yorktown, 
the members of your Commission have deemed it proper, 
nearly a year after the Yorktown festivities, to honor his 
memory by a special tribute. 

I need not point out how grateful my country will be 
for this tribute to the gallant sailor who was "a great for- 
gotten man" until in 1931, when the Daughters of the 
American Revolution had the pious thought of dedicating a 
monument to him. 

May I take this opportunity of recalling the important part 
which my former chief, Ambassador Jusserand, took in the 
endeavor to make De Grasse's personality better known to 
the American and French public? In doing so, the man who, 
for 24 years, represented France in the United States, was 
prompted not only by his devotion to one of his outstanding 
countrymen, but also by his love for America — a love so dear 
to his heart that shortly before his death, his last words were 



to express the wish that the country of his birth and the 
country where he had lived for so long, never should tear 
apart the ties that were formed by the victory of De Grasse 
at Yorktown. 

Francois Joseph Paul, Marquis de Grasse, Tilly, Comte de 
Grasse, was born in 1722, the third son in a family of the 
ancient nobility of Provence, and early destined to a naval 
career. During the Seven Years War, he attained the rank 
of Captain and, as Commander of the "Robuste," took part 
in the battle of Ouessant, fought off the coast of Brittany, 
June 17th, 1778, which ushered in French participation in 
the American War of Independence. In 1781, he was made 
Commander-in-Chief of the French fleet which, on May 21st, 
set sail from Brest to the American shores. 

At the end of July, De Grasse, whose fleet was stationed 
in the Antilles to protect the French colonies in that section 
against English attacks, decided after surmounting consider- 
able difficulties, to sail for Chesapeake Bay for the purpose of 
aiding the land forces of Washington and Rochambeau. 
These difficulties were two-fold: 

1. De Grasse was leaving the French West Indies unpro- 
tected and disobeying an order from the French Government 
to have nine of his ships convoy the merchant vessels bringing 
to France the annual merchandise exports from the Antilles; 
and 

2. De Grasse decided to embark on his ships 3,400 men 
garrisoned at Santo Domingo, for the purpose of attacking 
Florida. In so doing, he was violating a Convention signed 
between the French and Spanish Governments and liable to 
disciplinary measures. 

In taking the blame for the momentous decision he had 
reached, De Grasse displayed all the qualities of a great man 
of war. As a French military writer expresses it: "He dared 
being weak everywhere so that he might apply the maximum 
of his strength on the most important spot." 

On the 5th of August, 1781, the French fleet, composed of 
28 battleships, left Santo Domingo, heading for the Chesa- 
peake Bay. On August 31st, De Grasse lay anchor off Cape 
Henry in the Chesapeake, sending some light vessels to block 
the mouth of the James and York Rivers, thus cutting Corn- 
wallis from his source of supply while the 8,000 men from 
St. Simon and Lafayette were guarding the entrance to the 
Williamsburg peninsula. 

On September 5 th, the British fleet was signaled at the 
precise moment (11 o'clock in the morning) when De Grasse 
was proceeding with the disembarkation of the 3,000 men 
brought from Santo Domingo. Without losing for a moment 
control of the situation, the French Admiral decided to let 
90 officers and 1,800 of his sailors, together with 3 of his 
vessels, proceed with the disembarking operations. A moment 
after, he ordered the main body of his battleships to sea and 
met the British off Chesapeake Bay. After two days of 
fighting, he defeated the British so badly that five of their 
vessels were out of condition. Their losses amounted to 3 36 
killed or wounded and they were compelled to sail on the 9th 
for New York. There was an outburst of enthusiasm in 
Philadelphia. The main body of Franco-American troops 
under Washington and Rochambeau had arrived on Septem- 
ber 2nd and everyone was discussing the clever strategy of 
De Grasse which would henceforth allow these troops to 
proceed to Yorktown and to complete the blockade already 
begun by Lafayette and De Grasse. Cornwallis' position was 
considered hopeless and as the man of the street expressed it: 
"Washington will go on to catch Cornwallis in a mousetrap." 
On October 19th, that prophecy was realized by the sur- 
render of the British land and sea forces to Washington and 
De Grasse. 

The main part De Grasse played in the Yorktown battle 
consists in the tremendous help he gave the forces of Wash- 
ington and Rochambeau, adding 2,000 men to the French 
forces of 7,800 soldiers and making a total of 9,800 French- 



192 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



men fighting on the side of the Americans whose troops 
numbered around 9,000 soldiers. 

De Grasse's momentous decision deserved him the unani- 
mous thanks of his comrades-in-arms and the best conclusion 
I can find to this short address is to quote here the words of 
commendation which your first President addressed to my 
countryman the day after the surrender of the British: "The 
capture of Yorktown, whose honor is due you, has exceeded 
all our expectations. . . . Allow me to present to you my 
truest and sincerest congratulations on the happy issue of 
the war. . . . Your timely intervention has given America 
independence and liberty. . . . Your skill and talents are 
responsible for the final success." 

I am happy that this tribute rendered my countryman by 
the founder of this Republic is today, after so many years, 
emphasized once more by the generous initiative of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

The eight Franco- American societies of Waltham, 
Mass., held a joint George "Washington celebration 
on June 27. The French language press in the 
United States printed news of the anniversary, his- 
torical data, etc. Clippings were sent to the Com- 
mission from "Le Messager," daily paper of 
Lewiston, Maine; "La Justice de Biddeford," "Le 
Messager" of New Bedford, Mass., "La Tribune" 
of Woonsocket, R. I., and "Le Franco-Americain," 
of Waterville, Maine. 

On February 22, 1932, in New York City, the 
descendants of the families of Washington and 
Lafayette were guests at the unveiling of a replica 



of the Houdon bust in the Lafayette niche of the 
Gould Memorial Library facing the Hall of Fame 
at New York University. 

France sent as its official representatives to this 
ceremony Dr. Sebastien Charlety, rector of the 
University of Paris; Comte Rene de Chambrun, 
great-great-grandson of Lafayette, and Andre 
Chevrillon, delegate of the Academie Francaise. 

In a ceremony that was internationally broadcast, M. 
Chevrillon assured that the "friendship of Washington and 
Lafayette is symbolic of a lasting spiritual bond between 
France and America." M. Chevrillon then dwelt on the 
nobleness of Lafayette's character which "made him worthy 
of Washington's friendship; absolute unselfish devotion to a 
high purpose, modesty, courage, youthful fire, together with 
a sound judgment and clear sightedness — a combination of 
virtues and qualities that remind us of Joan of Arc. Lafay- 
ette was the highest, noblest, and most representative figure 
of the spirit that impelled France to side with the Colonists. 
Pure idealism moved him. In his first letter to Congress he 
simply asked to be allowed to serve as a volunteer. From 
the moment he embarked on his mission he considered him- 
self as an American. Such he calls himself in that same 
letter to Congress." 

M. Charlety spoke of the invincible link between Wash- 
ington and Lafayette and their friendship which "sealed 
forever the union of the two worlds." He pointed out that 
every day there were being conducted celebrations in France 
honoring Washington, and festivities in America honoring 
Lafayette, and affirmed that this mutual interchange of hero 
worship between two countries will do much to perpetuate 
the cordial relations that have always existed. 



' 




i President Hoover greets American National Alliance of Czecho-Slovaks, in April, 193; 
This illustration shows a portion of the Committee from the State of Illinois With the President. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



193 



Other Groups Participate 

Slovaks, Czechoslovaks and Yugoslavs of the 
nation joined in the Bicentennial with special pro- 
grams and through their papers and periodicals. 

Slovak religious organizations, athletic and social 
clubs held Bicentennial celebrations, and the Slovak 
National Society published articles on George 
Washington in its "Narodny Kalendar" for 1933. 

On file at the George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission are Czechoslovak Bicentennial pro- 
grams from St. Paul, Minn., Baltimore, Md., Lan- 
kin, N. Dak., Cleveland, Chicago, New York and 
Washington, D. C. A group of Czechoslovaks 
from Chicago made a special pilgrimage to Wash- 
ington, D. C, and Mount Vernon during the 
Bicentennial year and were received by President 
Hoover. 

Yugoslavs in Chicago gave a splendid program 
in tribute to Washington on April 3, 1932. Mayor 
Cermak was the principal speaker, and Prof. John 
A. Svetina, of Loyola University, gave the "Yugo- 
slav Tribute to George Washington." In the 
words of Prof. Zvetina, "nationalistic groups 
should know more of George Washington and the 
principles for which he stood . . . the program 
given by the Yugoslav-Americans of Chicago in 
honor of Washington was of greater real value in 
this work than anything given by them in recent 
years." 

On February 22, 1932, Sokol Hall in New York 
City was the scene of a gathering of more than 
1,200 Czechs and Slovaks in honor of the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of the birth of George Wash- 
ington. Prof. Andrew P. Slabey, of East Orange, 
New Jersey, was the principal speaker. 

Newark, N. J., witnessed two commemorations 
of the Bicentennial by Czechoslovaks and Slovaks. 
On Memorial Day, a Czecho-Slovak committee 
placed a wreath on the city's statue of Washing- 
ton, and on October 30, there was a Slovak Bi- 
centennial Celebration at the Slovak Sokol Hall 
which was attended by more than one thousand 
Slovaks. 

Clippings from Slovak, Czechoslovak and Yugo- 
slav newspapers were sent to the Commission from 
LISTY, NEW YORKSKY DENNIK and SLOVAK 
V AMERIKE of New York City; SVORNOST of 
Chicago; OBRANA of Scranton, Pennsylvania; 
JEDNOTA of Middletown, Pennsylvania; 
CZECHOSLAK of West, Texas, and SVET of 



Cleveland, all of which carried many editorials and 
articles on the Bicentennial. 

Lithuanians, Russians, Roumanians and Finnish- 
Americans joined in the long list of the foreign 
language groups in the United States which paid 
honor to George Washington during the Bicenten- 
nial of his birth. Their newspapers recounted 
celebrations and printed much editorial and his- 
torical matter, while the Russian Almanac featured 
the anniversary in its issue for 1932. Clippings 
reveal the interest in the Bicentennial shown by 
the Finnish papers WALWOJA of Calumet, Mich- 
igan, and PAIVALEHTI of Duluth, Minnesota; 
the Roumanian daily paper AMERICA of Cleve- 
land, Ohio; the SWISS JOURNAL of San Fran- 
cisco; the Armenian HAIRENIK of Boston, and 
the ASBAREZ of Fresno, California; and the 
Lithuanian DIRVA of Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Hungarian press took great interest in the 
Bicentennial celebrations everywhere, as witnessed 
by the many clippings received, notably from AZ 
IRAS of Chicago; TOLEDO HUNGARIAN 
AMERICAN WEEKLY, whose Labor Day edition 
was "Dedicated to the Memory of George Wash- 
ington, the Father of our Country"; HIRADO of 
Trenton, New Jersey, and MAGYAR TRIBUNE 
of Chicago. The July 8 issue of the TRIBUNE 
was dedicated to the Bicentennial and from that 
number are taken the following Hungarian 
tributes: 

It is interesting for us as Americans of Hungarian extrac- 
tion to note that George Washington presents a close parallel 
to many of our own national heroes. 

Hungarians, whose very life breath has always been stifled, 
who have lived in fear and oppression for ages past, have 
found in George Washington the lover of freedom, and in 
his country, the haven of peace. 

To the Hungarian people, George Washington is an idol. 
He represented their every wish as a leader. He represented 
their every desire for freedom. He gave them a country 
where they could find happiness and pursue it. 

The Illinois Hungarian Committee for the cele- 
bration of the Bicentennial, in its formal report to 
the George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
stated that every Hungarian group throughout the 
state had been contacted before the opening of the 
anniversary. Literature, historical data and speak- 
ers were supplied, and every Hungarian Church in 
Illinois opened the celebration on February 2 1 with 
special services in commemoration of George 
Washington. One of the first Hungarian organi- 
zations to arrange a Bicentennial program in Illi- 
nois was the Chicago Hungarian Dramatic and 



194 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Young People's Club, which celebrated on March 
13. This was followed on March 20 by a Bicen- 
tennial program under the auspices of the Hun- 
garian Social and Sick Benevolent Association of 
Chicago. On May 29, a major celebration was 
held by the collective effort of nineteen different 
Hungarian organizations. Floats and decorated 
automobiles participated in a gigantic parade, 
which was followed by a celebration in the Hun- 
garian Liberty Hall. The Hungarians also partici- 
pated in the George Washington Military Tourna- 
ment held at Soldier Field June 26 to July 5. 
"Hungarian Night" was July 1, and featured 
patriotic songs, Hungarian dances and a huge float 
depicting the reception of Louis Kossuth, Hun- 
garian patriot, by the United States in 1851. 

The Hungarians of Bridgeport, Connecticut, met 
on February 22 to celebrate Washingtons Birth- 
day, and speeches were made in Hungarian and 
English on the significance of the day. On May 25, 
the Hungarian Society of New York held a George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration at the Hotel 
Pennsylvania, which was addressed by the Chair- 
man of the New York City Bicentennial Commit- 
tee, Hon. Grover A. Whalen. On May 11, the 
New York Hungarian Committee of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration sponsored a 
memorial tree planting in honor of George Wash- 
ington and his Hungarian Colonel, Michael de 
Kovats, when two trees were planted in Central 
Park with impressive ceremonies. The evening of 
that day the Committee held a Washington Ball 
in the Hotel Astor. 

Scandinavian and Danish Groups 

Scandinavian and Danish-Americans also entered 
heartily into the commemoration. 

The national organization, Sons of Norway, had 
Bicentennial celebrations in all its lodges, many in 
connection with "Leif Erikson Day," and a bulle- 
tin of The Leif Erikson Memorial Association of 
America urged participation of its members in a 
joint tribute to George Washington and Leif 
Erikson. 

The United Danish Societies of Perth Amboy, 
New Jersey, held an outdoor mass meeting June 26, 
in honor of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Birth of George Washington in front of the 
beautiful statue to him erected by these societies 
more than forty years ago as a gift to the city. 
The Danish Minister to Washington, Mr. Otto 



Wadsted, was the principal speaker before the 
throng of more than 2,000. 

The Society of the American Sons and Daugh- 
ters of Sweden issued a notice to all its chapters 
and to all Swedish people in the United States to 
participate in the celebration of the Bicentennial 
and reported active response. Swedish societies in 
the United States held about 300 Bicentennial cele- 
brations and there were commemorative services in 
2,000 Swedish-American churches. Many Swedish- 
American programs honored jointly the First 
President of the United States and Gustavus 
Adolphus, the tercentenary of whose death also 
occurred in 1932. It was pointed out that from 
"New Sweden" (that part of the present states 
of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and Mary- 
land in which most of the Swedish emigrants to 
this country settled) came men "who helped lay 
the foundations of the Republic, notably John 
Morton who gave the casting vote in Pennsylvania 
for the Declaration of Independence and John 
Hanson who was president of the Continental Con- 
gress when Cornwallis surrendered. 

A medal was struck commemorating the ter- 
centenary of Gustavus Adolphus and the George 
Washington Bicentennial."' 

The Scandinavian press in the United States gave 
a great deal of space to the Bicentennial. BIKU- 
BEN, of Salt Lake City, PELLA'S WEEKBLAD, of 
Pella, Iowa, The TIDENDE of Minneapolis, 
SKANDINAVEN, of Chicago, UTAH-POSTEN, 
of Salt Lake City, and SVENSKA AMERIKAN- 
SKA POSTEN of Minneapolis, were some of the 
papers from which clippings sent to the Commis- 
sion were taken. 

Ukrainians in America formed a Ukrainian 
Bicentennial Committee "to show their apprecia- 
tion of George Washington of whom Taras 
Shevchenko, 'Father of Ukraine' and her greatest 
poet, was an ardent admirer. Delegates of the 
various Ukrainian Societies met in New York on 
January 3, 1932, and passed a resolution to hold a 
special festival in honor of George Washington. 
. . . The Ukrainian Societies decided to present to 
America on the occasion of the George Washington 
Bicentennial a pageantry of folklore that is being 
now revived in America. . . . The Ukrainian Bi- 
centennial Committee is doing its part in the gen- 
eral tribute to George Washington," to quote from 
a program of one of the Ukrainian celebrations. 



For cut of medal see page 87 of l His volume. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



195 



Clippings on file at the offices of the Commis- 
sion show that the organized Ukrainian tribute of 
folk dances and songs was given in thirty cities, 
bringing to the 1,000,000 Ukrainians in America 
memories of the old home of their ancestors in 
honor of the Father of their new homeland. 

German-American Participation 

German - Americans and German - American 
organizations played a prominent part in the 
observance of the Washington Bicentennial. "Ger- 
man Day" in many cities became a two-fold cele- 
bration during the Washington anniversary, and 
throughout the year there were Bicentennial com- 
memorations ranging from tree plantings and 
parades to formal balls. 

Students of more than 1,600 German and Amer- 
ican colleges and universities participated in an 
international essay contest in honor of the George 
Washington Bicentennial, a German-American 
society provided the funds to send an American 
professor to Germany to lecture on Washington 
and the early history of the United States, and a 
German consul in the United States published a 
biography of George Washington, in German, in 
observance of the Bicentennial. The numerous 
German language newspapers and magazines in the 
United States devoted considerable space to the 
anniversary, with special editions and feature 
articles. 

The Steuben Society of America, complying 
with the suggestion of the headquarters of the 
society in New York City, held special programs 
in honor of George Washington in all its branches. 
Typical of these celebrations are the following, 
taken from the report of the Society to the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission: 

New York, N. Y. — Tableaux and dramatic program at 
the Winter Garden, February 20. 

Oakland, California — Patriotic program and ball on Wash- 
ington's Birthday. 

New Rochelle, New York — Colonial Ball, March 12. 

Richmond Hill, L. I., N. Y. — Special program, May 14. 

Paterson, N. J. — Tableaux and dance in colonial costume. 

Yonkers, N. Y. — Joint observance of Washington and 
Goethe anniversaries, April 9. 

Newark, N. J. — Patriotic celebration, May 31, at which 
Governor A. Harry Moore was principal speaker; followed 
by joint observance of von Steuben and Washington anni- 
versaries, September 18. 

Utica, N. Y. — Patriotic program, July 14. 

St. Paul, Minnesota — Patriotic program, featuring tableaux, 
costume dances and playlets relating to the life of Wash- 
ington. 

Salt Lake City, Utah — Dinner Dance on Washington's 
Birthday. 



Easton, Pa. — Patriotic program and dance, March 4, 1932. 
Plainfield, N. J. — Tree planting celebration. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Joint celebration of German Day and 
the Washington Bicentennial, June 13. 

The official publication of the Steuben Society, 
"The Steuben News," published monthly, carried 
an editorial or special article in each issue during 
the period of the anniversary celebration. These 
articles comprised brief biographies of George 
Washington, and Von Steuben, and brought out 
the important part played by the latter and by 
other Germans and German- Americans in the 
struggles of the young nation to attain indepen- 
dence. 

In Detroit, German-Americans took a prominent 
part in the Bicentennial Celebration on July 4, 
1932. In a mammoth parade that day, there were 
ten floats and sixty flags of German-American 
societies, as well as several hundred marchers from 
these organizations. In all, more than twelve hun- 
dred German-Americans participated. 

The German Societies of Baltimore staged a 
German Day Parade on September 26, with 10,000 
participating. Mayor Howard Jackson delivered 
an address and Governor Albert C. Ritchie was an 
honor guest. The parade was followed by an out- 
door festival, with German music. The occasion 
was made the tribute of the German-Americans 
of Baltimore to the First President of the United 
States. 

The Pennsylvania German Society dedicated its 
annual meeting, held at Pennsburg, Pa., October 
21, 1932, to the Bicentennial, the principal paper 
read at the meeting having as its topic, "The Rela- 
tions of George Washington with the Pennsylvania 
Germans." 

In Chicago, the annual "German Day" was a 
joint celebration of the Centennial of the death of 
Goethe and the Bicentennial of the birth of George 
Washington. 

Clippings in the files of the Commission reveal 
the interest of the German language press. 
STAATS-HEROLD of Chicago, NEW YORKER 
STAATS - ZEITUNG, DEUTSCHES VOLKS- 
BLATT, of Giddings, Texas, DER SONNT AGS- 
BOTE, of Pittsburgh, Pa., TIDENDE of Minne- 
apolis, Minn., ABENDPOST of Rochester, N. Y., 
CALIFORNIA JOURNAL, San Francisco, Calif., 
NORD- DAKOTA HEROLD, of Dickinson, 
N. D., VESTKUSTEN, of San Francisco, all pub- 
lished many items concerning the George Wash- 



196 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



ington Bicentennial. The weekly, WASHING- 
TON STAATSZEITUNG, of Seattle, Washing- 
ton, ORDENSBLATT DER HARUGARI, of 
Lawrence, Mass., KIRCHENZEITUNG, of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and DIE ABENDSCHULE, of St. 
Louis, Mo., also featured the anniversary. The lat- 
ter magazine issued a special George Washington 
Bicentennial number in February of the Bicen- 
tennial year. 

Participation in the Bicentennial by Germans 
and German-Americans in the United States had 
a definite and important international aspect. 

This found expression, in the field of literature, 
in the publication of a biography of George Wash- 
ington in German by a German Consul in the 
United States. The author was Dr. Walther Rein- 
hardt, the German Consul at Seattle, Washington, 
who so timed his contribution to the Bicentennial 
that the publication of the biography was coinci- 
dent with the opening of the celebration period. 
This work has been awarded a prize as "the book 
best calculated to further friendly relations between 
America and Germany," and more than one hun- 
dred copies were purchased and distributed in Ger- 
many and the United States by the Carl Schurz 
Memorial Foundation, Inc. 

German-American Bicentennial activities more 
tangible in their international effect were an essay 
contest for German and American students, and 
a lecture tour of Germany made by an American 
professor. Both activities had as their objective 
an increased knowledge of George Washington and 
that period of American history in which he 
played such an important part. In accomplish- 
ing this purpose, they also contributed greatly to 
better understanding and increased friendship be- 
tween the peoples of the two nations. 

The lecture tour of Germany, made in commem- 
oration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington, was undertaken by 
Dr. Carl F. Wittke, Professor of Modern History, 
Ohio State University, at the invitation of the 
American Committee of the Deutsche Akademie of 
Munich, Germany. The invitation of the Deutsche 
Akademie was supported by the Carl Schurz Me- 
morial Foundation, Inc., of Philadelphia, Pa., which 
made a grant of Five Hundred Dollars to Dr. 
Wittke to make the trip. Both of these cooperat- 
ing organizations have as their purpose "the devel- 
opment of cultural relations between the United 
States and Germany." 



Essay Contest for German and American 
Students 

The international essay contest was participated 
in by American and German students of approxi- 
mately 1,600 colleges and universities in the United 
States and Germany. It was an "Academic Prize 
Contest" conducted under the auspices of the 
Germania Club, composed of German-American 
college men in the District of Columbia and vicin- 
ity, with the support of the Deutsche Literarische 
Verein of Washington, D. C, and in cooperation 
with the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission. Outstanding scholars 
throughout the United States were sponsors of the 
contest and a group of expert judges made the 
awards. 

Judges 

George Morton Churchill, Professor of History, 
George Washington University; Milton Conover, 
Associate Professor of Government, Yale Univer- 
sity; Ernst Correll, Assistant Professor of Economic 
History, American University; Robert H. Fife, 
Professor of German Literature, Columbia Univer- 
sity; Carl R. Fish, Professor of American History, 
University of Wisconsin; Paul Gleis, Professor of 
German Literature, Catholic University of 
America; James A. James, Professor of American 
History, Northwestern University; William F. 
Notz, Professor of Economics, Georgetown Uni- 
versity; Hiram H. Shenk, Archivist, State Library 
and Museum, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. 

A printed announcement containing the rules of 
the contest, the names of the judges and sponsors, 
and the list of topics was sent to the colleges and 
universities of the United States and Germany. 
Cash prizes amounting to one thousand dollars 
were offered. There was a change in the distribu- 
tion of the cash prizes from the announcement, to 
make them more equable in view of the high 
quality of the essays submitted, and Prof. Hayes 
Baker Crothers, of the University of Maryland, 
took the place of Prof. Carl R. Fish, of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, as one of the judges, as Prof. 
Fish died before the contest closed. Organization 
and management were in the hands of Dr. Ernst 
Correll, Professor of Economic History in the 
Graduate School of American University, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Presentation of the awards was 
made by the German Ambassador at Washington, 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



197 



His Excellency Herr Friedrich W. von Prittwitz 
und Gaffron. 

There were six topics offered as subjects for the 
essays, which were from three to five thousand 
words in length. The topics are reviewed, and the 
reasons for their selection are given in the follow- 
ing report of Dr. Correll: 

Two of the topics related to the reception George Wash- 
ington has found in the German world of literature and 
historical writing. From Klopstock to Schiller and Goethe, 
philosopher Kant not excepted, the German world praises the 
Americans "building in the new world the homestead of 
humanity," to quote Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, another rep- 
resentative of this illustrious group. A great deal of interest 
has been shown in recent decades in the response in con- 
temporary Germany to the American Independence Move- 
ment. To develop a compendium of the studies made along 
this line on both sides of the Atlantic was the object of the 
first two topics, "George Washington in the appraisal of 
German historians," and "George Washington and the 
American Independence Movement as reflected in the works 
of German poets." 

The important contribution of the German settlers in the 
building of the young American nation was the subject of 
the third topic, "Leaders of German origin participating in 
the Movement for American Independence." The part played 
by Germans of the Fatherland as exemplified by General von 
Steuben, was brought out in the fourth topic, "General 
von Steuben's contribution to the winning of American 
Independence." 

Topic five, "Pennsylvania-German settlements as an eco- 
nomic factor in the American War for Independence," 
brought out the economic relationship of certain rural sec- 
tions to the conduct of the Revolutionary War. The posi- 
tion of the fertile Pennsylvania-German settlements as 
granaries for Washington's army cannot be underestimated. 

"The German Press in Pennsylvania and the American 
Revolution," topic six, further carried out the contribution 
of that considerable portion of "the melting pot" from which 
was to come the new nation. In this connection, it is recalled 
that to the German press in America is ascribed the origin 
of the title, "Father of the Country." As early as 1779, an 
old German Almanac, printed in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 
1779, NORD AMERICANISCHER KALENDER, dedicated 
its frontispiece to George Washington, referring to him as 
Dcs Landes Vater. 

The seventh and final topic for the essays related to the 
early diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Prussia 
and the United States of America, and involved the issue of 
the recognition policy of continental European nations. The 
topic was entitled, "Prussian-American diplomatic relations, 
1776-1785." 

The Germania Club chose this academic form of partaking 
in the George Washington Bicentennial Anniversary to be in 
harmony with the historical spirit of the celebration and to 
make a real contribution to German-American historical 
literature. 

Announcement of the successful entrants in the 
Academic Prize Contest, and presentation of prizes, 
was made at a farewell reception for His Excel- 
lency, Herr Friedrich W. von Prittwitz und 
Gaffron, retiring German Ambassador, on April 
12, 1933, in Washington, D. C. The winning 
contestants, in Germany and in the United States, 
and the awards won, are as follows: 



Germany 

First Prize of Two Hundred Dollars to "Wolf-Hermann," 
Hete-Ursel Hild, University of Erlangen. (Topic 7.) 

Second Prize of One Hundred Fifty Dollars to "Patriae 
in serviendo consumor," Herr Kurt Rudolf Bernhard, Uni- 
versity of Munich. (Topic 1.) 

Third Prize of One Hundred Dollars to Fraulein Charlotte 
Leube, University of Leipzig. (Topic 2.) 

Fourth Prize of Fifty Dollars to "In der Ehrung ihrer 
Grossen konnen die Volker am besten zum wechselseitigen 
Verstandnis kommen," Herr Wilhelm Bender, University of 
Cologne. (Topic 2.) 

Fifth Prize, Official Commemorative Medal of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, to 
"Jenasaale," Herr Gunther Berg, University of Berlin. 
(Topic 4.) 

Sixth Prize, Official Commemorative Medal of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, to 
"Washington, Pater Patriae," Herr Bernhard Glawatz, Uni- 
versity of Gottingen. (Topic 2.) 

Uniti i) St a i i s 

First Prize, Two Hundred Dollars, to "Cato" Mr. John 
Joseph Stoudt, Haverford College, Pa. (Topic 6.) 

Second Prize, One Hundred Fifty Dollars, to "Arma 
virumque cano" Miss Louise Kilton, Catholic University of 
America, Washington, D. C. (Topic 7.) 

Third Prize, One Hundred Dollars, to "J. E. Bavaria" 
Mr. Joseph Gellermann, School of Foreign Service, George- 
town University, Washington. D. C. (Topic 7.) 

Fourth Prize, Fifty Dollars, to Miss Martha Nerroth, 
DePaul University, Chicago, 111. (Topic 2.) 

Fifth Prize, Official Commemorative Medal of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, to 
"Vaterland-Mutterland," Mr. Edward G. Diehl, Muhlenberg 
College, Allentown, Pa. (Topic 5.) 

The first prize essays are printed herewith. That 
of the American winner, Mr. John J. Stoudt, was 
written in English and is published in its original 
form. The essay of the German winner, Hete- 
Ursel Hild, stud. phil. ct jur., has been translated 
from the original German by Dr. Ernst Correll, of 
American University, and appears in translation. 

PRUSSIAN-AMERICAN DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS 

1776-1785 

By Heti -Ursel Hild, StitJ. phil. et jur. 

It was on July 4, 1776, when the Congress at Philadelphia 
issued the monumental "Declaration of the representatives 
of the United States of America in general Congress assembled 
. . . that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, 
Free and Independent States." 

When the rebellious colonies declared themselves to be 
independent states they demanded the rights and privileges 
of a power entitled to conduct war and to enter into alliances. 
In stating that they adjured allegiance to England forever, 
they offered to the continental European states a pledge which 
they could consider to be a prerequisite for any open alliance 
with them. 

Prussia, the young state of Frederick the Great, came 
within the sphere of the political opportunities of the new 
federation of states in America. Keenly interested, Fred- 
erick the Great had followed the war of liberation fought 
by the Americans. His interest was not, however, based on 
the particular sentiments which the Americans had assumed 
would possess him. It was sufficient satisfaction to him to 
see the English government experience severe difficulties and 



19! 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



even humiliation — the English who had forsaken him so dis- 
gracefully towards the end of the Seven Years War by stop- 
ping the Prussian subsidy. 

It was logical that Frederick should desire the victory of 
the American arms. But he did not express himself in the 
fashion of the enthusiastic supporters of the American cause 
found among the courtiers and literati of Versailles. It must 
further be observed that the foreign policy of Prussia was 
but little concerned with the affairs of the far off American 
continent. Consequently the diplomatic relations in that 
direction played but a subordinate part in Prussia's interna- 
tional position at that time. In addition, Frederick was too 
much concerned with problems of an immediate, pressing 
character. This particular situation precluded intervention 
in the American war as well as militated against a hasty 
approach to the young republic overseas. Generally speak- 
ing during that period when Frederick the Great was ap- 
proaching advanced age, new aspects in Prussia's foreign 
relations which would require careful foresight and planning 
far into the future, were rather shunned. 

On the other hand, the American colonies which has just 
separated themselves from their mother country were, of 
course, now much interested in the attitude which the con- 
tinental European nations would assume toward them. The 
colonies rallied all available forces to win the favor of 
these nations, especially of Prussia. Their wooing was con- 
ducted by political leaders who threw their entire per- 
sonality into that cause. The energy shown by the colonies 
in that respect can only be compared to the energies produced 
in youthful life. 

The keen mind and far-reaching vision of George Wash- 
ington were occupied even during the Revolutionary War 
Wxth the possible expansion of American influence. He im- 
mediately looked forward to the place which the United 
States should rightfully take among the civilized nations of 
the world. 

If the relations with Austria, which the young American 
nation desired, developed only at slow pace, or even, for the 
time being, failed to develop at all, the reason may be found 
in Frederick. But his procrastination in that direction oc- 
curred because of the necessity of concentration on pressing 
domestic affairs in Prussia. It was not due to lack of interest 
or indifference. 

Letters written by Frederick the Great during the year 
1775 contain interesting opinions on the American Revolu- 
tion. As early as November 30, 1775, he wrote to the 
Prussian Minister Freiherr von Maltzan in London: "The 
outcome of the war will have its epoch-making significance 
in English history." A little later, on January 16, 1776, the 
King addressed his brother, Prince Heinrich von Preussen, as 
follows: "England's power is on the decline, although the 
war will have no effect on conditions in Europe." Frederick 
refrained from calling the Americans rebels, perhaps for the 
reason that he did not want to irritate the English in any 
way. But what else except rebels could they be in the eyes 
of an autocratic monarch? Nevertheless, even at the dinner 
table he always spoke most respectfully of the American 
revolutionists and accredited highest words of honor to them. 

Frederick did not realize that by their departure from the 
constitutional principles as sustained in England, and by the 
creation of a new republic based on individual rights, the 
Americans were about to usher into the world a new force. 
As Ranke has pointed out, ideas spread very rapidly the 
moment they are given a concrete form of representation. 
So it happened that within a few years a revolutionary re- 
publican movement entered the atmosphere of absolutism. 

However, the American Revolutionary War did not con- 
cern the King of Prussia so long as it did not directly touch 
and concern Europe. But he watched American events closely 
and expected to use developments there as much as possible in 
the interests of his country. Silas Deane, the first agent of 



the United States in Paris, in the Summer of 1776 negotiated 
with the Prussian commercial agent Monttessuy concerning 
the supplying of rifles, guns and powder. Monttessuy sug- 
gested to King Frederick that a commercial treaty should be 
established between Prussia and the United States. The King, 
however, did not like to run this risk. He replied that he did 
not want to rush matters particularly. Perhaps it was during 
the Summer of 1776, the ever changing fortunes of war made 
him doubtful with regard to the lasting independence of the 
English colonies. Politics, including foreign relations, were to 
Frederick something that belonged to the art of finding and 
managing things which could definitely be realized, that is die 
Kuiist des Moglichen. At the time he did not consider it 
feasible to enter into a closer connection with the English 
colonies. 

The young American republic was not discouraged, how- 
ever. On October 1, 1776, Silas Deane wrote to the Con- 
gressional Committee of Secret Correspondence: "It is of 
importance, as I have mentioned in my former letters, to have 
some one deputed or empowered to treat with the King of 
Prussia. I am acquainted with his agent here, and have 
already through him received some queries and proposals 
respecting American commerce to which I am preparing a 
reply. . . . Prussia, ever pursuing her own interest, needs 
but be informed of some facts relative to America's increas- 
ing commerce to favor us . . ." 

Silas Deane, however, appeared to have been too much of 
an optimist as may be concluded from the experience of the 
American agent William Carmichael, delegate to the Conti- 
nental Congress from Maryland, who on the recommendation 
of Monttessuy had been sent to Berlin, where he arrived on 
November 21, 1776. There he proposed a commercial treaty 
similar to the one which had been suggested during the Spring 
of the same year by Freiherr von Maltzan, the Prussian Min- 
ister to the English Court. The latter had assumed that it 
would be in the interest of his King to enter into definite 
relationships with America. 

Frederick, however, rejected the American proposals also. 
The lack of a Prussian Navy, in his opinion, would not 
permit direct trading. The establishment of a formal treaty 
should be postponed until after peace had returned. Fred- 
erick seems to have been particularly anxious to be cautious 
in these matters towards England, even going so far as to 
deny rumors that negotiations were being conducted. 

The trading connections discussed related merely to the 
purchase of Virginia tobacco the shipment of which was to 
be conducted through French ports at the risk of the Ameri- 
cans. For the purpose of re-exportation, the King would 
charge the Prussian Minister in Paris, Freiherr v.d. Goltz, "to 
support confidentially all the steps which the (American) 
agent would undertake to secure permission for the re- 
exportation of this tobacco into my provinces." It happened, 
however, that permission for re-export could not be obtained. 
After that, the King was not willing to run any further 
risk at the expense of possible advantages in the future. 
Negotiations therefore came to naught. The American agent 
left Berlin on December 6, 1776, having at the last moment 
aroused the suspicion of the British Embassy. 

Carmichael had hardly reached Paris when Count Schulen- 
burg (the Prussian Secretary of State) on February 14, 1777, 
received from Paris a letter from Franklin, Deane and Lee, 
the American commissioners to Europe, asking him to submit 
to the King the Declaration of Independence of the United 
States and to ask his recognition of the same. The com- 
missioners, at the same time, mentioned the taking up of 
commercial relations between Prussia and the United States. 

Such proposals were not well received. All Europe was 
still under the impression made by the defeat which the 
American troops had suffered in New York and New Jersey 
between the end of August and the end of November, 1776. 
Poor communication facilities were responsible for the fact 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



199 



that Washington's victories at Trenton and Princeton had 
not yet reached Europe. 

On March 12, 1777, the King issued an order in Cabinet 
clearly setting forth the reasons for his present and future 
policy towards the revolting colonies: "... Since I am with- 
out a navy and therefore have no fleet or armed ships, we 
would have to conduct the trade (with America) under a 
foreign flag. Only the Dutch flag would be available, which, 
however, is now as little respected by England as other 
national flags are. It is not my intention, however, to offend 
or to injure the colonies in any way by a flat refusal of the 
proposals of their representatives in Paris in spite of the 
above considerations. It seems best, therefore, that you try 
to keep these commissioners in their favorable attitude toward 
me. In view of this position I wish you would advise them 
as follows: As much as I would have liked to establish these 
commercial relations the difficulties mentioned do not permit 
me to send the Americans goods in my ships. Even if a for- 
eign flag were employed, it would run the risk of being 
observed by the English navy. Also, I would not know of 
an American port where ships could be discharged — I would 
therefore expect from the American agents more detailed 
information — Thus the colonies cannot feel offended and we 
should always be in a position to open up negotiations as 
soon as the outlook may appear brighter." 

In a later paragraph he added: "In fine, what I advise you 
to do in your reply to the agents is not to cause the feelings 
of their authorities to be injured or offended in any way. 
Moreover you should express yourself as favorably as possible 
about their offer so that we may be able to take advantage 
of their proposition at the turn to more favorable aspects." 
Schulenburg replied accordingly to Franklin, Deane and Car- 
michael on March 15, 1777. 

On April 19, 1777, the American Commissioners informed 
the Prussian Secretary of State that Congress would appoint 
and send a minister plenipotentiary to Berlin. The king had 
nothing to comment on this announcement excepting his 
wish that this particular American should come to Berlin 
incognito. It was Arthur Lee who arrived in Berlin on 
June 4, 1777. The negotiations did not, however, develop 
as the American would have liked them to develop. Although 
Schulenburg always replied immediately, his answers were of 
a dilatory nature, polite, determinant, awakening hopes, yet 
non-commital. 

On June 21, 1777, Schulenburg submitted to the King an 
extensive report on Lee's final request to give American 
cruisers and their prizes admission into Prussian ports. The 
Secretary suggested that the Prussian minister in Paris should 
be asked about the principles applied by the French and 
Spanish governments in the same case. The King approved 
of this suggestion as he was playing a waiting game, stretch- 
ing negotiations so as to watch on which side the changing 
fortunes of war would rest. 

The less the King officially assisted the Americans or 
planned to assist them, the more he showed privately, during 
that period, friendship for them and sympathy for their 
military success. Even to his dinner companions he would 
speak most respectfully of the Americans and praise their 
achievements. 

In the meantime something like a political scandal had 
occurred in Berlin. Papers of Arthur Lee, the American 
Commissioner, had been stolen at the instigation of Elliot, 
the English Minister to Prussia. Lee tried to negotiate this 
case personally with the King. Frederick was more than 
amazed by this public theft. He added in his own hand to 
the report on this incident to his representative in London: 
". . . Oh Vhommc incomparable que votre Gott Damme 
Elliott In truth, the English ought to blush with shame 
at sending such ministers to foreign courts." (As given in 
the American Historical Review, April, 1904, page 467.) 
Matters were, however, not pushed with a corresponding 



rigor in Berlin. Lee was simply told that he should take the 
case under advisement with Schulenburg. A request Lee had 
made for a loan was refused. 

When, in October, 1777, Frederick prohibited the passage 
through his provinces of mercenary auxiliary troops hired 
by the English, the King undoubtedly rendered an inestimable 
service to the American cause. The prohibition delayed the 
transportation of more than one thousand men for several 
months. When Howe, the English general, learned of Fred- 
erick's prohibition of the passage of troops he became so 
greatly concerned for his much needed re-enforcements that 
he did not dare to attack Washington at Valley Forge. Thus, 
indirectly, General von Steuben could make use of a prolonged 
period for the training of the Americans. 

It must be admitted, however, that Frederick was not 
thinking of the young transatlantic republic when he inter- 
fered with the transport of the auxiliary corps. Of the 
exact condition of the American forces he knew nothing. 
On the other hand, the King had been disturbed by the 
diligence of English recruiting officers. Strained relations 
between Prussia and Austria made him more anxious con- 
cerning the supply of man power to his own army. 

Frederick continued to be ignorant of the fate of the 
Americans even after the victory of Saratoga. This may be 
concluded from his reaction when Arthur Lee on December 
8, 1777, reported the surrender of General Burgoyne, adding: 
"If His Prussian Majesty would publicly recognize the inde- 
pendence of the United States it would give dignity to our 
cause and also make other powers follow suit." Frederick 
put this marginal note on Lee's letter: "Very well, but he 
should be told that I should prefer to withhold recognition 
of the independence of the Americans until France pro- 
nounced the same recognition." 

In the meantime Congress appointed Arthur Lee's brother, 
William, for the special mission of concluding with the 
King of Prussia a treaty of amity and commerce. Schulen- 
burg reporting this intention to the King on November 2 5, 
1777, did not receive Lee, stating that matters had not 
changed since the visit of Arthur Lee. In view of this posi- 
tion, William Lee showing greater tact than his brother, 
never went to Berlin but preferred to correspond with 
Schulenburg from Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Paris, or Brussels. 
Everywhere he was quick to grasp even the smallest ad- 
vantages which could benefit his countrymen and he applied 
himself to that end very happily. Count Finkenstein com- 
mented on him as an alert diplomat. Schulenburg placed 
personal confidence in William Lee, having sincere apprecia- 
tion of him. 

On December 2 8, 1777, Arthur Lee inquired from Paris 
whether he would be permitted to purchase muskets in 
Prussia for the army in the United States. The King had no 
objection to the supplying arms and therefore, on January 
13, 1778, charged Schulenburg to reply to the American 
agent, indicating "that he could be at liberty to order and buy 
muskets at the munitions factory to any amount and of any 
type." Lee ordered 800 muskets during the Summer of 1778 
and had them shipped by the Hamburg firm, Chaperouge, to 
Bordeaux. 

The War of Bavarian Succession (January 3, 1778, to 
March 13, 1779) meant a turning point in Prussia's former 
American policy. Frederick could not afford to have his 
allies become hostile toward him. Consequently the connec- 
tions the royal government had so far made with the American 
agents were dropped. He assumed a cool, declining attitude 
towards the United States and became conciliatory in his 
relations to the King of England. 

The Americans, especially William Lee, did not, however, 
abandon their efforts to obtain recognition. On March 3, 
1778, Lee announced from Paris that France had acknowl- 
edged American independence and that he therefore would 
expect Prussia to do the same. But at this particular period 



200 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



success for the negotiations did not seem likely as far as the 
Prussians were concerned. Negotiations continued during the 
next three years. Demands were matched by declinations. 
One can only understand the tenacity of such men as William 
Lee and his friends by realizing that recognition from the 
King of Prussia would have paved their way among the other 
continental powers, particularly Holland. So far as Prussia 
was concerned, much was in the bargain for the United 
States. As early as August, 1779, John Adams had written 
the President very frankly of the great interest Frederick 
would have in the independence of the United States inas- 
much as one of his cherished plans was to make the Prussian 
port of Emden the center of a flourishing trade. This com- 
merce would be favorable to Silesia. Adams expressed the 
belief that Frederick would be one of the first to recognize 
the independence of the new nation. He added that Fred- 
erick's influence in the United Provinces was greater than 
that of any other power. 

That John Adams was correct in his judgments can be 
seen in an Ordre du Cabinet by Frederick, November 16, 
1783. The Peace of Paris having been concluded on Novem- 
ber 3, the King made it plain, that "the merchants of the 
mountains (Silesia) should at once negotiate with the 
American merchants so as to establish a commerce in linen. 
For part of the Silesian linen they should place orders for 
Virginia tobacco and for rice which were in demand. These 
commodities should be shipped to Hamburg, Amsterdam, 
Bordeaux or other places. The balance of linen should be 
exchanged for cash." 

Thus at last during the year 1784 friendly negotiations 
were conducted on behalf of Frederick which rapidly came 
to the desired end. Frederick Wilhelm von Thulemeyer, 
Prussian Minister at The Hague, called on the American agent 
John Adams, residing there, telling him that in his King's 
belief a commercial agreement with the United States would 
be advantageous to both parties. His subjects would need 
American tobacco and other articles, while the Americans 
could make use of Silesian linen and of other Prussian prod- 
ucts. John Adams was of the same opinion. It was then 
decided to take the commercial treaty concluded between 
Sweden and the United States on April 3, 1783, as a model. 

On April 9, 1784, Thulemeyer submitted to John Adams 
the project of treaty which had been drafted by Count 
Schulenburg. Article 3 contained the major proposition of 
the treaty, namely the establishment between Prussia and the 
United States of a direct exchange relationship. Prussian 
goods, especially Silesian and Westphalian linen, cloth and 
woolen goods, should not be charged American duties other 
than those collected from most favored nations. The same 
benefit should be granted to American staple products, such 
as Virginia tobacco, rice, indigo, furs, etc., when imported 
into Prussian ports. Article 12 recognized the doctrine "Free 
Ships — Free Goods." Three other articles defined matters 
concerning war contraband. 

John Adams suggested revisions which were accepted by 
Frederick. Franklin and Jefferson were additionally appointed 
by Congress for the conclusion of this treaty and towards 
the end of 178 5 the three American agents presented a 
counter proposal which expanded beyond the limits of an 
ordinary commercial treaty. This proposal courageously sug- 
gested the basis of a radically new maritime law. It had 
been Franklin's pet idea to do away with privateering alto- 
gether, even contraband regulations should no longer legalize 
the seizure of ship and cargo. Protection should be granted 
to all neutrals against danger and damages of war on sea as 
well as on land. 

Frederick and his councillors readily accepted the idea of 
humanizing naval warfare. He even added an article di- 
rected against the barbaric right of salvage. John Adams 
apparently was highly pleased when on February 13, 178 5, 
he addressed Thulemeyer, stating that he was happy to know 
of the fact that the king would honor them by supporting 



the platonic philosophy of some of the articles which would 
contain a good lesson to humanity. If the King of Prussia 
was to agree to a treaty of this kind it would create more 
influence than the writings of Plato and Sir Thomas More 
ever did. 

The treaty, which consisted of twenty-seven articles and 
which was to be in effect for ten years, was signed by 
Franklin at Passy on July 9, 178 5, by Jefferson at Paris on 
July 28, by Adams at London on August 5, and finally by 
Thulemeyer at The Hague on September 10, 1785. 

George Washington, commenting on the treaty in a letter 
to Count de Rochambeau, commander of the French Auxil- 
iary Forces in the Revolutionary War, wrote: 

"The treaty of amity, which has lately taken place between 
the King of Prussia and the United States, marks a new 
era in negotiation. It is the most liberal treaty, which has 
ever been entered into between independent powers. It is 
perfectly original in many of its articles; and, should its prin- 
ciples be considered hereafter as the basis of connection 
between nations, it will operate more fully to produce a 
general pacification, than any measure hitherto attempted 
amongst mankind." 

(Note: The original German text was profusely anno- 
tated, giving evidence that the author based her essay on 
original sources assuring historical accuracy. The transla- 
tion does not cover this particular apparatus of the study, 
although a few of the notes were used in the translation. 
The original text was followed by an extensive list of German 
and American sources. — Ernst Cor r ell.) 

THE GERMAN PRESS IN PENNSYLVANIA AND 
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

By John J. Stoudt 

To the American people there comes with each succeeding 
anniversary celebration a fuller appreciation of the leadership 
of men like Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson in the move- 
ment for American Independence. These men and their 
colleagues are the fixed stars of the colonial heavens. Some- 
times, however, it seems as if the sheer brilliancy of this 
galaxy blinds us to the existence of others of a smaller mag- 
nitude, and we fail to see them. In this paper I wish to 
chart a constellation of German printers in Pennsylvania and 
to assume the duties of the astronomer in describing their 
influence upon their countrymen. 

The German newspapers in Pennsylvania of the pre- 
Revolutionary period naturally fall into two groups: those 
of the Saur family of Germantown, and those of their com- 
petitors. 

The basis for this division is found in the two groups of 
religious denominations among the Germans in Pennsylvania: 
the "sects" and the "church people." To appreciate the 
importance of this classification one must understand the 
religious background of the Pennsylvania Germans. Religion 
was a vital force in their lives, and they practised a simple 
piety. The Germans evolved in "Penn's holy experiment" 
a practical live and let live Protestantism. The "sects" 
were less liberal in their beliefs than the church people. They 
held that conversion was a personal experience, that legal 
procedure was wrong, that higher education was unnecessary, 
that an educated clergy was obsolete, that forms and rituals 
were worldly, and that the only reasonable attitude towards 
war was non-resistance. To this group belonged the Amish, 
the Dunkards, the Mennonites, and the Schwenkfeldians. 
The "church people" believed in higher education, in a simple 
ritual, in the moral obligation to hold office, in an educated 
clergy, in organized charity, in formal legal procedure, and 
in military service when necessary. To this group belonged 
the Lutheran and the Reformed. The Moravians were be- 
twixt and between — on the side of the "sects" with certain 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



201 



issues and on the side of the "church people" with others. 

It is obvious that this difference in ideals would give rise 
to two different political points of view. On the questions 
of military service and affirmation these German "sects" held 
views similar to those of the Quakers. In fact, some his- 
torians go so far as to say that the Quakers were spiritual 
descendants of Menno Simmons. Nevertheless, similar views 
drew the two sectarian groups together and a political alli- 
ance grew up between them. The Quakers had a tender 
regard for the religious scruples of these German "sects." They 
granted them all the liberties which they themselves enjoyed. 
This concession was, however, not without a purpose, for in 
this way the Quakers were able to control the Assembly. 
In a letter written by Dr. William Smith, the provost of 
the Philadelphia Academy, we are informed that the Quakers 
succeeded in manipulating the German vote so as to elect 
assemblymen favorable to their views. Isaac Sharpless, late 
President of Haverford College, in his book Quakerism and 
Politics, says that the German peace denominations were com- 
mitted to the Quaker principles "largely through the influ- 
ence of Christopher Saur, the Dunkard printer of German- 
town, who by means of his almanacs, newspapers, and other 
German publications, had secured a wide acquaintance and 
influence among them. . . ." 

Christopher Saur's paper, Der Hoch-deutsch Pennsyl- 
vanische Geschicht-Schreiber; oder Sammlung Wichtiger 
Nachrichten axis dem Natur und Kirchen Reich, ran from 
1739 to 1777. This paper was issued by its founder until 
his death in 175 8, when his son, Christopher II, took it over. 
He continued it until the first years of the Revolutionary 
War, when he was in turn followed by his two sons, Christo- 
pher III and Peter. 

This paper was undoubtedly the most influential German 
journal of the early Colonial period. Its purpose was not 
merely to give news, for in the publisher's address to his 
readers in the first issue he assures them that he does not 
intend publishing the paper merely to give news. He says 
that he is printing it in order that the most important stories 
and occurrences may create deeper impressions and more 
fervent meditation. This moral purpose made the paper 
almost a religious sheet, and gave it additional weight in 
aligning the German "sectarians" with the Quakers in Pro- 
vincial politics. 

From the newspaper of Christopher Saur II we cannot find 
adequate proof that he either favored or opposed the war 
for Independence. Only five issues are extant for the war 
period. In a poem printed in his calendar for 1778, however, 
we find his sentiments regarding the American Revolution 
expressed. It is entitled: Aurede cines nachdenkenden 
Amcrikaners an seiner Mitbiirger. It runs in part as follows: 

(Translation by author) 

Thou once so happy land, by God and Nature blest. 

And teeming with abundant joy; 
But now, alas, by sin and wrong and vice opprest. 

Thou seemst to wither and to die. 
Oh Land! What art thou now? A scene of dismal woes, 

Which bring forth pity and a thousand tears; 
Oppressed by rapine, murder, and a thousand foes 

Unknown in many bygone years. 
Now desolation, hunger, want, stalk in the wake 

of the avenger's bloody steel! 

Earth's pregnant fields lie waste — untouched by hands 

Who tilled them without strife — 
Unwilling they grasp the sword and dash into the fight. 

What misery haunts this life!!! 

For the greater part of the time during the British occu- 
pation of Philadelphia, Christopher II was inside the British 
lines. A short time after his return to Germantown a com- 
pany of Americans under McClean surrounded his home and 



arrested him. He was detained for several days in the vicinity 
of Valley Forge, and finally was released upon an order of 
General Washington at the intercession of General Muhlen- 
berg. 

It was during the period of the British occupation of 
Philadelphia that the two sons of Christopher II published the 
old paper under a new name: Der Pennsylvania Staats-Courier. 
They made it a rabid and coarse Tory paper. The issue for 
February 18th, 1778, contains a bitter attack on the patriots. 
The article declared that, if in a country bankrupt mer- 
chants (Robert Morris) became state councillors, and a 
dismissed postmaster (Benjamin Franklin) an ambassador to 
a royal court, the outlook was indeed dangerous. And, if 
the ministers of the gospels (Muhlenberg and Weyburg) 
became political market-criers, and prescribed remedies for 
the state, these evils united and increased. The paper was 
partly intended for the Hessians in Philadelphia. Surely the 
patriots did not allow the sheet to circulate where they were 
in control. It had on this account a small circulation and a 
still smaller influence. When the British evacuated Phila- 
delphia the sons fled to St. Johns, New Brunswick, where 
they published the Royal Gazette. When the American Army 
entered the city the goods of both father and sons were 
confiscated and sold by the patriots. 

It is difficult to determine the exact attitude of Christopher 
Saur II with regard to the American Revolution. He was 
an orthodox Dunkard, and as such he was opposed to war. 
External evidence would lead us to believe that he was 
sympathetic with the British. Whether the father suffered 
because of the sons, or because of his own actions, it is hard 
to say. Modern historians seem to think that Christopher II 
took a churlish attitude — one that was not even manly for 
a non-resistant to assume. The fact does remain, however, 
that the American patriots considered the whole Saur line 
"unfriendly" to the cause of American Independence. 

Saur's papers had succeeded where others had failed. They 
had a continuous existence for thirty-eight years. They were 
the recognized organs of the German sectarians, and had no 
real competitors in their field. Their influence extended 
even among the non-sectarians. As early as 1754 Heinrich 
Melchoir Muhlenberg, in a letter to Benjamin Franklin, de- 
plores the influence which Saur was wielding over the Luther- 
ans and Reformed by means of his paper. He declares that 
despite all efforts to undermine this influence, Saur still re- 
tained the advantage, turning the Germans against their 
clergy and against everybody who endeavored to reduce them 
to order in church and state affairs. 

The German "peace denominations" were now no longer 
the majority of the Germans in Pennsylvania. The migration 
of these "sects" had practically ceased by 1725. The new 
waves of Germans were Lutheran, Reformed, and Moravian. 
In the early years this group had no particular interest in 
politics. They were busy winning their farms from the 
forest and in establishing schools and churches. They were 
unorganized politically. With the appearance of educated 
leaders, however, their status soon was changed. Such men 
as John Phillip Boehm, Count Nicholas Zinzendorf, Heinrich 
Melchoir Muhlenberg, and Michael Schlatter were leaders in 
the awakening of these groups. They made them conscious 
of their strength. 

Just as it was natural for the "peace sects" to form a 
political alliance with the Quakers, so the "church people" 
were led by affinity and necessity into the liberal party. Their 
religious beliefs coincided very nearly with those of the 
Scotch-Irish Calvinists on the one hand and the English 
Puritans on the other. They had no objections of conscience 
to military service. Many of them had borne arms in the 
Fatherland. They did not refuse to take oaths. Their social 
conditions also led them into the liberal party. These new 
Germans were not descendants of persons who owed any 
loyalty to a British crown. They did not hold their lands in 
fief from a royal house. They did not come from families 



202 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



which had been in favor at court for generations. They 
were pioneers — men who had conquered a wilderness and its 
savage inhabitants, and who now claimed as their own the 
battlefields on which their victory had come. 

In 1756, when the Quakers and the sects withdrew from 
the Provincial Assembly and the liberal Germans rose in 
power, the seed of the American Revolution as far as this 
province was concerned was sown. The new political alliance 
of the English Whigs, the Scotch-Irish, and the German 
church people was a combination hard to defeat. Under the 
leadership of the cunning Benjamin Franklin this combina- 
tion was whipped into line. New stars appeared like meteors 
in the Provincial sky. Names like Thomas Galloway, James 
Wilson, Robert Morris, John Dickinson, and Thomas Paine 
superceded those of the old "Quaker guard." 

Benjamin Franklin had seen the ultimate very early. He 
constantly attempted to organize the German non-sectarians 
behind the phalanx of Scotch-Irish and Puritans. As early 
as 1732 he attempted a liberal German newspaper, but with- 
out success. Between the years 1749 and 1762 Franklin 
and his associates in the printing business attempted five 
other German newspapers. It was in cooperation with the 
Deutsche Gesellschaft that these papers were attempted. All 
of them were short-lived and of little influence. These 
papers were usually poorly edited. Their German was woefully 
and wonderfully made. In addition, the time was not yet 
ripe for the appearance of a German non-sectarian journal. 
Besides the Franklin and the Saur papers, two other attempts 
were made at printing German newspapers. Both ran only 
for a short time. 

When John Heinrich Miller began to publish Der 
Wochentliche Philadelphiscbe Staatsbote on the 18th of Janu- 
ary, 1762, the sectarian journal of the Dunkard Saurs at last 
faced a dangerous competitor. Miller was a man of wide 
experience in the printing business. He possessed a thorough 
knowledge of the mechanical side of the trade. He had 
served his apprenticeship under Brandmuller in Basel. After 
twenty years service as journeyman — during which he wan- 
dered all over Western Europe — he came to America with 
Count Zinzendorf in 1741. In 1742 he accompanied the 
Count on his first visit to the Indians. Soon thereafter he 
went to Marianborn to establish the first Moravian printing 
Press. In 1751 he came to America for the second time. 
After a brief attempt at printing in Bethlehem he went to 
Philadelphia, where he worked for Bradford, Saur, and Frank- 
lin. In 1752 he printed a German newspaper in Lancaster, 
in company with S. Holland and with the backing of Frank- 
lin. In 1754 he returned to Germany, and three years later 
he was in London publishing a German newspaper for the 
14,000 Hessians quartered there. In 1760 he came to America 
for the last time and started a printing establishment of 
his own. 

Direct evidence is lacking to prove that Benjamin Franklin 
was the backer of the Staatsbote. Circumstances would lead 
us to believe that this was the case. During a part of his 
second visit to America Miller had worked for Franklin. He 
was in London from 1757 to 1762 — the same time as was 
Franklin. We cannot help speculating that the defeated 
candidate for the assembly urged the liberal printer to return 
to America and publish a liberal German newspaper. 

Heinrich Miller was a man well qualified to become the 
German champion of American independence. He had 
worked at his trade in Germany, Switzerland, Holland, Bel- 
gium, England, Scotland, Ireland, and America. This wide 
experience gave him an international outlook — an outlook so 
necessary in that fermenting period. His experience with 
the Hessians in London gave him an insight into British 
policy. His mental makeup was essentially liberal, for he 
was an uncompromising idealist. Both by his logic and by 
his humor did he convince. In these respects he was far su- 
perior to the younger Saur, who had lived all his life among 
the narrow Sectarians of Provincial Pennsylvania. 



With the passing of the Stamp Act the struggle between 
the colonies and the mother country assumed larger propor- 
tions. In the Staatsbote for April 2, 1765, Miller first men- 
tions the act. He says that it is rumored that such an act 
is contemplated. When Miller announced that the act was 
to go into effect on the first day of November, 1765, he 
added: 

The great Lisbon Earthquake (also) occurred in 
All-Saints Day! 

After this he often attacked the Act in his paper. On the 

28th of October of the same year he notified his readers that 

he would suspend publication until he could discover a way 

to escape paying the tax. In the lower right hand corner of 

his sheet he printed a skull-and-cross-bones with the caption: 

Dis ist der Platz 

fur 

Der Todespein 

Erregender Stampel 

Three days later he published an Abschieds Geschenk. On 
November 18 th the Staatsbote reappeared on unstamped 
paper. When the news of the repeal of the Stamp Act 
reached America, Miller gleefully published it. 

For a short time Miller was irenic and concilliatory. He 
was, however, convinced that if Parliament exercised the 
colonies to the utmost disastrous consequences would fol- 
low. He was not yet prepared to advocate strenuous mea- 
sures. His tone was decidedly bitter, to be sure, but he 
sought a peaceful solution. He was constantly insistent upon 
what he called "colonial rights." He defended William Pitt, 
with whom he most likely was acquainted. In large type 
he printed the words of the Great Commoner: 

Ich frene mich dass Amerika sich wiedersetzt hat. 

In the same issue he translates the couplet from Mathew Prior: 

To her faults a little blind 



To her 



a little kind 



Ihre Fehler ubersetzt 
Ihre Tugenden erholt 

Miller along with many of the patriots finally was led to 
believe that Great Britain had ulterior motives in respect to 
her policy in America. He thought that the repeal of the 
Stamp Act was only a temporary concilliatory measure pre- 
ceding harsher measures in the future. Soon after its re- 
peal, Miller published the following: 

Es ist wie gesagt wird, ein Plan in iiberlegung ein 
billige und leichte Landtax in alle Brittischen Pro- 
vinzen in Nord Amerika einzufiihren, welche, ohne 
die Unterthanen in Noth zu bringen, die letzte 
Wiederrufung der Stampel Act mehr als ersetzten 
wird. 

To this he added 

Es ist zu hoffen dass dieser Plan mit der Stampeley 
gleiches schicksal haben werde. 

Not only did Miller fall in line with the movements in the 
colonies seeking closer union, but he became their German 
champion. He rendered "the sons of Freedom" into "Die 
Sonne Der Freiheit," and used it as a collective term to de- 
scribe the patriots. He rings forth that clarion call: 

Dnrch Xusammenhalten stchcn wir, durch Trennung 
fallen wir. 

The events which crowded the period between the repeal 
of the Stamp Act and the first rumblings of war were duly 
recorded by Miller. He constantly emphasized the injustice 
of England. After the closing of the Port of Boston he 
printed accounts of meetings held in the various Pennsyl- 
vania Counties to decide what action should be taken. In 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



203 



1774, through a pamphlet, he appeals to the people of Phila- 
delphia and vicinity to suspend all business on the first day 
of June to show sympathy for the people of Boston. It 
soon became evident to Miller that the mother country would 
not institute reform measures. He was beginning to believe 
that resistance was the only alternative. From the year 1775 
on there is a decided tone for armed resistance. 

The whole Continental atmosphere now was charged with 
the electric spark of war. The Staatsbote was exceptionally 
outspoken along these lines. It said: 

"Es ist die Schuldigkeit eines jedem in dieser Provinz, 
sich gegen dieses Ministeralische vornehmen vorzubereiten, 
um auf stiindliche Anzeige fertig zu sein, den Congress zu 
verteidigen." 

The phrase, urn auf stiindliche Anziege fertig zu sein, was 
a translation of "The Minute Men." In the middle of March 
the English printer, Bradford, published a clarion call to 
arms, summing up all the vital issues of the hour. It was 
translated and printed by Miller. This firebrand was hurled 
among the Germans from Maine to Georgia. In this same 
year Miller published a pamphlet addressed to the Germans 
of New York and North Carolina informing them what the 
Pennsylvania Germans were doing in the cause of the patriots. 
Miller considered the speech which Pitt delivered on the 
20th of June, 1775, very important, publishing it in Ger- 
man and offering it as a premium to those who would pay 
their subscriptions within one year. 

To the Staatsbote belongs the honor of having been the 
first newspaper in America to publish the news of the adop- 
tion of the Declaration of Independence. In the largest 
type which his small shop could muster Miller announced: 

"GESTERN HAT DER ACHTBARE CONGRESS 
DIESEN VESTEN LANDES DIE VEREINIGTEN 
COLONIEN FREYE UND UNABHANGIGE STAATEN 
ERKLARET." 

In the issue for July 9th, 1776, Miller gives us the best 
account of the public reading of the Declaration in Phila- 
delphia. He ends it as follows: 

"After the reading of the Declaration three cheers were 
given, with the cry, 'God bless the Free States of North 
America.' To this sentiment every true friend of these 
colonies can and will say, Amen!" 

It is in this issue that the first German translation of the 
Declaration is to be found. One year later Miller gives us a 
graphic account of the first celebration of Independence Day. 
He comments: 

"So must the fourth of July, that glorious and unforget- 
able day, be celebrated throughout all America by the sons 
of Freedom from one generation till another, till the end of 
time, Amen! Amen!" 

Miller enthusiastically championed the cause of American 
Independence. He printed unusually long accounts of the 
Acts of Continental Congress. He printed accounts of what 
the Pennsylvania-Germans were doing in the cause of Ameri- 
can Independence. He lauds the company of old men in 
Reading, which contained eighty Germans more than forty 
years of age and whose leader was ninety-seven years old. 
He praises the other companies of German militia, and 
laments the circumstances which compelled them to take 
up arms in defense of their new found liberty. 

In the issue for January 15th, 1777, Miller prints the 
following Washington acrostic both in English and German: 

Witness, ye sons of tyranny's black womb, 

And see his Excellence victorious come! 

Serene, majestic, see he gains the field! 

His heart of tender while his arms are steel'd. 

Intent on virtue and her cause so fair, 

Now treats his captive with a parents care! 

Greatness of soul his very action shows, 



Thus virtue from celestial bounty flows. 
Our George, by heav'n, destined to command. 
Now strike the British yoke with prosp'rous hand. 

Miller was one of the most confident of optimists. He 
could encourage in the darkest hour. While the British 
threatened Philadelphia he laments that his helper has left 
him, but he rejoices that he has gone into the army. When 
they finally occupied the city, Miller was forced to leave. 
During this period we lose sight of him. We do know, 
however, that he printed some pamphlets addressed to the 
Germans for Continental Congress on borrowed presses in 
Lancaster and York. 

Miller's field of journalism was taken over by Franz Bailey 
of Lancaster, who published for the period of the occupation 
Das Pennsylvanische Xeitungsblatt. In his almanac for 1778 
Bailey first called Washington Dcs Landcs Vaters. His paper 
contained war news almost exclusively, and in a general way 
it continued the policy of Miller's paper. A survey of the 
complete files of this paper would lead us to believe that 
Miller translated many of the proclamations which both Con- 
gress and the Army addressed to the country. The editor, 
however, did not have the fire and zeal that we know to be 
Heinrich Miller. 

Miller returned to Philadelphia on the heels of the Ameri- 
can Army. He found his presses in bad shape. He says that 
General Howe had presented the presses to Christopher Saur 
on the belief that Benjamin Franklin was the backer of the 
Staatsbote. Even though Miller was content to continue the 
publication of his celebrated newspaper, times were bad, and 
he worked under the difficulty of a broken spirit. He was 
approaching eighty and he concluded that he deserved a 
retirement. So, after a most touching farewell to his readers, 
he retired from the printing business on the 29th of May, 
1779. He went to the quiet and peace of the Moravian 
settlement at Bethlehem, where he died in 1782. His ap- 
prentices, Steiner and Cist, continued the policies of the 
Staatsbote till the turn of the century. 

The size of the reading constituency of the Staatsbote is 
hard to estimate. The list of agents which Miller prints in 
his paper shows that it had a wide distribution. Not only 
did it circulate among the many Germans in Pennsylvania, 
but also among the Germans in Nova Scotia, New York, 
New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, and Georgia. The list of subscribers to the 
paper is no longer available. Its circulation, however, has 
been conservatively estimated at 6,5 00. For those days a 
constituency extending to every section of the colonies was 
unusual. It speaks for the intelligence of the Germans and 
the calibre of the paper. 

What the editor of the Staatsbote aimed at is, likewise, a 
matter of historical record. The goal which was uppermost 
in his mind was the infusion of a truly democratic spirit in 
his German readers. For the fulfillment of his purpose he 
found the ground well-prepared. The liberal Germans were 
ready tinder for Miller's firebrand. 

The influence of the Staatsbote upon the Germans in 
America cannot be definitely charted. The part played by 
the Germans in the drama of freedom, however, is not a 
matter of conjecture. It is a matter of historical record. 
They were a determining factor in the American Revolution. 

The Germans were not behind in the movement for Ameri- 
can Independence. We find many cases where they were 
leaders in this movement. The Germans of Mecklenburg 
County, North Carolina, anticipated the Declaration of In- 
dependence by thirteen months. In May, 1775, they offered 
a resolution in which they said that the colonies ought to 
be absolved from their British allegiance. It may be a mere 
coincidence but in the early part of that year Miller printed 
a pamphlet addressed to the Germans of New York and 
North Carolina telling them what their kinsmen in Penn- 
sylvania were doing for the cause of American Independence. 



204 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



In his paper he prints an account of these resolutions. In 
Pennsylvania the Germans organized companies of militia 
before 177 '4, and were drilling to meet any emergency. In 
Reading, where Miller's sheet had a wide circulation, there 
were four such companies. 

It was the representatives of the Germans in the Pennsyl- 
vania Provincial Assembly who turned the tide for Inde- 
pendence. 

The Germans displayed their patriotic spirit in other ways 
as well. On the 15 th of February, 1775, Pastor Helmuth 
of the Lutheran Church in Lancaster writes that the whole 
land (county) was preparing for war, nearly every man was 
armed, and the enthusiasm was indescribable. If one hundred 
men were asked for, he says, far more offered themselves and 
were angry that they were not taken. In other counties as 
well was the same spirit manifest. In a letter to Germany, 
Christopher Schultz, the Schwenkfeld preacher, writes: 

"Since the first blood was shed by the British you cannot 
believe what a flame of war spirit like a lightning stroke 
has set on fire this land. All are armed and in full battle 
array. In the cities even the little boys form companies and 
conduct military exercises." 

Among the first troops to arrive at Cambridge were com- 
panies from York, Lancaster, Berks, and Northampton 
Counties. They had marched five hundred miles to reach 
their destination. These were followed by the Germans from 
Maryland and Virginia — the latter under Colonel Morgan. 
As the editors of the Pennsylvania- Archives say: 

"The patriotism of Pennsylvania was evinced in the haste 
with which the companies of Col. Thompson's batallion were 
filled to overflowing, and the promptitude with which they 
took up their march to Boston." 

The hard life of the frontier not only made the Germans 
good soldiers, but it made them still better fighters. It was 
a company of Germans who turned the tide at Saratoga, thus 
making the French Alliance a fact. The Germans from the 
hills were Morgan's reliance at Cowpens. One writer has 
said that: 

"Long Island was the Thermopalae of the American Revo- 
lution, and the Pennsylvania-Germans were its Spartans." 

He might well have added that Col. Kichlein was its 
Leonidas. It was the Germans of Colonel Siegfried's com- 
mand who covered the rear for Washington's advance on 
Princeton and Trenton. The Germans were the mainstay of 
General Sullivan on his expedition. A British soldier, writing 
soon after the middle of the war, says that the Pennsylvania 
Germans were "shirt-tail men, with their cursed twisted 
guns — the most fatal widow-orphan makers in the world." 

But it was not in military services alone that the Germans 
did their bit. No other county was so situated to supply the 
Continental Army with food and ammunition as Pennsyl- 
vania. This colony was the pivot around which the battles 



of the middle states revolved. Its rich valleys were the 
granary for Washington's little army. Reading was its 
principal storehouse. In Morse's Geography, published in 
1789, we read: 

"It was from farms cultivated by these men that the 
American and French armies were chiefly fed with bread 
during the late rebellion, and it was from the produce of 
these farms that the millions of dollars were attained which 
laid the foundation of the Bank of North America, and 
which clothed and fed the American Army till the glorious 
Peace of Paris." The writer might have added that their fur- 
naces and forges were an important source of ammunition for 
the Army, and that the gunmakers of Berks and Old North- 
ampton were the best of their trade. 

The Germans in America contributed to the glorious per- 
sonnel of the American Revolution. Michael Hillegas was 
the first treasurer of Continental Congress. General Herki- 
mer (Hersheimer) was the hero of Orinskany, the battle that 
made Saratoga a victory. Christopher Ludwig was the 
Baker-General of the Continental Army. To the Germans 
of Virginia goes the honor of giving the American Revolu- 
tion that inspirational leader — the fighting parson — General 
Peter Muhlenberg. 

Bancroft says that while the Germans in America were 
one-twelfth of the population, nevertheless, they constituted 
one-eighth of the Continental Army. And it must be re- 
membered that a large number of them were members of 
non-resistant sects. 

Albert B. Faust in his German Element in the United States 
says that the German newspapers were an important instru- 
ment in producing this result. 

In the final analysis the positive influence of the German 
Press in Pennsylvania on the American Revolution resolves 
itself almost wholly to that of one paper: Der Wochentliche 
Philadelphische Staatsbote. This paper was the medium of 
expression for the German liberals in the movement for 
American Independence. 

The Germans in America were a determining factor in 
the American Revolution. 



The American people are thankful for the unselfish serv- 
ices of the leaders in the movement for American Indepen- 
dence. It is a part of our debt to the past, for these men 
are the fixed stars of the Colonial heavens. Among the stars 
of smaller magnitude there is one star that shines with a 
constantly increasing brilliancy. That star is John Heinrich 
Miller, the German champion of American Independence. 

In a simple grave he rests in the peaceful quiet of the 
Moravian burial-ground at Bethlehem. His work is finished. 
Ours has just begun. 

(Note: The text is followed by an extensive list of Ger- 
man and American sources.) 



The Planting of Memorial Trees 




1EN MILLION monuments to a great 
man! Ten million tributes, enduring 
and straight growing, which will be as 
evergreen as is the memory of George 
Washington in the hearts of 122,000,000 people, 
recording the fact that he is ever 'first in the hearts 
of his countrymen.' " 

This was the slogan adopted by the American 
Tree Association which conducted the tree plant- 
ing activities of the United States in cooperation 
with the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission. But as the Celebration itself 
extended far beyond the anticipation of its origi- 
nal proponents, so did the tree planting activities 
extend, until the slogan itself was a misnomer. 
Instead of ten million monuments — ten million 
trees planted in his honor — nearly 3 5,000,000 
memorial trees were planted during the year 1932 
in honor of George Washington. This great 
movement on the part of the American Tree As- 
sociation was sponsored by its President, Charles 
Lathrop Pack, and from his report of the activities 
of his Association, we find the records of millions 
of trees planted in honor of the Father of our 
Country; trees placed as memorials during the 
Bicentennial in 1932. In this tree planting project, 
thousands of American citizens found the oppor- 
tunity for an individual memorial. Tree planting 
was something the individual could do and he did 
it. The American Tree Association kept a record 
of millions of these tree plantings. A certificate 
was given each tree planter, whether he planted 
an acre or one tree. 

In conducting this phase of the Bicentennial 
program, P. S. Ridsdale, Managing Director, and 
Russell T. Edwards, Educational Director of the 
American Tree Association, took over the tremen- 
dous amount of detail connected with the cam- 
paign. The first activity of the Association in 
this work was to publish a booklet containing tree 
planting information. Application blanks for the 
tree planters to fill out were also provided. The 
newspapers of the country gave remarkable co- 
operation in this tree planting phase of the Bicen- 
tennial Celebration. Through this cooperation the 
American Tree Association was able to reach 
thousands. It also carried on an energetic cam- 
paign through such organizations as women's 



clubs, Boy and Girl Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, civic 
organizations, the Masonic fraternity and Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, and, of course, 
of the public and private schools. 

In another part of this report attention is given 
to the planting of trees at American Embassies 
and Legations abroad. But in this work the Amer- 
ican Tree Association also cooperated generously. 
In the United States, the Women's Clubs adopted 
the plan and made tree planting a major project 
of club work during 1932. The federated clubs 
in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota started 
Washington Memorial Forests. These projects 
will cover several years of planting. Each club 
planted a unit of several acres, and a bronze plate 
will designate the area for years to come. 

In Ohio, the club women registered one hundred 
per cent and thousands of memorial trees were 
planted either in memorial avenues, groups or in 
town forests. Florida women, in cooperation with 
the state forestry department, carried the tree 
planting message not only into every unit of the 
federation, but into every school in the state. In 
Cook County, Illinois, the Federation made a 
remarkable record. 

President Hoover planted a Washington elm in 
the grounds of the White House on the Pennsyl- 
vania Avenue side. Thus he joined with many of 
his predecessors in planting trees at the White 
House. Later in the year he planted a pine from 
Ferry Farm in the grounds facing the Ellipse. 
Representatives of the Boy Scouts of the United 
States planted a Mount Vernon walnut tree in the 
Capitol grounds in Washington and the honor of 
placing the first spadeful of earth around the tree 
was given to Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. Likewise, on June 5, 1931, Director 
Bloom was the honor guest at the planting of a 
Mount Vernon walnut tree descendant on the 
George Washington Monument Grounds in the 
National Capital. This ceremony was conducted 
under the auspices of the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation, Boy Scouts of America, General Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs, United States Department 
of Agriculture and the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

President Roosevelt, while Governor of New 



205 



206 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



York, had a Washington tree planted on the Capi- 
tol grounds at Albany, and a thousand more 
planted for Washington on his estate at Hyde 
Park. 

Governor John Garland Pollard of Virginia 
planted the first state tree on Capitol Hill in Rich- 
mond. The program in Virginia provided for the 
planting of a tree or shrub on every school ground 
of the state. 

Mrs. Sherman's Message 

In all these activities in relation to tree planting 
the contact with the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission was through Mrs. 
John Dickinson Sherman, who was in charge of 
the Women's Activities for the Commission. Mrs. 
Sherman was most enthusiastic and energetic in 
assisting in every way individuals and organizations 
in the tree planting campaign. In a message on 
this project, Mrs. Sherman wrote: 



Planting a tree to honor the memory of George Washington 
is a fitting tribute to the man who won our Independence 
and established our nation. I hope that the year of the 
Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth 
of George Washington will witness the dedication of millions 
of these living monuments, in every part of these United 
States, to this great man — trees, registered on the honor roll 
of the American Tree Association and planted in apprecia- 
tion and reverence for the Father of our Country. 

George Washington seems to have been born with a love 
of trees and the desire to preserve and cultivate them. On 
a surveying trip he visited the warm springs at Bath, later 
Berkeley Springs, West Virginia. There he planted an Ameri- 
can elm which now bears the inscription: "This tree was 
planted by George Washington." 

A charming story comes down to us concerning this ma- 
jestic elm. When the little party was about to depart, George 
Washington called to his darky boy to cut him a switch 
for his horse. The ground was soft from heavy rains and 
the tug the lad gave the bough brought the little tree loose 
by the roots. At once the young surveyor swung to the 
ground, took hold of the little sapling and carefully re- 
planted it. 

Another elm famous in history was the patriarchal tree 
at Cambridge, traditionally connected with General Wash- 
ington when he assumed command of the Continental Army 
on July 3, 1775. 

Famous also is the last of the thirteen horse chestnut trees 







The Director of the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission, Honorable Sol Bloom, as 

THE HONOR GUEST OF THE BOY SCOUTS, PLANTING A MOUNT VERNON WALNUT TREE IN THE CAPITOL GROUNDS, 

Washington, D. C. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



207 



set out by General Washington in the yard of his mother's 
home at Fredericksburg at the close of the Revolution. They 
were named for the thirteen states. Only one remains to 
carry on the honor conferred upon it. 

Trees played an important part in the Indian and Revo- 
lutionary Wars. Indian warfare in those days was forest 
warfare and the frontiersmen speedily learned from their red- 
skinned opponents the art of stealthy march and ambush. 
This style of warfare was entirely contrary to that formal 
massed advance or resistance in which the European armies 
were trained. 

The appalling defeat of Braddock is a famous instance of 
the result of the British soldier's ignorance of the way to 
withstand such a forest attack. The Virginia troops en- 
gaged in this battle, led by Washington, took to the trees 
at once and their own responsive tactics together with the 
skill and bravery of their commander alone made possible 
the withdrawal of the remnant of the English force. Officers 
and soldiers trained in this earlier struggle were, with Wash- 
ington again as their leader, the first in the field of the 
American Revolution and the mainstay of the Continental 
Army. In battle after battle the influence of this training 
in fighting amid the trees is to be seen. 

It was from behind trees as well as stone walls that the 
Minute Men of Massachusetts pursued the Redcoats during 
the retreat from Concord; a shot, a swift reloading and 
priming of the flint lock, a sudden dash to the shelter of the 
bole of another giant elm, another shot, and so the pursuit 
continued until the exhausted regulars were safe under the 
guns of the English ships. 

It has been well said that Washington lost battles and 
won campaigns; that the British were never able to retain 
their temporary successes when removed from the protection 
of their fleets and supplies from the sea. And behind the 
sea front were the trees, most friendly to the American 
cause, strong allies in the struggle for American Indepen- 
dence. 

Washington's diaries reveal his love of trees and his desire 
to have his permanent home set in their midst. To the 
magnificent stretches of woods and forest that were part 
of his inherited plantation he began a systematic plan of 
tree planting the year of his marriage, when he set out limes 
and lindens, which lasted through his life. He continued 
planting whenever public service permitted him to remain 
at home and follow his chosen vocation of a farmer. During 
the sixteen years of his enjoyment of Mount Vernon, while 
serving as a member of the House of Burgesses, he planted 
thousands of tree seeds, roots and cuttings and young sap- 
lings from many localities. 

George Washington took particular delight in exchanging 
tree slips with his friends from which came a regular grove 
of friendship trees at Mount Vernon, some of which still 
stand to bear mute witness to his love of them. In later 
life friends from all corners of the world sent him seeds 
which grew into beautiful trees. 

Those who have studied George Washington's life find 
much that is symbolic of the life of a giant king of the 
forest. The man who founded this Nation, defended it, 
sheltered its infancy beneath his own powerful personality, 
and gave its expanding growth the freedom and nourishment 
of his patriotic devotion and service, drew his rugged strength 
and unfaltering courage from the wide-spreading family 
roots planted deep — centuries deep — in ancestral traditions of 
loyalty, service and courage. 

His life grew and unfolded into far reaching channels of 
military and civil life, until it touched upon every vital 
interest of his country, like the straight upstanding beau- 
tiful tree with its ever reaching roots deep in mother earth, 
its lofty top uplifted to the sky, a listening post of God, 
and its outspread branches catching rain and sunshine and 



giving shade and shelter to man and beast, thereby justifying 
its life by service. 

At Mount Vernon today may be seen 45 of the trees 
planted either by George Washington personally or under 
his supervision, still giving to the world their tribute of 
honor to his name. 

In planting trees to the memory of George Washington, 
there is also planted with them all that trees meant to this 
great man — the combined attributes of the honest, loyal 
service that means immortality. 

Outstanding Activities 

Thousands of tree planting posters and thou- 
sands of application blanks were sent out all over 
the country so that new thousands might join the 
tree planting army. All who planted trees were 
made members of the American Tree Association. 
The unit that stands out, perhaps as no other, in 
tree planting, was the Berks County Conservation 
Association, of Pennsylvania. At the direction of 
Harvey F. Heinly, President of that organization, 
nearly 2,000,000 trees were planted. This was a 
community effort that possibly was not excelled 
anywhere in the country. Community effort was 
also responsible for the remarkable achievements 
by the Boy Scouts and 4-H Clubs. There were 
dedicated by these organizations a million trees on 
a 750-acre summer camp in Oneida County, New 
York, to the memory of George Washington. This 
report was made to the American Tree Association 
by William J. Wiley, of Utica, Superintendent of 
the Masonic Home of the Grand Lodge of Free 
and Accepted Masons. There is the planting of 
1,000 trees by the students of the Raymond Rior- 
don School of Highland, New York, during a visit 
to William and Mary College in Virginia. This is 
called the George Washington Plantation. 

From Fort Story, Virginia, Lieut. E. R. Guild 
of the 12th Coast Artillery registered the planting 
of 61,5 60 trees in memory of Washington at Cape 
Henry. This is a reforestation project that will 
be watched with great interest as the years go by 
because this planting by the soldiers is to hold back 
the moving sand dunes. 

The George Washington Bicentennial Tree 
Planting Committee of Connecticut recommended 
to the State Forest and Park Commission that it 
set aside a tract of land for development and 
planting of a forest to be known as the George 
Washington Memorial Forest. Similar recommen- 
dations were made to the authorities of each town 
in Connecticut. 

The Iowa Society, Daughters of the American 
Revolution, planted 8,000 trees in honor of George 



208 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentenniat Commission 



Washington and the registration was made by Mrs. 
J. E. Fitzgerald, the state regent. 

The Rotary Club of Three Lakes, Wisconsin, 
sponsored the dedication of a George Washington 
Unit within the boundaries of the newly formed 
Argonne National Forest. L. G. Cunningham, 
president of the Rotary Club, reported the tree 
planting. 

Pupils of the McCarthy School, of McCarthy, 
Alaska, have all planted trees in honor of George 
Washington and their names have been placed on 
the national honor roll by Mrs. Margaret Harrais, 
teacher of the school. 

Bicentennial tree planters can be found in almost 
every city, town and community in the United 
States. Members of the 38th Infantry of Fort 
Douglass, Utah, planted 571 trees in honor of 
George Washington, according to a report by Col. 
H. C. Price. They were assisted in their tree plant- 
ing by Major John F. Bowman and the Salt Lake 
City Bicentennial Memorial Tree Planting Com- 
mission. The Fort Loudoun Chapter of the 
D. A. R. of Winchester, Virginia, have planted 
trees in honor of George Washington. This chap- 
ter of the D. A. R. has particular reason for honor- 
ing George Washington as Fort Loudoun was built 
by George Washington's soldiers in 175 6. 

The Daughters of the American Revolution, of 
Idaho, planted a tree in honor of Washington on 
the State ground at Boise. The George Washing- 
ton Parke Custis Society, Children of the Ameri- 
can Revolution of Buffalo, planted six trees. 

At Lakewood, N. J., a campaign resulted in 
tree planting on every piece of school property in 
Ocean County. The Indian School for the Blind 
registered forty trees through George S. Wilson, 
superintendent. Another registration came from 
the Upper Cut Meat Day School at Rosebud In- 
dian Agency. The Cherokee Indian School in 
North Carolina is also on the honor roll. At Red 
Oak, Iowa, a new school was named for Washing- 
ton and one thousand trees planted. 

Commemorating the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of George Washington's birth and of one 
of the outstanding events under his leadership in 
the cause of American freedom an arboretum was 
dedicated at the spot on the New Jersey shore of 
the Delaware River where Washington and his men 
made the famous crossing. 

This arboretum was a gift to the people of New 



Jersey by Charles Lathrop Pack. It is likewise a 
contribution to the educational system of the State 
typifying the conviction of its donor that a knowl- 
edge of the love of trees was essential to the preser- 
vation of our forest wealth. 

There are many instances in the records of the 
American Tree Association showing how town 
beautification plans were brought to life and 
pushed to a conclusion in the name of Washington. 
In these programs the entire community had some 
part. Elaborate programs were given in connec- 
tion with the tree planting project. 

The planting of trees is one of the most fitting 
of all memorials because it is a living one. Wash- 
ington himself loved trees and his diary contains 
repeated references to their value and care; and 
he chose a spot for his home where their beauty is 
unexcelled. Along the shaded path that leads to 
his final resting place, two columns of trim, 
straight larches stand like sentinels, his constant 
companions, along with those Americans who 
come to pay him reverence during the daylight 
hours. He must have loved the regal beauty of a 
tree. In the symbolism of a tree can Washington 
be remembered preeminently. Deep-rooted in the 
ground, a tree is like a man, coming up out of the 
earth, but lifting its branches to heaven. And as 
it grows in usefulness, so it grows in beauty. It 
may outlast the ages, it offers its shade to all alike, 
and its disinterested ministries succor to a thirsty 
countryside and provides for its physical and 
aesthetic necessity. So a tree bespeaks the spirit 
of Washington. He was democratic in his services, 
regal in his leadership, commanding in his prin- 
ciples, while he extended a brotherly hand to a 
new and independent people struggling for fuller 
freedom. 

The United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission makes sincere acknowledg- 
ment to the American Tree Association for its 
cooperation and truly remarkable accomplish- 
ments in organizing and promoting the tree plant- 
ing feature of the Bicentennial Celebration. 

Tree Planting Booklet 

In the cooperative activities of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission and the 
American Tree Association, an interesting and 
valuable booklet was published and given wide 
circulation. The booklet on Tree Planting con- 
tained the information which follows: 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



209 



Forms of Planting 

Individual Plantings. These may be made in a garden, in 
the street, with proper permission from the municipal au- 
thorities, along a roadside, or anywhere the individual has 
the right to plant a tree. 

Club Plantings. Such plantings may be of one good sized 
tree in a suitable location, but should preferably be of groups 
of trees, or a number of street trees. Groups of trees may be 
planted on park land owned by the community, on land 
owned by clubs; or permission from water supply companies, 
or other corporations, may be had for the planting of forest 
trees on their land under the direction of a forester. 

Civic Body Plantings. Such plantings will naturally be of 
forest trees and upon land owned by the municipality, such 
as park land, or on the watersheds of the city's water supply, 
or on town forests, if such are owned by the municipality. 

College and School Plantings. These will naturally be 
upon the grounds owned by colleges and by schools. Both 
colleges and schools may have class plantings in honor of 
present or previous classes, or all classes may combine in 
plantings representing the entire institution. Many colleges 
and schools have forests where trees may be planted. 

National Organization Plantings. These plantings may be 
of a sectional character, or a national organization non- 
appropriate money for a large forest planting. 

County Plantings. In many states there are Washington 
counties. It would be most appropriate for these counties 
to plant a county forest, and also, of course, appropriate for 
other counties to plant county forests as memorials. The 
State Forestry Department should be consulted, and in many 
cases will be able to provide the seedlings for planting. 

State Plantings. These would properly be of the character 
of state forest plantings, conducted by the State Forestry 
Department with trees provided by the State Forestry 
nurseries. 

Planting Program. In all organization or community 
plantings it is desirable to have a program of a patriotic- 
character. 

General instructions follow: 

General Instructions for Ornamental or 
Roadside Planting 

The first thing to do is to select your space and decide 
upon the type of trees that will best fit it — always keeping 
in mind the future. 

Secure stock from reputable nurseries. Seventy-five per- 
cent of the trees taken in the native state from woodlands 
die. Trees up to twelve feet in height are best for highway 
and shade tree planting. Your nurseryman will give full 
particulars. When trees are shipped from a nursery their 
roots are covered with wet burlap. 

Keep this covering around the roots until immediately 
before planting. Roots of trees dug from the woodland 
should be similarly covered and protected. The exposure of 
the roots of many kinds of trees for five minutes may injure 
the tree beyond recovery. One may be sure that care in 
protecting the roots from sun, dry air, and wind will be 
amply rewarded in the performance of the trees after proper 
planting. 

If a consignment cannot be planted promptly upon arrival, 
it is better to leave it unpacked in a cool place, or if it must 
be unpacked, "heel in," or plant temporarily, in a trench, 
covering the roots well to exclude the air. Water if the 
roots are dry. 

Soil Selection 

While some trees will undoubtedly grow in a poor soil 
after they have become established, there is no advantage in 
starting trees in anything except the best garden soil. 
Usually that referred to as "topsoil" is the kind to have on 
hand in sufficient quantity for tree planting. Bear this in 



mind — Do not "spare the topsoil and spoil the tree!" Unless 
the trees have been given better than ordinary handling in 
the operations of transplanting, their roots will need some 
trimming. The broken and badly bruised ones should be 
pruned with a clean cut. The top of the deciduous trees 
can be shaped up at this time. Do not cut off the leader. 
If a great deal of the roots have been removed the side 
branches should be cut back proportionately. All of this 
operation of pruning should be carried on with a sharp 
pruning knife such as can be secured at any hardware store. 
In order to do the planting properly, other tools are also 
necessary. This equipment should properly consist of a spade 
for excavating the hole, a pointed stick, such as a rake handle, 
or better still, one's hands, for filling the soil around the 
branches of the roots, and a tamper to firm the earth. Tamp 
the soil with the heel when possible. If the ground is firm 
and hard a pick and a shovel may be added to the outfit. At 
least twelve inches of good topsoil should be beneath the tree 
roots. When the soil is at all dry and the weather warm, 
it is well to have some receptacle, such as a barrel, half filled 
with a mixture of water and earth, in which the roots of 
the tree may be puddled before placing in the excavation. 
This will help to give it a satisfactory start if the roots have 
been well protected. 

Planting Time 

The best time for transplanting varies with the kind of 
tree and the region of the country. In the eastern half of 
the United States, excepting much of Florida, the two nor- 
mal seasons for planting deciduous trees are spring and fall. 
The advocates of either season have many arguments to 
advance for the success of their operations, but as a rule it 
is safe to say that in the eastern half of the United States, 
south of a line from St. Louis to Chicago, Buffalo and Boston, 
deciduous trees may be planted at any time during the dor- 
mant period when it is possible to work the soil; i. e., when 
not frozen. This period begins with the dropping of the 
foliage in the autumn, and ends when the buds burst open in 
the spring. Nurserymen will advise that certain trees like 
birch, magnolias, etc., are better planted in spring than in 
autumn. The early spring is the better for tree planting in 
the region north of this line. From near the 98th meridian 
to beyond the crest of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascade 
Mountains spring transplanting is usually best except in a 
few of the warmer portions. 

This is because the dry winter winds combined with severe 
freezing cause fall planting to be unsuccessful. On the 
Pacific slope transplanting is best done as early in the rainy 
season as dormant plants may be available, because the longer 
they are in the ground before the dry season the better estab- 
lished they become. 

Evergreen Planting 

In the eastern United States evergreens may be planted 
in the fall, beginning three months before the ground may 
be expected to freeze and ending six weeks later, or in the 
spring after the frost is out of the ground and until the 
weather gets too warm. West of the Missouri River planting 
should be only in the spring because of the difficulty of pre- 
venting injurious effects from the drouths that are so likely 
to occur in late summer. When it is possible to prevent 
such injury, late summer or early fall transplanting may also 
be successful in these regions. In the region bounded by 
the Rocky Mountains, the Cascade Mountains, and the Sierra 
Nevadas, times should also be selected when root growth may 
take place promptly after transplanting with a minimum 
of transpiration from the foliage until the plant is re-estab- 
lished. On the Pacific slope the same reasons dictate planting 
early in the rainy season or just prior to it, as there is seldom 
sufficient cold to check root growth. In semi-tropical Florida 
moisture is so abundant that transplanting may be done at 
almost any time. 



210 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commi 



If large balls of earth are secured intact around the roots, 
evergreens may be planted successfully at times earlier and 
later than the above seasons. The day to select, where this 
is possible, is a cool, cloudy one. On other days greater care 
must be devoted to the details of planting to prevent the 
drying out of the roots through the necessary handling of 
the plants. 

The Excavation 

The size and shape of the excavation for the individual 
trees should be at least six inches beyond the spread of the 
roots of the tree extended in their natural positions. The 
depth of the hole should be more than enough to receive the 
roots in the same manner. There should be place for a layer 
of six inches of good loam before the roots are placed in the 
hole. Then, when the "topsoil" is carefully worked among 
the fine roots, the tree should be about the same depth, note 
soil mark on stem, as it was in the nursery or woodland. 

In working the soil around the roots no air spaces should 
be left when the tree is finally planted. In other words, the 



soil should be firmly and carefully packed so that the tree 
cannot be shaken from its position. The pointed stick and 
tamper may be used, but fingers and heel are more efficient 
for small trees and less liable to bruise the roots. A popular 
and excellent way to get the soil properly around and among 
the roots is to soak the soil in the excavation after the roots 
are covered and, after the water settles, to complete the 
filling in of the soil. An inch of loose soil or leaf mould 
should be placed about the tree to prevent the soil from 
baking. 

The Spacing 

The spacing of trees is something that cannot be governed 
by fixed rules. Street trees may be placed from thirty to 
eighty feet apart, depending upon the variety used and the 
extent of soil space available on which the roots have to feed. 
Sycamore and elm require the maximum distance. For lawn 
planting in groups, the trees may be planted as near each 
other as twenty-five feet. For windbreak planting the indi- 
vidual trees may be from six to eight feet apart. Some 




HIS PLAN ILLUSTRATES THE FOURTEEN POINTS FOR ORNA- 
MENTAL TREE PLANTING, ENUMERATED ON PAGE 211. 

The left portion of the plan shows the process of 
planting, while the right portion shows the planting 
completed. One system of pruning is shown by the 
straight black marks in the center tree. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



21 



authorities say that for all purposes other than along streets 
it would be better to plant the trees rather close with the 
idea of cutting out the crowded ones when it is necessary 
later on, but experience shows that very few will do this. 
It is expensive and the remaining trees are often mis-shaped 
from early crowding, the relieving of which is usually too 
long deferred. 

In the event that the top of the tree was not pruned before 
planting to correspond with the amount of root pruning it 
should be done now. It is better to err in the direction of 
too much pruning of the crown of the tree, rather than too 
little. In fact, many successful planters remove all of the 
side branches of a deciduous tree, leaving only the main 
shoot or leader at the time of planting. Above all, do not 
prune back or remove the leader of a deciduous tree. It is 
entirely unnecessary to top prune properly grown and balled 
evergreen trees at time of transplanting, though a little 
thinning out of congested side branches may be needed or 
desirable. The greatest beauty of evergreens is, however, 
attained by allowing all the branches to remain down to the 
ground. 

Fourteen Points in Ornamental Tree Planting 

1. A piece of burlap or canvas should be spread over the 
grass, so that the dirt from the holes may be thrown upon 
it, or use a wheelbarrow from which it is easy to shovel the 
dirt. 

2. Holes must be made large enough so that the roots may 
be spread out naturally without cramping. See also No. 6. 

3. Be sure the holes are well drained, especially when dug 
in a clay subsoil. 

4. Good, fertile topsoil must be used about the roots. If 
the planting location is in impoverished ground, good soil 
should be provided about the roots. 

5. Plant the tree about the same depth it stood at the 
nursery (easily determined by the dirt ring on the trunk). 
This is very important. 

6. Lay the roots out naturally and cut off smoothly all 
the broken or bruised parts. See also No. 2. 

7. Press the earth down firmly, embedding all parts of 
roots and working. 

8. With small trees the dirt will settle about the roots if 
the plant is moved gently up and down and the earth firmed 
as the hole is filled. Be careful not to break the rootlets. 
With large trees use tamping stick. 

9. Pour in water to top of hole after filling three-quarters 
full with earth. When this is settled complete filling-in 
process, leaving topsoil loose. Do not hill up the earth about 
the base of the tree. 

10. Trim broken or bruised branches, also small branches 
and limbs back to the next largest stem. See marks on 
diagram. 

11. Do not cut back the leader or central stem, as a forked 
tree may result. Hardwood trees, oak and beech especially, 
should not have their central leader cut off. 

12. Large trees or trees in exposed places should usually 
be staked. To prevent chafing, protect the tree with old 
rubber hose or with burlap. A stake driven in the ground 
along side the tree with a rubber or burlap covered wire 
attached to the tree is a good support. Until the tree be- 
comes firmly established see to it in the spring that the earth 
is closely packed about the trunk. 

13. After planting, it is better to leave a cultivated area 
about the tree than to sod close to it. The cultivated area 
should be from 3 to 5 feet in diameter. 

14. Fertilizer or well rotted manure or compost may be 
used either thoroughly mixed with the soil in the bottom 
of the hole or as a surface mulch, or both. 



A Memorial Town Forest 

An excellent form of Memorial Tree Planting is that of a 
town forest, which can be dedicated as a George Washington 
Memorial and added to each year. How such a forest may 
be established is indicated in a plan adopted by Grand Rapids, 
Mich., and explained by Frank L. DuMond, Curator of 
Education, Kent Scientific Museum, as follows: 

Aims 

(1) To establish a city demonstration forest area on which 
children of Grand Rapids may learn to plant trees. (2) To 
enable Youth to become intimately acquainted with the im- 
portant forest trees of our state. (3) To provide an outdoor 
laboratory where trees of various species may demonstrate 
their ability to grow in Michigan. (4) To develop "tree 
consciousness" on the part of young and old. 

The Plan 

To work out a desirable planting plan suitable for the 
creation of a hand-planted forest on 50 acres of old fields 
of Aman Park. This will require 60,800 trees (if planted at 
6-foot intervals, or 1,210 per acre). 

The trees to be planted in a period of five years by setting 
out 10 acres (12,100 trees) per annum. By utilizing the 
spring and fall planting season, 6,0 50 could be planted at 
each of these periods. 

As the object is to make this plantation of the utmost 
educational value, each child should be limited to the planting 
of 2 5 trees, which is sufficient to enable the planter to grasp 
the technique without tiring. 

Based on previous contacts made with the children of 
Grand Rapids through various educational agencies, as the 
schools, Camp Fire Girls and Boy Scouts, the required num- 
ber of planters can easily be secured. 

Cost 

The cost of making this "show-window" forest will be 
almost negligible. Much of the planting stock can be secured 
free from the State Forester. 

Conclusion 

Approximately 500 children each year will receive prac- 
tical instruction in reforestation or at the end of the five- 
year period a total of 2,500 boys and girls will have an 
intelligent appreciation of the problems involved in restoring 
Michigan's idle acres to productivity. 

TREES SUITABLE FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTING 

For New England States, New York and Michigan: 
Deciduous Trees 



Red oak 
White oak 
American linden 
European linden 
American elm 
Birches 



Beech 
Tupelo 
Sugar maple 
Red maple 
Black maple 



Scarlet oak 
White ash 
Shagbark hickory 
Norway maple 
Purple beech 



Cone-Bearing Evergreen Trees 

White pine Scotch pine Arborvitae 

Red pine Balsam fir European larch 

White spruce Hemlock Concolor fir 

Colo, blue spruce Austrian pine 

For Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, District of Columbia, West Virginia, 
Kentucky, Iowa, Missouri, Virginia, and the mountainous 
parts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Ten- 
nessee, Alabama and Arkansas 



212 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Deciduous Trees 

Common red oak Red elm Sugar maple 

White oak Red maple Kent'y coffee tree 

Scarlet oak Norway maple Tupelo 

Pin oak American linden Sweet gum 

Black oak American plane tree Black walnut 

Tulip tree White ash Bald cypress 

American elm London plane tree 



Cone-Bearing Evergreen Trees 



Arborvitae 
Red Cedar 
Balsam fir 
White pine 
Scotch pine 



Austrian pine 
Retinisporas 
Hemlock 
Mugho pine 
Dwarf junipers 



Red pine 
European larch 
White spruce 
Colo, blue spruce 



For North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Louisiana, eastern Texas, some of the 
Mississippi Valley portions of Tennessee and Arkansas 

Deciduous Trees 

Willow oak Tulip tree American plane tree 

Southern red oak Tupelo London plane tree 

Common red oak American elm Red maple 

Mossy cup oak American linden Pin oak 

Pecan White ash 

Sweet gum Ginkgo 



Live oak 
Laurel oak 



Broad-Leaf Evergreens 

Southern magnolia American holly 

Cone-Bearing Evergreens 



Longleaf pine Deodar Red Cedar 

Slash pine Arborvitae Retinisporas 

Cedar of Lebanon Loblolly pine 

For Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, Wyoming 
and Montana 



Chinese elm 
Mossycup oak 
American elm 



Scotch pine 
Jack pine 
Red cedar 



Deciduous Trees 

Hackberry 
Green ash 
Black locust 



Honey locust 
Cottonwoods 



Cone-Bearing Evergreens 

Austrian pine Western yellow pine 

Arborvitae Black Hills spruce 



For New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Nevada 

Deciduous Trees 

Chinese elm Box elder Siberian poplar 

Green ash Narrowleaf cotton- Fremont cottonwood 

Common locust wood Valley cottonwood 

Hackberry Smoothbark cotton- Bolleana poplar 

Honey locust wood 



For Idaho and the eastern parts of Washington and Oregon 

Deciduous Trees 

Green ash Bolleana poplar Balsam poplar 
Norway maple Cottonwood Smoothbark cotton- 
Sycamore maple Black balsam poplar wood 
Honey locust Siberian poplar 
Common locust Carolina poplar 

For western Washington and Oregon and the Siskiyou Moun- 
tains of California 

Deciduous Trees 



Oregon maple 
Norway maple 
Sugar maple 
American elm 
Tulip tree 
White ash 



Scarlet oak 
White oak 
Black oak 
English oak 
Box elder 
English elm 



Hickories 
Garry oak 
American plane tree 
London plane tree 
California plane tree 
Black walnut 



American lindens Huntingdon elm Common locust 

European lindens Scotch elm Cascara 

Common red oak Slippery elm 

Pin oak Sweet gum 

Cone-Bearing Evergreens 

Deodar Hemlock Araucarias 

Cedar of Lebanon Retinisporas Arborvitae 

Cedrus atlantica Lawson cypress Junipers 

Douglas fir Spruces Pines 

Broad-Leaf Evergreens 

English holly Madrone Evergreen privets 

Euonymus 

For the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys of California 
Deciduous Trees 

London plane tree Velvet ash California white oak 

California plane tree Flowering ash Goldenrain tree 

Oregon maple American elm Mossy cup oak 

Norway maple English elm English hawthorn 

Calif, black walnut Chinese elm 
Oregon ash Crape myrtle 

Cone-Bearing Evergreens 

Deodar Italian cypress Monterey cypress 

Cedar of Lebanon Chinese arborvitae "In the southern 

Monterey pine Guadaloupe cypress part'' 

Arizona cypress Incense cedar 

Broad-Leaf Evergreens 

For the southern half of the valley only 

Blue gum Southern magnolia Washingtonia palms 



Manna gum 
Red box 
Red gum 



Canary Island date Windmill palm 
pah 



For the Coast of California south to Santa Cruz Bay 
Deciduous Trees 

All those grown in western Washington and Oregon and in 
the Sacramento Valley 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



213 



Deodar 

Cedar of Lebanon 
Port Orford cedar 
Arizona cypress 
Italian cypress 



Cone-Bearing Trees 

Colorado blue 

spruce 
Chinese arborvitae 
Redwood 
Monterey cypress 



Incense cedar 
Western red ceds 
Monterey pine 



Broad-Leaf Evergreens 

Blue gum Red gum Washingtonia palms 

Manna gum Southern magnolia Canary Island date 

Blackwood acacia California live oak palm 

Green wattle Red box 

For Southern California 

Deciduous Trees 



London plane tree 
Valley white oak 
Velvet ash 



Silk tree 
English elm 
Beefwoods 



Goldenrain tree 
Calif, black walnut 



Cone-Bearing Trees 



Monterey cypress Aleppo pine 

Arizona cypress Torrey pine 

Guadaloupe cypress Deodar 
Monterey pine 



Canary Island pine 
Incense cedar 
Smooth cypress 



Rubber tree 
Camphor tree 
Pepper tree 



Cedar of Lebanon 
Broad-Leaf Evergreens 

Canary date palm Bottle trees 



San Diego palm Blue gum 

Acacias Manna gum 

Washingtonia palms Pittosporums Lemon gum 

Guadaloupe palm Jacaranda Gray gum 

California live oak Scarlet flowering Red box 
Cork oak Eucalyptus 
Silk oak 

FOREST PLANTING 

For advices about trees suitable for forest planting write to 
your State Forester who will gladly furnish information and 
literature. In many States the State Forestry Department will 
supply seedlings for planting in quantity and the cost of these 
will be nominal. The addresses of the State Foresters follou : 

Florida 

Florida Board of Forestry 
Harry Lee Baker, State For- 
ester 
Tallahassee, Fla. 

Georgia 

State Board of Forestry 
B. M. Lufburrow, State For- 
ester 
State Capitol, Atlanta, Ga. 

Idaho 
State Cooperative Board of 
Forestry 
Ben E. Bush, State Forester 
Moscow, Idaho 

Illinois 
Department of Conservation 
R. B. Miller, Chief Forester 
Springfield, 111. 

Indiana 
Department of Conservation, 
Division of Forestry 
Ralph F. Wilcox, State For- 
ester 
Indianapolis, Ind. 



Alabama 
Commission of Forestry 
Page S. Bunker, State For- 
ester 

Montgomery, Ala. 

California 
State Board of Forestry 
M. B. Pratt, State Forester 
Sacramento, Calif. 

Colorado 
State Agricultural College, 
Department of Forestry 
W. J. Merrill, State Forester 
Fort Collins, Colo. 

Connecticut 

State Park and Forest Com- 
mission 
A. F. Hawes, State Forester 
Drawer, 2115, Hartford, 
Conn. 

Delaware 
Forest Conservation Commis- 
sion 
W. S. Taber, State Forester 
State House, Dover, Del. 



Iowa 
State Forestry Commissioner 
Mark G. Thornburg 
Des Moines, Iowa 

Kansas 

State Agricultural College, 

Division of Forestry 

Albert Dickens, State For- 



ester 
Manhatta 



i, Kans. 



Kentucky 
State Department of Agri- 
culture, Labor and Sta- 
tistics 
W. E. Jackson, Jr., State 
Forester 
Frankfort, Ky. 

Louisiana 

Department of Conservation, 

Division of Forestry 

V. H. Sonderegger, Supt. of 

Forestry 

New Orleans, La. 

Maine 

State Forest Service 
Neil L. Violette, Forest 
Commissioner 
Augusta, Me. 

Maryland 
State Department of Forestry 

F. W. Besley, State Forester 
1411 Fidelity Bldg., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Massachusetts 
Department of Conservation, 
Division of Forestry 
W. A. L. Bazeley, State For- 
ester 
State House, Boston, Mass. 
Michigan 
Department of Conservation 
Marcus Schaaf, State For- 
ester 
Lansing, Mich. 

Minnesota 

Department of Conservation, 

Division of Forestry 

G. M. Conzet, Commission- 
er of Forestry and Fire 
Prevention 

St. Paul, Minn. 

Mississippi 
State Forestry Commission 
Fred B. Merrill, State For- 
ester 
Jackson, Miss. 

Missouri 
State Department of Forestry 
Frederick Dunlap, State For- 
ester 
Columbia, Mo. 

Montana 
State Forest Department 
Rutledge Parker, State For- 
ester 
Missoula, Mont. 



Nebraska 
University of Nebraska Con- 
servation and Soil Sur- 
vey Division 

, State Forester 

Lincoln, Nebr. 

New Hampshire 
State Forestry Department 
J. H. Foster, State Forester 
Concord, N. H. 

New Jersey 
Department of Conservation 
and Development, Divi- 
sion of Forests and Parks 
C. P. Wilber, State Forester 
State Office Bldg., Trenton, 
N. J. 

New York 
Conservation Commission, 
Division of Lands and 
Forests 
W. G. Howard, Supt. Lands 
and Forests, 
Albany, N. Y. 

North Carolina 
Department of Conservation 
and Development, For- 
estry Division 
J. S. Holmes, State Forester 
Raleigh, N. C. 

North Dakota 
State School of Forestry 
F. E. Cobb, State Forester 
Bottineau, N. Dak. 
Ohio 
Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, Department of 
Forestry 
Edmund Secrest, State For- 
ester, 
Wooster, Ohio 

Oklahoma 
Oklahoma Forest Commission 
George R. Phillips, State 
Forester 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Oregon 
State Board of Forestry 
L. F. Cronemiller, State For- 
ester 
Salem, Oregon 

Pennsylvania 
Department of Forests and 
Waters 
L. E. Staley, State Forester 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Rhode Island 
Department of Agriculture 
Leon D. Andrews, Chief, 
Bureau of Forestry 
State House, Providence, 
R. I. 

South Carolina 
State Forestry Commission 
H. A. Smith, State Forester 
105 State Office Bldg., Co- 
lumbia, S. C. 



214 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



South Dakota 

Department of Schools, and 
Public Lands, Division 
of Forestry 
Theodore Shoemaker, State 
Forest Supervisor 
Custer, S. Dak. 

Tennessee 

Department of Agriculture, 
Division of Forestry 
J. O. Hazard, Acting State 
Forester 
Nashville, Tenn. 

Texas 

Texas Forest Service 
E. O. Siecke, Director 
College Station, Texas 

Vermont 

State Forest Service 
Perry H. Merrill, Commis- 
sioner of Forestry 
Montpelier, Vt. 



Virginia 
State Conservation and De- 
velopment Commission, 
Virginia Forest Service 
Chapin Jones, State Forester 
University, Va. 

Washington 
Department of Conservation 
and Devolpment, Divi- 
sion of Forestry 
George C. Joy, Supervisor, 
Division of Forestry 
Olympia, Wash. 
West Virginia 
Game, Fish, and Forestry 
Commission 
H. S. Newins, Chief Forester 
Charleston, W. Va. 
Wisconsin 
State Conservation Commis- 
sion 
C. L. Harrington, Supt. 
State Forests and Parks 
Madison, Wise. 



Suggestion for Tree Planting Program 

It is advisable to have suitable exercises for the dedication 
of the memorial trees. These exercises should be directed by 
a committee representing the organization, the school or the 
municipality. Leading citizens should be invited to partici- 
pate and the addresses should be of a patriotic character. No 
suggested program can fit all conditions and all occasions, but 
the following outline of the general character of such pro- 
grams may be of service: 

Invocation. 

Opening Song America 

Address By Prominent Official 

Planting of the Tree or Trees. 

Address Dedication of Planting 

Recitation, (Suitable poetry such as "Trees" by 
Joyce Kilmer or selections from "The Forest 
Poetic." 

Address "Why We Plant a Tree" 

Benediction. 




Charles Lathrop Pack, President of the American Tree Association, Helps the Rotary Club of Lakewood, 

New Jersey, to Dedicate a Tree to the Memory of George Washington. This is One of the Hundreds of 

Trees Planted in Lakewood to Mark the Bicentennial in 1932 of the Birth of the First President. 



Mount Vernon Trees Around the 

World 




jHE planting of a Mount Vernon walnut 
tree descendant on the grounds of the 
United States Capitol April 20, 1931, 
marked the first step in an international 
nut tree planting program in honor of the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington. 

This program was sponsored by the National 
Nut Tree Planting Council in cooperation with 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. The Council is a cooperative com- 
mittee composed of representatives of the Boy 
Scouts of America, The American Forestry Asso- 
ciation, United States Department of Agriculture 
and American Walnut Manufacturers' Association. 
The George Washington Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion afforded a most appropriate time for promot- 
ing the planting of walnut seeds and trees from 
Mount Vernon and other American shrines; and 
although the movement was already ten years old, 



the Bicentennial gave it new impetus and mean- 
ing. It is estimated that more than a quarter of a 
million seeds from shrines with Washington tradi- 
tions have been planted throughout the world as 
living memorials to George Washington. 

The formal opening of the Washington Bicen- 
tennial Nut Tree Planting Program on the Capitol 
grounds was participated in by the Director of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, Chief Scout Executive James E. 
West, Mrs. Alice H. Richards, regent of the Mount 
Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union and rep- 
resentatives of the National Nut Tree Planting 
Council, Daughters of the American Revolution, 
General Federation of Women's Clubs and Boy 
Scouts of America. Another tree was planted on 
the grounds of the Washington Monument on 
June 5, 1931, with the Director of the Bicentennial 
Commission again participating. 




Vice President Charles Curtis and a Group of Boy Scouts Gathering Walnuts at Mount Vernon, Which 
Were Sent for Planting to All Parts of the World. 



215 



216 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Vice President Leads Pilgrimage 

In the fall of 1931 Vice President Charles Curtis 
led a pilgrimage of Boy Scouts to Washington's 
home to gather the nut seeds that would be planted 
during 1932 as living memorials to the first Presi- 
dent. After that nutting season approximately 
2,500 Mount Vernon walnut seeds and half a hun- 
dred trees were planted at public ceremonies held 
in this country and abroad. 

From Mount Vernon living and lasting tokens 
have gone into every State and into almost as many 
foreign countries. Nearly every State capital has 
imitated the initial ceremonies held in Washington. 
Mount Vernon walnut tree descendants were sent 
to each by the National Nut Tree Planting Council 
to be featured in Bicentennial Celebrations. Many 
of the governors participated in the ceremonies 
when the trees were planted on the State house 
grounds. 

In order that Americans abroad might have a 
part in this patriotic nut tree planting program and 
that other nations might have enduring mementoes 
of Washington, Mount Vernon walnuts were sent 
through the Department of State to forty-one for- 
eign countries. They were received by official rep- 
resentatives of this government who entrusted their 
care to horticultural experts. 

From Canada to Uruguay and from Japan 
around the globe and back to the Philippines 
planting ceremonies have been held which focussed 
attention on the American hero and on native 
American trees. Ottawa, Montevideo, Seoul, Ti- 
rana, Shanghai, Baguio, Nagasaki, the Canal Zone, 
Matanzas, Istanbul, and Roumania are among the 
scenes which compose the setting of the patriotic 
nut tree planting story. They add a dash of color 
to a program which kindles enthusiasm for Ameri- 
can history and heroes, and for the economically 
and esthetically valuable heritage of nut trees by 
the planting of seeds from trees on historic grounds. 

Through the State Department, seeds gathered 
at Mount Vernon were distributed to diplomatic 
representatives of the United States abroad. Fre- 
quently the seeds were planted on American owned 
property and in other instances they were pre- 
sented to foreign governments. In some cases the 
patriotic ceremonial was the principal feature. In 
the Philippines, where the most pretentious pro- 
gram was undertaken, the planting and conserva- 



tion of trees were emphasized as representative of 
major interests of George Washington. 

Crown Prince of Roumania Plants Tree 

In order that H. R. H. Crown Prince Michael of 
Roumania might share in the activities of his fel- 
low Boy Scouts, a Mount Vernon walnut tree des- 
cendant was sent to him to plant in honor of 
George Washington. The tree was accepted by Mr. 
Frederic C. Nano, Charge d'Affaires of the Rou- 
manian Legation, and sent by fast boat to Prince 
Michael. 

At Ottawa, the seat of the government of 
Canada, a Mount Vernon seedling was planted in 
the beautiful gardens of Sir George and Lady 
Perley. Sir George is Minister without Portfolio in 
the present Canadian Government and is acting 
Prime Minister in the absence of Mr. Bennett. A 
second tree was planted at the residence of Mr. 
Pierre DeL. Boal, United States Charge d'Affaires. 
Another was sent to Mr. Emil Sauer, United States 
Consul General at Toronto, while Betty Beck, 
daughter of the American Consul General at 
Ottawa, William Hopkins Beck, planted nut seeds 
and a tree in the garden of her home. 

The American Consul General at Nagasaki, 
Japan, reported that two healthy seedlings grew 
from the Mount Vernon walnuts planted under 
his direction in a commemorative celebration. The 
Honorable Joseph C. Grew, while Ambassador to 
Turkey, registered two Mount Vernon walnut 
trees which were planted at Istanbul. The Ameri- 
can Minister at Albania, the Honorable Herman 
Bernstein, made two plantings of Mount Vernon 
walnut seeds at Tirana because he was "most anx- 
ious to obtain seedlings for appropriate ceremonies 
on the occasion of the George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Celebrations." The Honorable J. Butler 
Wright, American Minister, provided for the 
planting of these seeds with traditions in order that 
young Mount Vernon walnut tree descendants 
may be available for the new legation grounds at 
Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Trees Planted In China 

The new consular building at Shanghai, China, 
will probably be ornamented with Mount Vernon 
trees because American Consul General Edwin S. 
Cunningham cooperated in the nut tree planting 
program. The American consulate at Seoul, Chosen, 
is another of the settings abroad which will possess 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



217 



a walnut tree from seeds gathered at the home of 
the first president of the United States. 

Great local interest was aroused in the Philip- 
pines and in Cuba by the gift of Mount Vernon 
walnut seeds. American Consul Knox Alexander 
at Matanzas, Cuba, turned over the seeds to Senor 
Fernandez Aquirre, the agricultural agent at the 
experimental station in the Yumurri Valley, for 
nursery planting. His tree planting ceremony 
when the trees are of sufficient size, will provide 
for participation by the governor of the Province 
of Matanzas, the mayor of the city, the superin- 
tendent of schools, and children. The Habana 
paper, D/ario de la Marina, features the Mount 
Vernon walnuts under the title of "Romantic 
Homage." The article says in part, "... seeds from 
Mount Vernon will remind the world of the cradle 
of the illustrious knight of freedom and democ- 
racy. ... In this way the memory of George Wash- 
ington will be immortalized. As citizens of 
Matanzas we feel proud that this city has been 
chosen as one in Cuba for this poetic and senti- 
mental distinction." 

Program In Philippines 

The Governor General of the Philippines asked 
Arthur F. Fischer, Director of Forestry, to take 
charge of the seeds which were sent to the islands. 
Under Mr. Fischer's direction a four part program 
was carried out. At Forest District Number 1 and 
at the Mt. Makiling National Botanic Garden ex- 
tensive tree planting projects were undertaken in 
honor of George Washington. Although there was 
no speech making or other ceremonial, the serious 
and practical tree planting participated in by for- 
esters and students was impressive homage to the 
First President of the United States. Mount Vernon 
walnut seeds were planted with impressive cere- 
monies on the grounds of the Mansion House, the 
summer home of the Governor General of the 
Philippines at Baguio. One of the most impressive 
ceremonies was held at the San Lazaro Hospital, 
where the seeds were planted on each side of the 
only monument to George Washington on the 
islands, presented by Boy Scouts in 1930. 

Plantings in United States 

In the United States, there have been numerous 
plantings of both seeds and small trees on munici- 
pal and state grounds. In Texas, Boy Scouts have 
planted Mount Vernon tree descendants on all the 



school grounds of Cooper County. There has been 
a tree planting program in Emmet County, Iowa, 
that is remarkable for the degree of successful 
growth of plants as well as for the historical asso- 
ciations. Of two hundred Mount Vernon walnut 
tree descendants planted in the program sponsored 
by the superintendent of schools, one hundred 
ninty-six have flourished. It is planned to have all 
the roadsides leading to rural schools planted with 
these historical trees. Nearly forty thousand per- 
sons, including representatives of all patriotic socie- 
ties witnessed the planting of Mount Vernon wal- 
nuts on one hundred thirty sites in and near Dallas, 
Texas. 

Mrs. Lowell Fletcher Hobart, then President 
General of the National Society of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution, sponsored the plant- 
ing of a Mount Vernon walnut seedling on the 
grounds of the Continental Memorial Hall in 
Washington, while the National President of the 
General Federation of Women's Clubs, Mrs. John 
F. Sippel, arranged for the planting of one of the 
famous trees on the grounds of a Baltimore school. 
Southern Methodist and George Washington Uni- 
versities are among the universities which have 
planted Mount Vernon walnut trees. The Ameri- 
can Legion through representatives in Louisiana 
and Iowa has arranged ceremonies that remind 
men and women of the present day that Wash- 
ington was a tree planter as well as a leader of 
men. 

Three young walnut trees from Mount Vernon 
were planted in Winchester, Virginia, by Boy 
Scouts of the Shenandoah Area. These were planted 
on the grounds of the building cherished as the 
headquarters of Washington and on the grounds 
of the Handley Library and of Fort Loudon. 

In Connecticut, a Mount Vernon walnut was 
planted under the auspices of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution on the grounds of the 
Litchfield School. Sea Scouts and Land Scouts 
planted Mount Vernon seeds at the Simsbury 
Nursery which will be transplanted to the state 
capitol grounds and other public places when the 
trees are of proper size. Several Chicago churches 
now have historic seedlings on their grounds, and 
the planting of a Mount Vernon walnut tree des- 
cendant featured the 1931 annual meeting of The 
American Forestry Association at Asheville, N. O, 
and the 1932 meeting held in Baltimore. 



218 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



Historical Grove Established 
A feature of the whole program was the estab- 
lishment of the National Historical Grove in Ana- 
costia Park, Washington, D. C. on October 15, 
1932. There, trees with traditions are to be planted, 
the first tree planted being a walnut from Mount 
Vernon. It is expected that historical groves will 
be established in many cities and will become 
county projects. The National Nut Tree Planting 
Council will endeavor as far as possible to supply 
each with a Mount Vernon walnut tree descendant. 
It is possible to go on indefinitely describing the 



programs that featured the planting of nut trees 
from Washington's home and places associated 
with him. However, it may be said that they have 
been planted in every state, in public parks, on 
roadsides, on camp and school grounds, even at 
private homes. 

It was the custom in the days when Mount 
Vernon was under the loving care of its most dis- 
tinguished master, for gentlemen on country es- 
tates to exchange seeds and plants with their 
friends. In emulation of this custom, trees asso- 
ciated with the Father of our Country now grow 
in living tribute to him throughout the world. 




Dan Beard Addressing Boy Scouts Beneath the Great Old Walnut Tree at Mount Vernon, a Scion of 
Which was Planted in the National Historical Grove in Anacostia Park, Washington, D. C. 
This old tree is associated with both George Washington Parke Ctistis and General Robert E. Lee. 



Reenactment of the Laying of the 
Cornerstone of the United States 

Capitol 




>NE of the cooperative activities in the 
Celebration of the Two Hundredth An- 
niversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington which was conspicuous by its 
historic and colorful presentation, was the com- 
bined resources of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission with the Grand 
Lodge F. A. A. M. of the District of Columbia, in 
re-enacting, on September 17, 1932, the ceremonies 
of laying the cornerstone of the United States 
Capitol, which event occurred on September 18, 
1793, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of 
Maryland, and was participated in by the then 
President of the United States, George Washing- 
ton, Past Master of the Alexandria Lodge No. 22. 
The more recent ceremony commemorated the 
139th anniversary of the original laying of the 
cornerstone. 

The General Committee in charge of the Cele- 
bration was composed of Reuben A. Bogley, Grand 
Master; Major-General Amos A. Fries, Chairman; 
J. Claude Keiper, P. G. M.; Gratz E. Dunkum, P. 
G. M.; James T. Gibbs, P. G. M.; Paul B. Cromehn, 
P. G. M.; Needham C. Turnage, L. Whiting Estes; 
and Aubrey R. Marrs. 

The United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission was represented by Brothers Sol 
Bloom, Director; Edgar P. Allen, and John M. 
Gibbs. The major feature of this event consisted 
of a parade which was one of the outstanding 
pageants in the history of the Capital which is 
noted for magnificent outdoor demonstrations. 
This parade, which consisted of five general divi- 
sions, assembled at the White House Ellipse at 10 
o'clock in the morning of September 17, 1932. 
A general plat had been prepared showing the 
designated points of assembly of the various units. 
The parade was under the direction of Major 
General Amos A. Fries, U. S. Army, retired, Past 
Master of Columbia Lodge No. 2 and Grand 
Marshal. 

Arrangements were perfect and the parade 
moved promptly at the designated hour by way of 



15th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue to the East 
Plaza of the Capitol. Many thousands of spectators 
lined both sides of Pennsylvania Avenue and the 
Capitol grounds as the picturesque procession 
marched over the historic route. Practically all of 
the civic units were in Colonial uniform, and many 
of the military, naval and marine units also were 
similiarly costumed. The first division was led by 
the United States Marine Band attired in their full 
dress of bright red tunics, with Major General 
Amos A. Fries, the Grand Marshal. This was fol- 
lowed by a number of automobiles containing dis- 
tinguished and invited guests and a human Amer- 
ican flag composed of eighty members of the East- 
ern Star who marched so that their colors formed 
the stars and stripes. 

The second division was entirely Colonial, headed 
by Col. George E. Ijams, Marshal. This division 
contained two thousand individuals, all arrayed in 
Colonial costumes as follows: 

Shrine Band of Almas Temple. 

Most Worshipful Grand Master, with military aides and 
officers of the Grand Lodge, F. A. A. M., District of 
Columbia. 

Grand Lodge Choir. 

Fredericksburg Lodge, No. 4, Fredericksburg, Va., with 
the historic Washington Bible used as the Great 
Light for the occasion. 

Alexandria-Washington Lodge, No. 22, Alexandria, Va., 
with the silver trowel and working tools. 

federal Lodge No. 1. 

Potomac Lodge No. 5, with the Washington Gavel. 

George Washington, portrayed by A. Ernest Tate, Past 
Master of Washington Centennial Lodge, No. 14, 
with his suite representing Washington's associates 
of 1793 as follows: George Mason by Jas. W. 
McGuire, General Henry Knox by Russell O. Kluge, 
Thomas Jefferson by Clyde B. Stovall, Col. Alex- 
ander Hamilton by Dr. B. J. Lloyd, Robert R. Liv- 
ingston by Dr. Walter F. Smith. Gen. Richard 
Henry Lee by William H. Beckstein, Edmund 
Randolph by D. D. Isbell, James Madison by Nathan 
Weill, John Marshall by B. H. Roberts and Timothy 
Pickering by Henry Stein. 

Coach and Four containing Martha Washington, portrayed 
by Mrs. Sallye C. Bogley; Nellie Custis by Mrs. 
Dorothy Carroll; and Nellie Custis's children por- 
trayed by Miss Rose L. Bogley and Elmer Jenkins. 

Battery C, 16th U. S. Artillery, known as the White Horse 
Artillery. 

Mounted group of 30 horsemen followed by 10 separate 
groups, each group distinctively costumed. 



219 



220 



Report of United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission 



THIRD DIVISION 

The third division was led by Brig. Gen. Perry L. Miles as 
Marshal. This division consisted of the various military and 
naval attachments. 

United States Navy Band. 

3rd Battalion, 12th U. S. Infantry. 
2nd Squadron, 3rd Cavalry. 
1st Battalion of the 16th Field Artillery. 
Detachments from the U. S. Navy. 
Detachments from the U. S. Marines. 
Crews of two U. S. Coast Guard Cutters sent to Wash- 
ington for the purpose. 
District National Guard led by its band and composed 
of its various foot and mounted units. 

FOURTH DIVISION 

The fourth division was made up entirely of the Masonic 
family and led by Lieut. Col. L. C. Kunzig as Marshal. 
George Washington University Band. 
Knights Templar. 

Grand Commandery of the District of Columbia. 
Washington Commandery No. 1. 
Columbia Commandery No. 2. 
Potomac Commandery No. 3. 
DeMolay Commandery No. 4. 
Orient Commandery No. 5. 
Brightwood Commandery No. 6. 
Visiting Commanderies. 
Albert Pike Camp Guard. 
U. S. 13 th Engineer Band. 
Grand Lodge (2nd Section). 
Federal Lodge, No. 1 (2nd Section). 
Columbia Lodge, No. 3. 
Naval Lodge, No. 4. 
Potomac Lodge, No. 5 (2nd Section). 



Lebanon Lodge, No. 7. 

The New Jerusalem Lodge, No. 9. 

Hiram Lodge, No. 10. 
Washington Gas Light Co. Band. 

St. John's Lodge, No. 11. 

National Lodge, No. 12. 

Washington Centennial Lodge, No. 14. 

Benjamin B. French Lodge, No. 15. 

Dawson Lodge, No. 16. 
Costello Post American Legion Drum Corps. 

Harmony Lodge, No. 17. 

Acacia Lodge, No. 18. 

LaFayette Lodge, No. 19. 

Hope Lodge, No. 20. 

Anacostia Lodge, No. 21. 
Boys' Independent Band. 

George C. Whiting Lodge, No. 22. 

Pentalpha Lodge, No. 23. 

Stansbury Lodge, No. 24. 

Arminius Lodge, No. 2 5. 

Osiris Lodge, No. 26. 

Myron M. Parker Lodge, No. 27. 

King David Lodge, No. 28. 

Takoma Lodge, No. 29. 

Wm. R. Singleton Lodge, No. 3 0. 

King Solomon Lodge, No. 3 1 . 

Temple-Noyes Lodge, No. 32. 
Victory Post American Legion Drum Corps. 

Mount Pleasant Lodge, No. 3 3. 

East Gate Lodge, No. 34. 

Joppa Lodge, No. 3 5. 

Albert Pike Lodge, No. 36. 

Congress Lodge, No. 37. 

Joseph H. Milans Lodge, No. 3 8. 

Warren G. Harding Lodge, No. 39. 




Georm Washington Laying the Cornerstone of the Federal Capitol at Washington, D. C. with Masonic 

Ceremonies, September 18, 1793. By DcLand. 



Report of the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



221 



Cathedral Lodge, No. 40. 

Trinity Lodge, No. 41. 

Chevy Chase Lodge, No. 42. 

Brightwood Lodge, No. 43. 

Theodore Roosevelt Lodge, No. 44. 

Samuel Gompers Lodge, No. 45. 

Justice Lodge, No. 46. 

Petworth Lodge, No. 47. 
6th Marine Reserve Band. 

Barristers Lodge, No. 48. 

Maryland Lodges in their own order. 

Virginia Lodges in their own order. 

Other visiting Masons according to seniority of their 
Grand Lodges. 

Grand Chapter Royal Arch Masons and Units in their 
own order. 

Grand Council Royal and Select Masters and Units in 
their own order. 
Almas Temple Drum Corps. 

Alma Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S. and visiting Shrines 
in their own order. 
Grotto Band. 

Kallipolis Grotto No. 1 5 M. O. V. P. E. R. and visit